# MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL*

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1 Chapter 11 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL* The Demand for Topic: Influences on Holding 1) The quantity of money that people choose to hold depends on which of the following? I. The price level. II. Financial innovation. III. The exchange rate. A) I. B) I and II. C) I and III. D) I, II, and III. Topic: Influences on Holding, The Price Level 2) The nominal demand for money is A) inversely related to GDP. B) measured in constant dollars. C) inversely related to the price level. D) proportional to the price level. Topic: Influences on Holding, The Price Level 3) If the price level doubles, the A) nominal demand for money increases. B) nominal demand for money decreases. C) real demand for money decreases. D) real demand for money increases. Topic: Influences on Holding, The Price Level 4) Suppose you hold \$50 to buy groceries weekly and then the price of groceries increases by 5 percent. To be able to buy the same amount of groceries, what must happen to your nominal money holdings? A) They must increase by \$5. B) They can decrease by \$5. C) They must increase by \$2.50. D) They must increase, but the amount of the increase is different than the above answers. Topic: Influences on Holding, The Price Level 5) The real quantity of money is A) inversely related to GDP. B) measured in current dollars. C) inversely related to the price level. D) measured in constant dollars. Topic: Influences on Holding, The Interest Rate 6) The opportunity cost of holding money is the A) interest rate. B) price of goods and services. C) level of wage and rental income. D) ease with which an asset can become money. * This is Chapter 27 in Economics. 335

2 336 CHAPTER 11 Topic: Influences on Holding, The Interest Rate 7) The opportunity cost of holding money balances increases when A) the purchasing power of money rises. B) the interest rate rises. C) the price of goods and services falls. D) consumers incomes increase. Topic: Influences on Holding, The Interest Rate 8) When the interest rate rises, the quantity of money demanded decreases because A) people will buy fewer goods and hold less money. B) the price level also rises and people decrease their demand for money. C) people move funds from interest-bearing assets into money. D) people shift funds from money holdings to interest-bearing assets. Topic: Influences on Holding, Real GDP 9) Which of the following is correct? The demand for money A) increases as real GDP increases. B) decreases as the price level increases. C) depends on the quantity of money. D) increases when the interest rate increases. Topic: Influences on Holding, Financial Innovation 11) All of the following are examples of financial innovations that have decreased the demand for money EXCEPT A) inflation. B) ATM machines. C) credit cards. D) automatic transfers between deposits. Topic: The Demand for Curve 12) The graph of the demand for money curve has A) real GDP on the y-axis. B) consumption on the y-axis. C) the interest rate on the y-axis. D) the price level on the y-axis. Topic: The Demand for Curve 13) The demand for money curve A) is horizontal. B) has a positive slope. C) is vertical. D) has a negative slope. Topic: Influences on Holding 10) real GDP increases the demand for money and the interest rate decreases the quantity of money demanded. A) Increasing; increasing B) Increasing; decreasing C) Decreasing; increasing D) Decreasing; decreasing

3 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 337 Topic: Shifts in the Demand for Curve 14) Use the figure above to answer this question. Suppose the economy is operating at point a. A move to could be explained by. A) point e; a decrease in the interest rate B) point c; an increase in the interest rate C) point d; an increase in real GDP D) point b; an increase in real GDP Topic: Shifts in the Demand for Curve 15) Use the figure above to answer this question. Suppose the economy is operating at point a. A move to could be explained by. A) point c; an increase in the use of credit cards B) point b; an increase in real GDP C) point b; an increase in interest rates D) point e; an increase in U.S. exports Topic: The Demand for Curve 16) In the above figure, suppose the economy is initially on the demand for money curve MD 1. What is the effect of a fall in the interest rate? A) The demand for money curve would shift rightward to MD 2. B) The demand for money curve would shift leftward to MD 0. C) There would be a movement upward along the demand for money curve MD 1. D) There would be a movement downward along the demand for money curve MD 1. Topic: The Demand for Curve 17) In the above figure, suppose the economy is initially on the demand for money curve MD 1. What is the effect of a rise in the interest rate? A) The demand for money curve would shift rightward to MD 2. B) The demand for money curve would shift leftward to MD 0. C) There would be a movement upward along the demand for money curve MD 1. D) There would be a movement downward along the demand for money curve MD 1.

4 338 CHAPTER 11 Topic: Shifts in the Demand for Curve 18) In the above figure, suppose the economy is initially on the demand for money curve MD 1. What is the effect of an increase in real GDP? A) The demand for money curve would shift rightward to MD 2. B) The demand for money curve would shift leftward to MD 0. C) There would be a movement upward along the demand for money curve MD 1. D) There would be a movement downward along the demand for money curve MD 1. Topic: Shifts in the Demand for Curve 19) In the above figure, suppose the economy is initially on the demand for money curve MD 1. What is the effect of an increase in financial innovation such as the introduction of ATMs? A) The demand for money curve would shift rightward to MD 2. B) The demand for money curve would shift leftward to MD 0. C) There would be a movement upward along the demand for money curve MD 1. D) There would be a movement downward along the demand for money curve MD 1. Topic: Shifts in the Demand for Curve 20) In the above figure, suppose the economy is initially on the demand for money curve MD 1. What is the effect of increased use of credit cards? A) The demand for money curve would shift rightward to MD 2. B) The demand for money curve would shift leftward to MD 0. C) There would be a movement upward along the demand for money curve MD 1. D) There would be a movement downward along the demand for money curve MD 1. Interest Rate Determination Topic: Interest Rate Determination 21) If a \$500 bond promises to pay \$75 a year, the interest rate is A) 10 percent. B) 7.5 percent. C) 15 percent. D) 50 percent. Topic: Interest Rate Determination 22) If a \$750 bond promises to pay \$30 a year, the interest rate is A) 4 percent. B) 20 percent. C) 30 percent. D) 40 percent. Topic: Interest Rate Determination 23) Bond prices and interest rates are A) positively related. B) inversely related. C) unrelated. D) independent of Fed action. Topic: Interest Rate Determination 24) If bond prices fall, A) interest rates rise. B) interest rates fall. C) bank reserves grow. D) households increase cash holdings. Topic: The Quantity of money 25) On a given day the quantity of money is and the supply of money curve is. A) fixed; horizontal B) fixed; vertical C) variable; horizontal D) variable; vertical

5 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 339 Topic: Supply of Curve 28) In the figure above, the Fed s raising the required reserve ratio would create a change such as A) a movement from point a to point b along the supply of money curve MS 0. B) a movement from point b to point a along the supply of money curve MS 0. C) a shift from the supply of money curve MS 0 to the supply of money curve MS 1. D) a shift from the supply of money curve MS 1 to the supply of money curve MS 0. Topic: Supply of Curve 26) In the figure above, the Fed s increasing the monetary base would create a change such as A) a movement from point a to point b along the supply of money curve MS 0. B) a movement from point b to point a along the supply of money curve MS 0. C) a shift from the supply of money curve MS 0 to the supply of money curve MS 1. D) a shift from the supply of money curve MS 1 to the supply of money curve MS 0. Topic: Supply of Curve 27) In the figure above, the Fed s decreasing the monetary base would create a change such as A) a movement from point a to point b along the supply of money curve MS 0. B) a movement from point b to point a along the supply of money curve MS 0. C) a shift from the supply of money curve MS 0 to the supply of money curve MS 1. D) a shift from the supply of money curve MS 1 to the supply of money curve MS 0. Topic: Supply of Curve 29) In the figure above, the Fed s lowering the required reserve ratio would create a change such as A) a movement from point a to point b along the supply of money curve MS 0. B) a movement from point b to point a along the supply of money curve MS 0. C) a shift from the supply of money curve MS 0 to the supply of money curve MS 1. D) a shift from the supply of money curve MS 1 to the supply of money curve MS 0. Topic: Market Equilibrium 30) Suppose that the interest rate is greater than the equilibrium interest rate. Which of the following occurs? I. There is an excess quantity of money. II. The quantity of money automatically increases. III. People start buying bonds. A) I. B) I and II. C) I and III. D) I, II and III.

6 340 CHAPTER 11 Topic: Market Equilibrium 33) In the figure above, if the interest rate is 4 percent, there is a \$0.1 trillion excess A) quantity of money and the interest rate will rise. B) quantity of money and the interest rate will fall. C) demand for money and the interest rate will fall. D) demand for money and the interest rate will rise. Topic: Market Equilibrium 31) In the figure above, if the interest rate is 8 percent, people demand \$0.1 trillion A) less money than the quantity supplied and the interest rate will rise. B) less money than the quantity supplied and the interest rate will fall. C) more money than the quantity supplied and the interest rate will fall. D) more money than the quantity supplied and the interest rate will rise. Topic: Market Equilibrium 32) In the figure above, if the interest rate is 8 percent, people demand \$0.1 trillion A) less money than the quantity supplied and bond prices will rise. B) less money than the quantity supplied and bond prices will fall. C) more money than the quantity supplied and bond prices will fall. D) more money than the quantity supplied and bond prices will rise. Topic: Market Equilibrium 34) In the figure above, if the interest rate is 4 percent, there is a \$0.1 trillion excess A) quantity of money and bond prices will rise. B) quantity of money and bond prices will fall. C) demand for money and bond prices will fall. D) demand for money and bond prices will rise. Topic: Market Equilibrium 35) In the figure above, if the interest rate is 6 percent, A) there is a \$0.1 trillion excess quantity of money and the interest rate will rise. B) there is a \$0.1 trillion excess quantity of money and the interest rate will fall. C) the money market is in equilibrium and the interest rate will remain constant. D) there is a \$0.1 trillion excess demand for money and the interest rate will rise. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate 36) Which of the following actions raise the interest rate? A) A decrease in the demand for money. B) An increase in bond prices. C) An increase in the quantity of money. D) An increase in the demand for money.

7 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 341 Topic: Changing the Interest Rate 37) Which of the following actions lower the interest rate? A) A decrease in the demand for money. B) An increase in the demand for money. C) A decrease in the quantity of money. D) A decrease in bond prices. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate 38) The figure above illustrates the effect of A) an increase in real GDP. B) a decrease in real GDP. C) an open market purchase by the Fed of government securities. D) an open market sale by the Fed of government securities. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate 39) The figure above illustrates the effect of A) an increase in real GDP. B) a decrease in real GDP. C) an open market purchase by the Fed of government securities. D) an open market sale by the Fed of government securities. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 40) Which of the following would raise the interest rate? A) An increase in the quantity of money. B) A decrease in the quantity of money. C) A decrease in the demand for money. D) A decrease in real GDP. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 41) Which of the following would increase the interest rate? A) An increase in the quantity of money. B) An open market purchase of government securities by the Fed. C) The Fed lowering the required reserve ratio. D) An increase in real GDP.

8 342 CHAPTER 11 Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 42) Which of the following would lower the interest rate? A) A decrease in the quantity of money. B) An increase in the price level. C) The Fed lowering the required reserve ratio. D) An increase in real GDP. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 43) If the Fed carries out an open market operation and buys U.S. government securities, the interest rate A) falls and the quantity of money increases. B) rises and the quantity of money increases. C) falls and the quantity of money decreases. D) rises and the quantity of money decreases. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 44) If the Fed carries out an open market operation and sells U.S. government securities, the interest rate A) falls and the quantity of money increases. B) rises and the quantity of money increases. C) falls and the quantity of money decreases. D) rises and the quantity of money decreases. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 45) The figure above illustrates the effect of A) an increase in real GDP. B) a decrease in real GDP. C) a Fed open market purchase of government securities. D) a Fed open market sale of government securities.

9 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 343 Short-Run Effects of on Real GDP and the Price Level Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy 49) If the Fed decreases the interest rate, then A) investment and consumption expenditure decrease. B) the price of the dollar rises on the foreign exchange market and so net exports decrease. C) a multiplier process that affects aggregate demand occurs. D) All of the above answers are correct. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 46) The figure above illustrates the effect of A) an increase in real GDP. B) a decrease in real GDP. C) a Fed open market purchase of government securities. D) a Fed open market sale of government securities. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 47) The figure above illustrates the effect of A) a decrease in the required reserve ratio. B) an increase in the required reserve ratio. C) a rise in the discount rate. D) a Fed open market sale of government securities. Topic: Changing the Interest Rate, Fed Policy 48) The figure above illustrates the effect of A) an increase in the required reserve ratio. B) an increase in the discount rate. C) a decrease in the discount rate. D) a Fed open market sale of government securities. Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy 50) When the Fed sells securities in the open market, A) net exports increase. B) the value of the dollar falls on the foreign exchange market. C) the value of the dollar rises on the foreign exchange market. D) consumption increases. Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy * 51) If the Fed decreases the quantity of money so that the exchange rate value of the dollar rises, then imports and exports. A) increase; increase B) increase; decrease C) decrease; increase D) decrease; decrease Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy * 52) If the Fed increases the quantity of money so that the exchange rate value of the dollar falls, then imports and exports. A) increase; increase B) increase; decrease C) decrease; increase D) decrease; decrease

10 344 CHAPTER 11 Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy * 53) If the U.S. interest rate rises, the exchange rate value of the dollar and net exports. A) rises; increase B) rises; decrease C) falls; increase D) falls; decrease Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy 54) If the Fed chose to slow monetary growth, one would see a A) fall in the interest rate and a decrease in the real quantity of money. B) fall in the interest rate and an increase in the real quantity of money. C) rise in the interest rate and a decrease in the real quantity of money. D) rise in the interest rate and an increase in the real quantity of money. Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy 55) When the Fed decreases the quantity of money, A) interest rates fall, consumption, investment and net exports increase, and the aggregate demand curve shifts rightward. B) interest rates fall, consumption, investment and net exports decrease, and the aggregate demand curve shifts leftward. C) interest rates rise, consumption, investment and net exports decrease, and the aggregate demand curve shifts leftward. D) interest rates rise, consumption, investment and net exports increase, and the aggregate demand curve shifts rightward. Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy 56) When the Fed increases the quantity of money, A) consumption expenditures decrease. B) the dollar increases in value on foreign exchange markets. C) net exports decrease. D) investment expenditures increase. Topic: Effect of Monetary Policy on Aggregate Demand 57) In an AS/AD figure, the first effect of an increase in the quantity of money is to shift the A) AD curve leftward. B) AD curve rightward. C) long-run AS curve leftward. D) long-run AS curve rightward. Topic: Effect of Monetary Policy on Aggregate Demand 58) In the short run, if the quantity of money decreases then A) aggregate demand will increase. B) aggregate demand will decrease. C) long-run aggregate supply will increase. D) long-run aggregate supply will decrease. Topic: Effect of Monetary Policy on Aggregate Demand 59) In the short run, a decrease in the quantity of money A) shifts the long-run aggregate supply curve rightward. B) shifts the long-run aggregate supply curve leftward. C) shifts the aggregate demand curve rightward. D) shifts the aggregate demand curve leftward. Topic: Fed Eases to Fight Recession * 60) If the Fed lowers the interest rate, the first effect in an AS/AD figure is a shift of the curve. A) rightward; AD B) leftward; AD C) rightward; SAS D) leftward; SAS

11 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 345 Topic: Fed Eases to Fight Recession 61) In the short-run, an increase in the quantity of money will shift the curve and real GDP. A) aggregate demand; leftward; decreases B) aggregate demand; rightward; increases C) aggregate supply; rightward; increases D) aggregate demand; leftward; increases Topic: Fed Eases to Fight Recession 62) The short-run effect of an increase in the quantity of money A) raises the price level and increases real GDP. B) raises the price level and decreases real GDP. C) lowers the price level and increases real GDP. D) lowers the price level and decreases real GDP. Topic: Fed Eases to Fight Recession 63) In the short run, an increase in the quantity of money real GDP and the price level. A) increases; raises B) does not change; lowers C) decreases; raises D) decreases; lowers Topic: Fed Eases to Fight Recession 64) Suppose the economy is in a recession and the Fed increases the quantity of money. Then in the short-run A) real GDP and the price level will both decrease. B) real GDP will increase and the price level will decrease. C) real GDP will decrease and the price level will increase. D) real GDP and the price level will both increase. Topic: Fed Eases to Fight Recession 65) In order to combat a recession, the Fed will the quantity of money and the interest rate. A) increase; raise B) increase; lower C) decrease; raise D) decrease; lower Topic: Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation * 66) In response to an inflationary gap, the Fed A) waits until the price level falls before acting. B) increases the quantity of money supply buying U.S. government securities. C) decreases the quantity of money by selling U.S. government securities. D) decreases the quantity of money by buying U.S. government securities. Topic: Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation 67) In the short run, the Fed s actions to fight inflation shift the A) aggregate demand curve rightward. B) aggregate demand curve leftward. C) short-run aggregate supply curve rightward. D) short-run aggregate supply curve leftward. Topic: Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation * 68) If the Fed raises the interest rate, the first effect in an AS/AD figure is a shift of the curve. A) rightward; AD B) leftward; AD C) rightward; SAS D) leftward; SAS Topic: Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation 69) The short-run effect of a decrease in the quantity of money A) raises the price level and increases real GDP. B) raises the price level and decreases real GDP. C) lowers the price level and increases real GDP. D) lowers the price level and decreases real GDP.

12 346 CHAPTER 11 Topic: Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation 70) According to the AS/AD model, in the short run a decrease in the quantity of money will A) decrease the equilibrium price level and decrease equilibrium output. B) increase the equilibrium price level and decrease equilibrium output. C) decrease the equilibrium price level but leave equilibrium output unchanged. D) decrease equilibrium output but leave the equilibrium price level unchanged. Long-Run Effects of on Real GDP and the Price Level Topic: The Long-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 71) Real GDP equals potential GDP and the quantity of money decreases. In the long run, the decrease in the quantity of money A) increases real GDP. B) decreases real GDP. C) lowers the price level. D) raises the price level. Topic: The Long-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 72) The long-run effect of a decrease in the quantity of money decreases A) the price level. B) potential GDP. C) the natural rate of unemployment. D) real wages. Topic: The Long-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 73) In the long run, an increase in the quantity of money real GDP and the price level. A) increases; raises B) does not change; raises C) decreases; raises D) decreases; lowers Topic: The Short-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 74) In the figure above, the graph that depicts only the short-run effect of a decrease in the quantity of money is A) Figure A. B) Figure B. C) Figure C. D) Figure D. Topic: The Long-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 75) In the figure above, the graph that best depicts the long-run effects of an increase in the quantity of money is A) Figure A. B) Figure B. C) Figure C. D) Figure D.

13 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 347 Topic: The Short-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 76) In the figure above, the graph that depicts only the short-run effect of an increase in the quantity of money is A) Figure A. B) Figure B. C) Figure C. D) Figure D. Topic: Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 77) In the figure above, the graph that best depicts the short-run effects of an increase in the quantity of money is and the figure that best represents the long-run effects of an increase in the quantity of money is. A) Figure A; Figure B B) Figure A; Figure C C) Figure B; Figure D D) Figure D; Figure B Topic: Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 78) In the figure above, Figure A depicts the shortrun effects of in the quantity of money and Figure B depicts the short-run effects of in the quantity of money. A) an increase; an increase B) no change; an increase C) an increase; no change D) an increase; a decrease Topic: The Short-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 79) In the above figure, if the economy is initially at point a, the short-run effect of an increase in the quantity of money is given by movement from point A) a to point b, increasing output and the unemployment rate. B) a to point b, increasing output and decreasing the unemployment rate. C) a to point d, decreasing output and increasing the unemployment rate. D) a to point c, keeping output and the unemployment rate constant. Topic: The Short-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 80) In the above figure, if the economy is initially at point c, the short-run effect of a decrease in the quantity of money is given by movement from point A) c to point d, decreasing output and increasing the unemployment rate. B) c to point d, increasing output and decreasing the unemployment rate. C) c to point b, increasing output and decreasing the unemployment rate. D) c to point a, keeping output and the unemployment rate constant.

14 348 CHAPTER 11 Topic: The Long-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 81) In the above figure, if the economy is initially at point a, the long-run effect of an increase in the quantity of money is given by movement from point A) a to point b, increasing output and decreasing the unemployment rate. B) a to point c, increasing output and decreasing the unemployment rate. C) a to point d, decreasing output and increasing the unemployment rate. D) a to point c, keeping output and the unemployment rate constant. Topic: The Long-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 82) In the above figure, if the economy is initially at point c, the long-run effect of a decrease in the quantity of money is given by movement from point A) c to point d, decreasing output and increasing the unemployment rate. B) c to point b, increasing output and decreasing the unemployment rate. C) c to point d, decreasing output and the unemployment rate. D) c to point a, keeping output and the unemployment rate constant. Topic: Quantity Theory of 83) Which of the following equations represents the quantity theory of money? A) PM = VQ B) MQ = PV C) MV = PQ D) M = VP/Q Topic: Quantity Theory of, Velocity of Circulation 84) The velocity of circulation is A) the rate of change of the GDP deflator. B) the average number of times a dollar of money is used in a year to buy goods and services in GDP. C) the changes in the purchasing power of money over a given time period. D) constant. Topic: Quantity Theory of, Velocity of Circulation 85) In the quantity theory of money, the velocity of circulation is assumed to A) be not influenced by the quantity of money. B) rise during recessions. C) fall during recessions. D) be unrelated to the equation of exchange. Topic: Quantity Theory of 86) According to the quantity theory of money, A) V and M are constant. B) V and Y are not affected by the quantity of money. C) V and P are not affected by the quantity of money. D) V and M are not affected by changes in the price level. 87) The quantity theory of money predicts how changes in A) the price level affect nominal GDP. B) the price level affect real GDP. C) the quantity of money affect the price level. D) real GDP affect the nominal GDP.

15 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL ) The quantity theory of money addresses the A) long-run effect the quantity of money has on the price level. B) determinants of potential GDP. C) determinants of the equilibrium unemployment rate. D) short-run effect the quantity of money has on the price level. 89) An increase in the quantity of money leads to a proportional increase in the price level according to the A) equation of exchange. B) short-run AS/AD model. C) quantity theory of money. D) short-run theory of inflation. 90) The quantity theory of money asserts that sustained increases in the price level are caused by sustained increases in A) the quantity of money. B) potential GDP. C) the natural rate of unemployment. D) money wages. 91) The quantity theory of money asserts that an increase in the quantity of money A) will decrease the price level by an offsetting amount. B) by n percent will lead to an increase in the price level by n + 1 percent. C) will lead to an equal percentage increase in real GDP. D) will lead to an equal percentage increase in the price level. 92) The quantity theory of money argues that, in the long run, the percentage change in money will equal the percentage change in A) velocity. B) real GDP. C) potential GDP. D) the price level. 93) The quantity theory of money predicts that A) in the long run, a 10 percent increase in the quantity of money leads to a 10 percent increase in real GDP. B) in the short run, a 10 percent increase in the quantity of money leads to a 10 percent increase in velocity. C) in the long run, a 10 percent increase in the quantity of money leads to a 10 percent increase in velocity. D) in the long run a 10 percent increase in the quantity of money leads to a 10 percent increase in the price level. 94) According to the quantity theory of money, a 15 percent increase in the quantity of money causes a 15 percent rise in A) the price level. B) the velocity of circulation. C) real GDP. D) the unemployment rate.

16 350 CHAPTER 11 95) According to the quantity theory of money, in the long run A) an increase in the quantity of money creates an increase in prices but no additional increase in real GDP. B) the quantity of money in a society will always be just the right amount. C) an increase in the quantity of money creates an increase in real GDP. D) None of the above answers are correct. 96) According to the quantity theory of money, a 25 percent change in M, the quantity of money, leads to a 25 percent change in A) V, the velocity of circulation. B) P, the price level. C) Y, real GDP. D) R, the interest rate. 97) Read the following statements and determine if they are true or false. I. According to the quantity theory of money, an increase in the growth rate of the quantity of money increases inflation in the long run. II. Historical and international data show that there is no correlation between inflation and money growth. A) I and II are both true B) I and II are both false C) I is true and II is false D) I is false and II is true Topic: International Evidence on the Quantity Theory of 98) Looking at historical evidence for the United States and other countries, which of the following are true? I. The quantity theory of money explains the correlation between money growth and inflation in the short run. II. The quantity theory of money explains the correlation between money growth and inflation in the long run. A) only I is true. B) only II is true. C) both I and II are true. D) neither I or II is true. Study Guide Questions Topic: Study Guide Question, Influences on Holding, Interest Rate 99) An increase in decreases the quantity of money people want to hold. A) the price level B) real GDP C) the interest rate D) the quantity of money Topic: Study Guide Question, Influences on Holding, Real GDP 100) A decrease in decreases the demand for money. A) the discount rate B) real GDP C) the interest rate D) the quantity of money

17 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 351 Topic: Study Guide Question, Changing the Interest Rate 101) A decrease in the quantity of money A) raises the interest rate. B) does not change the interest rate. C) lowers the interest rate. D) may raise or lower the interest rate, depending on whether the demand for money curve has a negative or a positive slope. Topic: Study Guide Question, Changing the Interest Rate 102) Decreases in the quantity of money A) raise interest rates. B) have no effect on interest rates. C) lower interest rates. D) lower interest rates only if the decrease in the quantity of money was accomplished using an open market operation. Topic: Study Guide Question, Shifts in the Demand for Curve 103) If real GDP decreases, the demand for money curve will shift A) leftward and the interest rate will rise. B) leftward and the interest rate will fall. C) rightward and the interest rate will rise. D) rightward and the interest rate will fall. Topic: Study Guide Question, Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation 104) In order to combat inflation, the Fed will the quantity of money and the interest rate. A) increase; raise B) increase; lower C) decrease; raise D) decrease; lower Topic: Study Guide Question, Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation 105) In the short run, the Fed s actions to fight an inflationary gap shift the A) aggregate demand curve rightward. B) aggregate demand curve leftward. C) short-run aggregate supply curve rightward. D) short-run aggregate supply curve leftward. Topic: Study Guide Question, Effect of Monetary Policy 106) In the short run, a decrease in the quantity of money shifts the A) AD curve leftward. B) SAS curve leftward. C) LAS curve leftward. D) None of the above because a decrease in the quantity of money does not shift a curve. Topic: Study Guide Question, Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation 107) In the short run, a decrease in the quantity of money the price level and real GDP. A) lowers; decreases B) lowers; does not change C) lowers; increases D) does not change; increases Topic: Study Guide Question, Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 108) In the long run, a decrease in the quantity of money A) shifts the AD curve rightward. B) shifts the SAS curve rightward. C) shifts the SAS curve leftward. D) does not shift the AD curve

18 352 CHAPTER 11 Topic: Study Guide Question, Effects of a Change in the Quantity of 109) In the long run, a(n) in the quantity of money lowers the price level and real GDP. A) decrease; increases B) increase; does not change C) decrease; does not change D) increase; decreases Topic: Study Guide Question, Quantity Theory of 110) The quantity theory of money is the idea that A) the quantity of money is determined by banks. B) the quantity of money serves as a good indicator of how well money functions as a store of value. C) the quantity of money determines real GDP. D) in the long run, an increase in the quantity of money causes an equal percentage increase in the price level. Topic: Study Guide Question, The Quantity Theory of 111) Nominal GDP, PY, is \$7.5 trillion. The quantity of money is \$3 trillion. The velocity of circulation is A) B) C) 2.5. D) 3. MyEconLab Questions Level 2: Using Definitions and Concepts 112) According to the quantity theory of money, in the long run, an increase in the quantity of money results in an equal percentage increase in. A) the price level B) the growth rate of real GDP C) the inflation level D) the growth rate of potential GDP Topic: Equation of Exchange Level 2: Using Definitions and Concepts 113) If nothing else changes, the velocity of circulation increases when. A) the quantity of money increases B) real GDP decreases C) the price level decreases and potential GDP decreases D) the price level increases Topic: The Demand for Curve Level 2: Using Definitions and Concepts 114) An increase in the interest rate creates a the money demand curve, and an increase in real GDP creates a the money demand curve. A) movement down along; leftward shift of B) rightward shift of; movement up along C) movement up along; rightward shift of D) leftward shift of; rightward shift of Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy Level 2: Using Definitions and Concepts 115) The ripple effects that occur when the Fed sells securities in the open market include. A) a decrease in consumption and investment B) an increase in net exports C) a decrease in interest rates D) an increase in short-run aggregate supply Topic: The Demand for Curve Level 2: Using Definitions and Concepts 116) The demand for money curve is the relationship between and, other things remaining the same. A) the quantity of real money demanded; the quantity of real money supplied B) the quantity of money demanded; the real interest rate C) the money demanded; the money supplied D) the quantity of real money demanded; the interest rate

19 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 353 Topic: The Demand for in the United States Level 2: Using Definitions and Concepts 117) In the United States, the demand curve for M1 after 1970 shifted leftward as a result of and shifted rightward as a result of. A) financial innovation; an increase in real GDP B) an increase in the price level; financial innovation C) a decrease in real GDP; financial innovation D) an increase in interest rates; an increase in real GDP Topic: Market Equilibrium Level 2: Using Definitions and Concepts 118) When the quantity of money demanded is greater than the quantity of money supplied, people bonds and the interest rate. A) sell; rises B) sell; falls C) buy; rises D) buy; falls Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy Level 2: Using Definitions and Concepts 119) When the Fed raises the interest rate, in the foreign exchange market people dollars and the price of the dollar on the foreign exchange market. A) sell; rises B) sell; falls C) buy; rises D) buy; falls Topic: Equation of Exchange Level 3: Calculations and Predictions 120) The quantity of money in an economy is \$9 million, and the velocity of circulation is 3. Nominal GDP in this economy is. A) \$6 million B) \$9 million C) \$3 million D) \$27 million Topic: The Short-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of Level 3: Calculations and Predictions 121) In the short run, in the quantity of money the price level, and real GDP. A) an increase; increases; decreases B) an increase; increases; does not change C) an increase; increases; increases D) a decrease; decreases; does not change Topic: Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation Level 3: Calculations and Predictions 122) If the Fed fears inflation it will undertake an open market of securities, the quantity of money will and interest rates will. A) sale; increase; fall B) sale; decrease; rise C) purchase; increase; fall D) purchase; decrease; rise Topic: The Ripple Effects of Monetary Policy Level 3: Calculations and Predictions 123) When the Fed buys securities in the open market, the U.S. dollar on the foreign exchange market and. A) falls; aggregate demand decreases B) rises; aggregate demand decreases C) falls; the increase in imports is greater than the increase in exports D) falls; aggregate demand increases Topic: The Influences on Holding Level 3: Calculations and Predictions 124) In the land of Oz the monetary unit is the emerald. Households and firms in Oz currently hold 100,000 emeralds. The price level is 100. If the price level jumps to 110 and other things remain the same, households and firms will. A) increase the money they hold by 1,000 emeralds B) decrease the money they hold by 10,000 emeralds C) decrease the money they hold by 1,000 emeralds D) increase the money they hold by 10,000 emeralds

20 354 CHAPTER 11 Topic: Interest Rate Determination Level 3: Calculations and Predictions 125) If people are holding more money than they would willingly hold, they will bonds. The price of a bond will and the interest rate will. A) sell; rise; fall B) sell; fall; rise C) purchase; rise; fall D) purchase; fall; rise Topic: Interest Rate Determination Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 127) The figure above shows the money market in Futureland. If the Bank of Futureland undertakes an open market sale of government securities that changes the quantity of money by \$1 trillion, then the interest rate will. A) rise to 8 percent a year B) remain at 6 percent a year C) fall to 4 percent a year D) None of the above answers is correct. Topic: Fed Tightens to Fight Inflation Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 128) If a central bank wants to implement a contractionary policy it will conduct an open market operation by securities. Bank reserves will and bank lending will leading to a in the quantity of money. A) selling; decrease; decrease; decrease B) purchasing; decrease; decrease; decrease C) purchasing; decrease; increase; decrease D) selling; increase; increase; increase Topic: Interest Rate Determination Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 126) The figure above shows the money market in Futureland. If the Bank of Futureland undertakes an open market purchase of government securities that changes the quantity of money by \$1 trillion, then the interest rate will. A) rise to 8 percent a year B) remain at 6 percent a year C) fall to 4 percent a year D) None of the above answers is correct. Topic: Effect of Monetary Policy on Aggregate Demand Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 129) The central bank of Cobra sells securities in an open market operation. In the short run, aggregate demand, real GDP, and the price level. A) does not change; increases; falls B) decreases; decreases; falls C) increases; increases; rises D) does not change; decreases; rises Topic: The Demand for Curve Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 130) An increase in the opportunity cost of holding money creates a the money demand curve and an increase in real GDP creates a the money demand curve. A) leftward shift of; movement down along B) rightward shift of; movement down along C) movement up along; leftward shift of D) movement up along; rightward shift of

21 MONEY, INTEREST, REAL GDP, AND THE PRICE LEVEL 355 Topic: Fed Eases to Fight Recession Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 133) The economy is at a below full-employment equilibrium. in the quantity of money will aggregate demand and prevent the unemployment rate from rising. A) A decrease; increase B) An increase; decrease C) An increase; increase D) A decrease; decrease Topic: Effects of a Change in the Quantity of Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 131) The figure above shows the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, and long-run aggregate supply curves for the country of Slag. The economy is currently at point c. The quantity of money in Slag decreases. Slag moves to point in the short run and to point in the long run. A) d; c B) a; c C) d; a D) b a Topic: Equation of Exchange Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 134) The velocity of circulation of M1 is greater than the velocity of circulation of M2 because. A) M1 is greater than M2 B) M1 is less than M2 C) with excess reserves; banks create additional loans D) in the long run people will hold more M1 Topic: The Long-Run Effects of a Change in the Quantity of Level 4: Advanced Calculations and Predictions 132) If the quantity of money increases when the economy is at full employment, aggregate demand. In the long run, the price level and real GDP will. A) decreases; the price level falls; return to potential GDP B) decreases; real GDP decreases; increase to potential GDP C) increases; the price level rises; return to potential GDP D) increases; real GDP increases; increase further

22 356

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