# CFD Application on Food Industry; Energy Saving on the Bread Oven

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2 u u j Simulation Procedure ( u) ( ) i i + uu i j = p ij gi t xj x j xj x Geometry and Computational Domain: In any modeling i (2) procedure the first step is to define the primary physics of the modeling system. A physical model stands for the The law of conservation of energy (the first law of scientific features of a system which is modeled. In thermodynamics), which states that the rate of current study, the two dimensional model is used to view change of energy of a fluid particle is equal to the the flow field from the side and above. The dimensions heat addition and the work done on the particle. The and location of the elements like fan, heating element and resulting equations can be written as: 4 breads are shown in Figure 1. The fan located on the wall for the goal of generating forced convection through T ( CT a ) + ( uct j a ) = s (3) the oven. T t xj x j x j Turbulence Equation: The present problem includes a fan which makes the convection heat transfer as a dominated mechanism. Cause of these circumstances and with attention to the high speed of the fan, the regime of flow through the oven can be assumed turbulence. As the problem also involves turbulence, the additional two equations (standard K-- model) for turbulent viscosity a length scales are also solved [8]. CFD Description and Implementation Fluent Software: FLUENT Inc. offers three software packages inside the CFD framework that are appropriate for the food engineer s modeling needs [1]. The three packages are FLUENT (general purpose with metaphysics capabilities), FIDAP (modeling complex Fig. 1: Geometrical overview of bread stove physics) and POLYFLOW (polymer modeling). FLUENT Inc. is presently one of the best leading suppliers of CFD software in the world. The most interesting features of the FLUENT software include models for heat exchangers, discrete phase models for multiphase flows, food industry such as ventilation, drying, sterilization, refrigeration, cold display and storage and mixing numerous high quality reaction models and the phase change model which tracks the melting and freezing in the bulk fluid [1]. In this paper, the commercial CFD software Fluent (FLUENT Inc.) is used to simulate the flow field and heat transfer through the stove which Fig. 2: Mesh Generation includes breads. a) Whole Computational Domain and b) Enlargement of Solution Procedure by CFD: In order to solve for a flow Bread s mesh field a general CFD code must take the mathematical statements inputted by the user, structure them into a Mesh Generation: Second step of the CFD analysis of suitable arrangement and solve them for the specified bread cooking modeling within an stove is the design of boundary conditions [1]. Iterative methods are commonly the system geometry and its discretization into a used by CFD codes to solve a whole set of discredited computational grid of finite volumes. The mesh or grid equations so that they may be applied to a single quality plays an important role in the accuracy and dependent variable. stability of a CFD numerical computation [1]. For a 2D 1096

4 Fig. 4: Velocity Vectors Fig. 5: Contour of Static Pressure Fig. 6: Contour of turbulent intensity 1098

5 Fig. 7: Contour of Static Temperature Fig. 8: Contour of Enthalpy rotates on the other sides of the oven. As a consequence, in terms of heat distribution. The results show that the the regions near the top breads catch the heat from the CFD is a capable method for investigation of process in sources. Also it can be seen that the temperature is not food industry. Also the results show that the air flow homogenous on the whole regions of the stove. One of pattern inside the stove with the mentioned the options for setting a better mixing is that the place of configuration is not the best arrangement and can be fan s stove can be changed. It can be placed near the improved. One of the offers is the change of the fan heating element and thus the forced convection and position thorough the oven. On the other hands the fan natural convection make the better blend of heat transfer position can be changed and a better temperature through the oven. distribution happened. The finding of best position of fan The results of the enthalpy calculation show a similar can be called as a next part of this CFD simulation on the trends of static temperature (Figure 8). future investigations. CONCLUSION REFERENCES In this paper, a two-dimensional hot air flow CFD 1. Norton, T. and D.W. Sun, Computational fluid modeling within a bread stove is presented. The purpose dynamics (CFD) e an effective and efficient design of the CFD simulation is to determine the conditions and analysis tool for the food industry: A review. through the oven during the food preparation procedure Trends in Food Science and Technol., 17:

6 2. Richardson, L.F., The approximate arithmetical 6. Mistry, H., G. Subbu, S. Dey, P. Bishnori and solution by finite differences of physical problems J.L. Castillo, Modeling of Transient Natural involving differential equations, with an application Convection Heat Transfer in Electric Ovens. Applied to the stresses in a masonry dam. Philosophical Thermal Engineering, 26: Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 7. Saxena, D.C., P. Haridas Rao and K.S.M.S. Raghava 210: Rao, Analysis of Modes of Heat Transfer in a 3. Courant, R., K. Friedrichs and H. Lewy, Tandoor Oven. Journal of Food Engineering, Die partiellen differenzengleichungen der 26: mathematischen Physik. Mathematische Annalen 8. Mondal, A. and A.K. Datta, Two-dimensional (Historical Archive), 100: CFD modeling and simulation of crustless bread 4. Shang, J.S., Three decades of accomplishments baking process, Journal of Food Engineering, in computational fluid dynamics. Progress in 99: Aerospace Sci., 40: Boulet, M., M. Bernard, M. Dostie and C. Moresoli, CFD Modeling of Heat Transfer and Flow Field in a Bakery Pilot Oven. Journal of Food Engineering, 97:

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