University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi

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1 University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Macroeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi CH 25 Exch Rate & BofP 1) Foreign currency is A) the market for foreign exchange. B) the price at which one currency exchanges for another currency. C) foreign notes, coins and bank deposits. D) foreign notes and coins only. E) the purchasing power of foreign money. 2) The foreign exchange market is A) made up of importers, exporters, banks, international travellers, and specialist traders. B) the place where people exchange the currencies of different countries. C) the market in which approximately \$400 trillion in foreign exchange is traded each year. D) both A and C are correct. E) both A and B are correct. 3) The exchange rate is the A) volume of currency exchanged between importers and exporters. B) price at which one currency exchanges for another currency. C) rate of currency appreciation or depreciation. D) percentage change in the volume of currency exchanges. E) average rate at which foreign currencies are exchanged. 4) If the Canadian dollar depreciates, it means that A) one Canadian dollar buys less foreign currency. B) inflation has eroded the purchasing power of Canadian money. C) Canada's nominal exchange rate falls. D) both A and C are correct. E) all of the above are true. 5) Suppose that the Canadian dollar exchanges for 0.90 U.S. dollars and also for 0.65 Euros. A U.S. dollar exchanges for A) 1.00 Euro. B) 1.55 Euros. C) 0.25 Euros. D) 1.39 Euros. E) 0.72 Euros. 1

2 6) If the exchange rate is 88 U.S. cents per Canadian dollar, then A) the Canadian dollar is cheaper than the U.S. dollar. B) the U.S. dollar is more expensive than the Canadian dollar. C) the Canadian dollar will appreciate. D) one U.S. dollar will buy 1.14 Canadian dollars. E) one U.S. dollar will buy 0.88 Canadian dollars. 7) Currency depreciation is a reduction in the A) precious metal content in coins, such as the replacement of silver with copper in quarters. B) goods and services a currency can purchase within its own country, usually the result of a period of inflation. C) amount of foreign currency that can be obtained in trade for each unit of domestic currency. D) amount of domestic currency that must be exchanged for a unit of foreign exchange. E) amount of domestic goods foreign currency can purchase. 8) Appreciation of a currency means A) an increase in the amount of goods and services that currency can purchase within its own country. B) an increase in the precious metal content in coins. C) a shortage of currency. D) that currency can buy more foreign currency. E) that currency can buy less foreign currency. 9) Between 2002 and 2007, the Canadian dollar A) depreciated against the U.S. dollar. B) appreciated against the U.S. dollar. C) remained constant against the U.S. dollar. D) was not able to vary against the U.S. dollar, because the exchange rate was fixed against the Japanese yen. E) bought the same number of U.S. dollars as the Euro. 10) The market in which the currency of one country is exchanged for the currency of another country is the A) money market. B) capital market. C) foreign exchange market. D) forward exchange market. E) international trading market. 2

3 Refer to the table below to answer the following questions. Table Currency 2009 Exchange Rate 2010 Exchange Rate EU euro 2 euros/dollar 3 euros/dollar Japanese yen 120 yen/dollar 90 yen/dollar 11) Refer to Table Between 2009 and 2010, the Canadian dollar versus the euro and versus the yen. A) appreciated; depreciated B) appreciated; appreciated C) depreciated; depreciated D) depreciated; appreciated E) not changed; not changed 12) Refer to Table Between 2009 and 2010, the yen A) must have depreciated in value versus the euro. B) must have appreciated in value versus the euro. C) may or may not have appreciated in value versus the euro. D) will have appreciated in value versus the euro if the euro has a high weight in CERI. E) will have appreciated in value versus the euro if the euro has a lower weight in CERI. 13) Suppose the dollar-yen foreign exchange rate changes from 140 yen per dollar to 130 yen per dollar. Then the yen has A) depreciated against the dollar, and the dollar has appreciated against the yen. B) depreciated against the dollar, and the dollar has depreciated against the yen. C) appreciated against the dollar, and the dollar has appreciated against the yen. D) appreciated against the dollar, and the dollar has depreciated against the yen. E) neither appreciated nor depreciated, but the dollar has depreciated against the yen. 14) Suppose that the following situation exists in the foreign exchange market: 1 Canadian dollar buys \$0.88 U.S, and 1 Canadian dollar buys 7.2 Chinese yuan. How many yuan will \$1 U.S.buy? A) 7.2 yuan B) 1.0 yuan C) 8.2 yuan D) 0.12 yuan E) 0.14 yuan 15) Suppose that the following situation exists in the foreign exchange market: 1 Canadian dollar buys \$0.88 U.S, and 1 Canadian dollar buys 5.77 South African rand. How many U.S. dollars will one rand buy? A) \$6.56 B) \$0.88 C) \$0.17 D) \$0.15 E)

8 38) Suppose the price of a burger is \$4.50 Canadian in Toronto, and the exchange rate is 67 U.S. cents per Canadian dollar. Then A) the price of a burger is \$4.50 U.S. in New York if purchasing power parity holds. B) the price of a burger is \$3 U.S. in New York if interest rate parity holds. C) the price of a burger is \$3 U.S. in New York if purchasing power parity holds. D) the Canadian dollar is expected to appreciate according to purchasing power parity. E) the Canadian dollar is expected to depreciate according to purchasing power parity. 39) Suppose the interest rate in Canada rises and the interest rate in Japan remains the same. Interest rate parity implies that given equal risk A) the inflation rate is higher in Japan. B) Japanese financial investments are less profitable. C) the yen is expected to depreciate against the dollar. D) the yen is expected to appreciate against the dollar. E) Canadian financial investments are less profitable. 40) Suppose the interest rate in Canada falls and the interest rate in Japan remains the same. Interest rate parity implies that given equal risk A) the inflation rate is higher in Japan. B) Japanese financial investments are more profitable. C) the yen is expected to depreciate against the dollar. D) the yen is expected to appreciate against the dollar. E) Canadian financial investments are less profitable. 41) Suppose interest rates are 3 percent in Japan and 6 percent in Canada. The current value of the exchange rate is 110 Japanese yen per dollar, and it is generally expected that in one year the exchange rate will be yen per dollar. Under these circumstances, A) interest rate parity is violated. B) an international investor could make money by borrowing in Japan and lending in Canada, assuming no transaction costs. C) an international investor could make money by borrowing in Canada and lending in Japan, assuming no transaction costs. D) interest rate parity is not violated. E) A and C are true. 42) Suppose interest rates are 3 percent in Japan and 6 percent in Canada. The current value of the exchange rate is 110 Japanese yen per dollar, and it is generally expected that in one year the exchange rate will be yen per dollar. However, new information is released that changes everyone's expectations, and they think the exchange rate in one year will still be 110 yen per dollar. As a result of this change, A) the demand for Canadian dollars increases. B) the supply of Canadian dollars decreases. C) people will borrow in Canada and lend in Japan. D) the demand for Canadian dollars decreases. E) A and B. 8

9 43) Which of the following quotations best describes interest rate parity in action? A) "The demand for the Canadian dollar has increased due to the recent increase in the Canadian interest rate." B) "The market feeling is that the Canadian dollar is overvalued and will likely appreciate." C) "The price of bananas is the same in Canada and the United States, adjusting for the exchange rate." D) "The expected appreciation of the Canadian dollar is currently lowering demand for it." E) none of the above 44) Suppose you think that the exchange rate will depreciate over the next month. What should you do now in anticipation of profit? A) Buy Canadian dollars. B) Buy U.S. dollars. C) Sell Canadian dollars. D) Sell U.S. dollars. E) Do both B and C. 45) Suppose you think that the exchange rate will appreciate over the next month. What should you do now in anticipation of profit? A) Buy Canadian dollars. B) Buy U.S. dollars. C) Sell Canadian dollars. D) Sell U.S. dollars. E) Do both A and D. 46) When would the exchange rate fall the most? A) The supply of and demand for dollars both increase. B) The supply of dollars increases, and the demand for dollars decreases. C) The supply of dollars decreases, and the demand for dollars increases. D) The supply of and demand for dollars both decrease. E) The Bank of Canada intervenes. 47) When would the exchange rate rise the most? A) The supply of and demand for dollars both increase. B) The supply of dollars increases, and the demand for dollars decreases. C) The supply of dollars decreases, and the demand for dollars increases. D) The supply of and demand for dollars both decrease. E) The Bank of Canada intervenes. 48) Which of the following factors move the demand curve for Canadian dollars and the supply curve of Canadian dollars in opposite directions? A) The interest rate differential increases or decreases. B) The world demand for Canadian exports increases or decreases. C) Canadian imports increase or decrease. D) The expected future exchange rate rises or falls. E) Both A and D above. 9

11 55) The exchange rate is volatile because A) government policy promotes interest rate fluctuation. B) the demand curve for foreign exchange is very flat. C) the demand curve for foreign exchange is very steep. D) the supply curve of dollars is vertical. E) the supply of dollars and demand for dollars are influenced by similar events. 56) The demand curve for dollars shifts rightward if A) the Canadian exchange rate falls. B) the price of Canadian goods and services increases. C) Canadian interest rates rise. D) foreign interest rates rise. E) the expected future value of the dollar falls. 57) The supply curve of dollars shifts rightward if A) the Canadian exchange rate rises. B) the price of Canadian goods and services decreases. C) Canadian interest rates rise. D) foreign interest rates rise. E) none of the above. 58) If the current account is in surplus and the capital account is also in surplus, then the official settlements account balance is A) negative. B) positive. C) probably close to zero, but could be either negative or positive. D) zero. E) equal to the sum of the current account and the capital account. 59) If the current account is in deficit and the capital account is also in deficit, then the official settlements account balance is A) negative. B) positive. C) probably close to zero, but could be either negative or positive. D) zero. E) equal to the sum of the current account and the capital account. 60)NX = A)C + I + G. B)(S + I) - (NT + G). C)(G - T) + (I - S). D)(S - I) + (G - T). E)(T - G) + (S - I). 11

12 61) Which one of the following transactions would be recorded as a positive entry in the Canadian balance of payment accounts? A) A Canadian tourist spends \$3,000 while visiting France. B) A Canadian tourist spends \$3,000 while visiting Banff. C) A Canadian citizen purchases a U.K. government bond. D) A Canadian corporation sends interest payments on outstanding bonds to U.S. citizens. E) A French tourist spends \$3,000 while visiting Banff. 62) Complete the following sentence. Foreign borrowing A) always leads to a lower level of consumption in the future for the debtor nation because part of its future GDP is used to pay off the foreign debt. B) always leads to a higher level of consumption in the future for the debtor nation because foreign borrowing enables a greater than otherwise possible increase in the nation's capital stock. C) could lead to higher consumption levels in the future, if the borrowing is used to finance investment that generates economic growth. D) could lead to lower consumption levels in the future, if the borrowing is used for current consumption. E) C and D Use the information below to answer the following questions. Fact You are given the following information about the country of Ecoland, whose currency is the turkey, and whose official settlements balance is zero. Variable Billions of turkies Real GDP 50 Consumption expenditure 30 Government expenditure on goods and services 12 Investment 11 Exports 10 Government budget deficit 2 63) Refer to Fact What is the value of the private sector deficit or surplus? A) zero B) -3 billion turkies C) -1 billion turkies D) -2 billion turkies E) +1 billion turkies 64) Refer to Fact What is the value of the capital account balance for Ecoland, given the value of net interest income plus net transfers is +3 billion turkies? A) +3 billion turkies B) +6 billion turkies C) -3 billion turkies D) -1 billion turkies E) zero 12

13 65) Refer to Fact What is the current account balance for Ecoland, given the value of net interest income plus net transfers is +3 billion turkies? A) -3 billion turkies B) -6 billion turkies C) +3 billion turkies D) +1 billion turkies E) zero 66) Refer to Fact What is the net exports? A) -2 billion turkies B) -1 billion turkies C) 3 billion turkies D) -3 billion turkies E) 1 billion turkies 67) Refer to Fact What is the imports? A) 13 billion turkies B) 7 billion turkies C) 11 billion turkies D) 9 billion turkies E) 12 billion turkies 68) Refer to Fact What is the amount of saving by the people of Ecoland? A) 8 billion turkies B) 10 billion turkies C) 20 billion turkies D) 6 billion turkies E) 12 billion turkies 69) Refer to Fact What is the amount of net taxes? A) 10 billion turkies B) 12 billion turkies C) 2 billion turkies D) 8 billion turkies E) 14 billion turkies 70) A debtor nation is one that during its entire history has A) lent more to the rest of the world than it has borrowed. B) borrowed more from the rest of the world than it has lent. C) invested more in the rest of the world than has been invested in it. D) a public sector deficit that is larger than its net exports. E) had a government debt. 13

14 71) If Northland is currently a net lender and a debtor nation, A) it has loaned more than it borrowed from the rest of the world this year, but borrowed more than it loaned during its history. B) it has borrowed more from the rest of the world than it loaned this year and also borrowed more than it loaned during its history. C) it has loaned more than it borrowed from the rest of the world this year and has loaned more than it borrowed during its history. D) its accounting system must be in error if it shows the nation to be a net lender and a debtor nation at the same time. E) its debts must be currently growing. 72) Suppose that a country's government expenditures are \$500 billion, net taxes are \$400 billion, saving is \$200 billion, and investment is \$250 billion. The country has a government budget A) surplus and a private sector surplus. B) surplus and a private sector deficit. C) deficit and a private sector surplus. D) deficit and a private sector deficit. E) surplus and a private sector balance. 73) Suppose that a country's government expenditures are \$500 billion, net taxes are \$400 billion, saving is \$200 billion, and investment is \$250 billion. Net exports are a A) surplus of \$150 billion. B) surplus of \$50 billion. C) deficit of \$150 billion. D) deficit of \$50 billion. E) deficit of \$250 billion. 74) Suppose that a country's government expenditures are \$400 billion, net taxes are \$300 billion, saving is \$300 billion, and investment is \$250 billion. There is a private sector A) surplus of \$150 billion. B) surplus of \$50 billion. C) deficit of \$150 billion. D) deficit of \$50 billion. E) deficit of \$250 billion. 75) Suppose that a country's government expenditures are \$400 billion, net taxes are \$300 billion, saving is \$300 billion, and investment is \$250 billion. This country has a government budget A) surplus and a private sector surplus. B) surplus and a private sector deficit. C) deficit and a private sector surplus. D) deficit and a private sector deficit. E) surplus and a private sector balance. 14

15 76) Suppose that a country's government expenditures are \$400 billion, net taxes are \$300 billion, saving is \$300 billion, and investment is \$250 billion. Net exports are in a A) surplus of \$150 billion. B) surplus of \$50 billion. C) deficit of \$150 billion. D) deficit of \$50 billion. E) deficit of \$250 billion. Use the table below to answer the following questions. Table Year Borrowed from Rest of World (billions of dollars) Loaned to Rest of World (billions of dollars) ) Refer to Table If Mengia's official settlement balance was in balance every year, for which year or years can you say for sure there was a current account surplus? A) year 4 only B) year 2 only C) years 2 and 3 D) years 1 and 2 E) years 3 and 4 78) Refer to Table If Mengia's official settlement balance was in surplus every year, for which year or years can you say for sure there was a current account deficit? A) year 1 only B) year 2 only C) years 2 and 3 D) years 1 and 2 E) years 3 and 4 79) Refer to Table If Mengia's official settlement balance was in deficit every year, for which year or years can you say for sure there was a current account surplus? A) year 1 only B) year 2 only C) years 2 and 3 D) years 1 and 2 E) years 3 and 4 80) Refer to Table The country Mengia came into existence at the beginning of year 1. Given the information, in year 4 Mengia is a A) net lender and a creditor nation. B) net lender and a debtor nation. C) net borrower and a creditor nation. D) net borrower and a debtor nation. E) net lender and neither a creditor nor a debtor nation. 15

16 81) Suppose initially Canada has all its international payments accounts in balance (no surplus or deficit). Then Canadian firms increase the amount they export to Japan, and the Japanese finance the increase by borrowing from Canada. In Canada everything else remaining the same there will now be a A) current account surplus and capital account surplus. B) current account surplus and capital account deficit. C) current account deficit and capital account surplus. D) current account deficit and capital account deficit. E) current account deficit and capital account balance. 82) Suppose initially Canada has all its international payments accounts in balance (no surplus or deficit). Then Canadian firms increase the amount they import from Japan, financing that increase by borrowing from Japan. Everything else remaining the same there will now be a current account A) surplus and a capital account surplus. B) surplus and a capital account deficit. C) deficit and a capital account surplus. D) deficit and a capital account deficit. E) surplus and a capital account balance. 83) Which one of the following is a balance of payments account? A) capital account B) foreign exchange account C) saving account D) trade account E) all of the above 84) Which one of the following is a balance of payments account? A) current account B) borrowing account C) official lending account D) net interest account E) public account 85) Since 2000, Canada has been A) a net borrower from the rest of the world. B) a net lender to the rest of the world. C) neither a borrower nor a lender to the rest of the world. D) borrowing and lending in equal amounts with the rest of the world. E) a creditor nation. 86) A creditor nation is a country A) that has contributed money for the advancement of health care in less developed countries. B) that does not borrow money from foreign nations. C) that during its entire history has invested more in the rest of the world than other countries have invested in it. D) that has active monetary policy to ensure adequate loans for housing of the poor. E) whose official settlements account is rising in value. 16

17 87) The change in official Canadian reserves is recorded in the A) current account. B) capital account. C) consumption expenditure account. D) international investment account. E) official settlements account. 88) The current account records A) net exports, net interest income and net transfers. B) net value of Canadian investments and foreign investments. C) current government expenditure. D) current consumption expenditure. E) current investment. 89) The official settlements account measures the A) value of Canadian merchandise purchased by foreigners. B) net value of foreign goods officially purchased by Canada. C) net value of Canadian official exports of services. D) change in the country's holdings of foreign currency. E) change in Canada's net exports. 90) The largest item in the current account is A) exports. B) imports. C) net interest income. D) net transfers. E) foreign investment in Canada. 91) Canada's balance of payments accounts are the A) current account, capital account, and net interest account. B) capital account, official settlements account, and merchandise trade account. C) current account, capital account, and official settlements account. D) official settlements account, current account, and net interest account. E) capital account, current account, and merchandise trade account. 92) The world's largest net borrower and debtor nation,, which borrows to finance. A) the United States; consumption B) the United States; private and public investment C) China; consumption D) China; private and public investment E) Japan; consumption 17

18 93) A country has a higher inflation rate than all other countries, and it has slower economic growth. The central bank does not intervene in the foreign exchange market. To preserve purchasing power parity, the exchange rate. If investment from foreigners decreases due to the slow economic growth, the current account balance is becoming more. It is expected that in the future the exchange rate will. A) falls; negative; fall B) falls; positive; fall C) rises; negative; rise D) rises; positive; rise E) falls; positive; fall 94) The private sector balance and the government sector balance tend to move in. Net exports respond. A) opposite directions; closely to the government sector balance B) the same direction; to the sum of the government sector and private sector balances C) the same direction; closely to the government sector balance D) opposite directions; to the sum of the government sector and private sector balances E) the same direction; to changes in the exchange rate 95) Which of the following exchange rate policies uses a target exchange rate, but allows the target to change? A) crawling peg B) flexible exchange rate C) fixed exchange rate D) moving target E) none of the above 96) Suppose the Bank of Canada follows a fixed exchange rate of \$1 U.S. per Canadian dollar. If the demand for Canadian dollars temporarily increases, to maintain the target exchange rate, the Bank can A) sell Canadian dollars. B) buy Canadian dollars. C) violate interest rate parity. D) violate purchasing power parity. E) enforce interest rate parity. 97) Suppose the Bank of Canada follows a fixed-exchange rate of 0.50 U.K. pounds per Canadian dollar. If the demand for dollars temporarily decreases, to maintain the target exchange rate, the Bank can A) sell dollars. B) buy dollars. C) increase Canadian exports. D) increase Canadian imports. E) violate purchasing power parity. 98) If the Bank of Canada sets a target exchange rate that is higher than the current exchange rate, then A) the Bank must sell dollars. B) the Bank must buy dollars. C) the Bank can do nothing in the short run. D) will print more dollars for foreign distribution. E) None of the above. 18

19 99) If the exchange rate is higher than the Bank of Canada's target exchange rate, the Bank A) implements purchasing power parity. B) implements interest rate parity. C) buys dollars. D) sells dollars. E) none of the above. Refer to the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) In Figure , suppose the demand for dollars temporarily increases so that the demand curve shifts to D1. To maintain the target exchange rate, the Bank of Canada A) sells dollars. B) buys dollars. C) must violate interest rate parity but not purchasing power parity. D) must raise the target exchange rate. E) must lower the target exchange rate. 101) In Figure , suppose the demand for dollars temporarily decreases so that the demand curve shifts to D2. To maintain the target exchange rate, the Bank of Canada A) sells dollars. B) buys dollars. C) must violate both interest rate parity and purchasing power parity. D) must raise the target exchange rate. E) must lower the target exchange rate. 102) In Figure , suppose the demand for dollars permanently decreases to D2. To maintain the target, the Bank of Canada A) buys dollars. B) sells dollars. C) must decrease the nation's net exports. D) cannot permanently maintain the exchange rate target of 90 U.S. cents per Canadian dollar. E) none of the above. 19

20 103) If a nation's central bank increased domestic interest rates, the nation's exchange rate would change if the country's exchange rate was A) a flexible exchange rate. B) a fixed exchange rate. C) a crawling peg. D) a nominally fixed exchange rate. E) none of the above. 104) China has used a fixed yuan exchange rate and a crawling peg exchange rate. In both cases, China pegs its currency to the A) U.S. dollar. B) Japanese yen. C) euro. D) Mexican peso. E) Russian ruble. 105) If a country's central bank does not intervene in the foreign exchange market, the country has A) a crawling peg exchange rate policy. B) a fixed exchange rate policy. C) a flexible exchange rate policy. D) no exchange rate policy. E) a responsible exchange rate policy. 106) If a country's currency appreciates and its official holdings of foreign currency increase. The central bank is foreign currency to limit the appreciation, and the official settlements account balance is. A) buying; negative B) selling negative C) buying; positive D) selling; positive E) buying; zero 107) One consequence of China operating a crawling peg is that China. A) is accumulating U.S. dollar reserves B) will eventually run out of foreign reserves, and the yuan will depreciate C) will eventually run out of foreign reserves, and the yuan will appreciate D) will become more competitive in the long run E) none of the above 20

21 Answer Key Testname: LAB - CH 25 - FULL SET 1) C 2) D 3) B 4) D 5) E 6) D 7) C 8) D 9) B 10) C 11) A 12) B 13) D 14) C 15) D 16) B 17) D 18) B 19) C 20) A 21) B 22) E 23) D 24) D 25) B 26) C 27) D 28) C 29) A 30) A 31) E 32) A 33) C 34) C 35) B 36) D 37) D 38) C 39) D 40) C 41) D 42) E 43) A 44) E 45) E 46) B 47) C 48) E 49) D 50) D 51) E 52) A 53) E 54) C 55) E 56) C 57) D 58) A 59) B 60) E 61) E 62) E 63) C 64) E 65) E 66) D 67) A 68) B 69) A 70) B 71) A 72) D 73) C 74) B 75) C 76) D 77) A 78) D 79) E 80) B 81) B 82) C 83) A 84) A 85) B 86) C 87) E 88) A 89) D 90) A 91) C 92) B 93) B 94) D 95) A 96) A 97) B 98) B 99) D 100) A 101) B 102) D 103) A 104) A 105) C 106) A 107) A 21

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