Safe Kernel Scheduler Development with Bossa

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1 Safe Kernel Scheduler Development with Bossa Gilles Muller Obasco Group, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/INRIA, LINA Julia L. Lawall DIKU, University of Copenhagen 1 1

2 Process scheduling is an old issue, but: there is no single perfect scheduler Application requirements: Computation server: fairness Number crunching: ASAP Hard real-time: strict deadlines Multimedia: user perception, relaxed deadlines Embedded systems: energy Recent research work OSDI (8), SOSP (4), RTSS (28), Usenix (5) 2 2

3 Still Very limited impact on commercial OSes Round robin Priority-based Fifo Application needs known only by the application (or framework) programmer The OS must be customized to application needs Very few application programmers possess kernel expertise 3 3

4 Bossa goals Simplify scheduler development so that an application programmer can safely extend kernel behavior Predictable development Safe development Integration within existing OSes 4 4

5 Issues in customizing the OS 1. How to integrate a scheduling policy into the kernel? 2. How to write a policy? 3. How to verify policy correctness? 5 5

6 1- How to integrate new policies in the kernel We need an extensible kernel (a la SPIN, exokernel) Extensible kernel Event Interface Scheduling policy as an OS extension Complex to program Research prototypes, limited support (drivers, libraries) 6 6

7 1 - How to integrate new policies in the kernel Bossa approach Enrich an existing kernel (Linux, Windows) with a scheduling-specific event interface Existing scheduling code removed Tool-assisted transformation process using AOP and temporal logic [ASE-2003, EW2004] Existing bossa-ified kernel Event Interface Block.*, Unblock.*, Clocktick Policy code as an OS extension (Kernel component) 7 7

8 2 - How to write policies: Kernel development is a nightmare C Development is error-prone Low-level C code => little help from the compiler Likely to crash the OS => test and debug tedious 8 8

9 2 - How to write policies Capture kernel expertise into a DSL A programming language dedicated to a family of programs that offers specific abstractions and notations. Trade expressiveness for expertise/knowledge: Productivity : easier and safer programming Robustness : (static) verification of properties Performance : efficient compilation 9 9

10 2 - How to write policies Capture kernel expertise into a DSL Domain analysis System components Policy... Policy Library 1. Family of system components 2. Enforce a two-stage design: policy/algorithms/strategy common mechanisms/library domain properties 3. DSL syntax language restrictions 10 10

11 2 - How to write policies Capture kernel expertise into a DSL Benefits of Domain Specific Languages Expertise re-use separate What/How expertise repository in underlying kernel mechanisms Code re-use well-identified basic mechanisms enforced re-use of the mechanisms Program safety and robustness property verification (predictable) enforced correct usage of the mechanisms 11 11

12 2 - How to write policies Capture kernel expertise into a DSL Existing bossa-ified kernel Event Interface DSL policy Bossa compiler/verifier Compiled policy (kernel component) 12 12

13 The Bossa DSL Looks like C but: Provides high level abstractions Process attributes Ordering criteria Process states Event handlers Interface functions Typical well known scheduling policies are under 200 lines 13 13

14 Process attributes and priorities scheduler Linux = { type policy_t = enum { SCHED_FIFO,SCHED_RR, SCHED_OTHER }; // RT policies // Round Robin process = { policy_t policy, int rt_priority, // 0 for round robin int priority, // initial time slice int ticks // current time slice }; ordering_criteria = { highest rt_priority, highest ticks }; 14 14

15 Process states Class of state + Process storage states = { RUNNING running : process; READY ready : fifo select queue; READY expired : queue; READY yield : process; BLOCKED blocked : queue; } TERMINATED terminated; 15 15

16 Event handlers handler (event e) { On block.* { e.target => blocked; } On unblock.preemptive { if (e.target in blocked) { e.target => ready; if (!empty(running) && (e.target > running)) running => ready; } } 16 16

17 Event handlers - Schedule On bossa.schedule { if (empty(ready)) { foreach (p in blocked) { p.ticks = p.ticks/2 + (((p.priority)>>2)+1); } if (!empty(yield)) { yield.ticks = yield.ticks/2 + (((yield.priority)>>2)+1); } if ( empty (expired)) { yield => ready; } else { foreach (p in expired) { p => ready; } } } select() => running; } if (!empty(yield)) { yield => ready; } 17 17

18 Properties of the Bossa DSL Termination Bounded loops Complete set of event handlers No loss of a process Kernel protection w.r.t. crashes 18 18

19 3 -How to verify policy correctness? Is the implementation consistent? DSL properties Does the implementation interact correctly with the target OS? Extensible system development» Kernel expert» Policy programmer Example: do not elect a blocked process 19 19

20 Event types For each event, describe: Event notification context. Expected handler effect. block.*: [tgt in RUNNING] -> [tgt in BLOCKED] Usage: Check that kernel expectations are satisfied at compile time Document these expectations. Event types are kernel-specific. Written once by the kernel expert

21 Blocking in Linux (Tout ce que vous avez toujours voulu savoir sans oser le demander) tgt in ready E_unblock tgt in blocked E_schedule E_block add to wait queue Resource available yes no no signal State test + Signal pending E_schedule signal Kernel schedule green: executed by tgt (normally running) remove from wait queue E_yield tgt in ready blue: executed by another process 21 21

22 Taking into account interrupts: Target of block might not be running tgt in ready unblock tgt in blocked E_schedule E_block add to wait queue Resource available yes no no signal State test + Signal pending signal E_schedule Kernel schedule Unblock of a higher priority process. remove from wait queue E_yield tgt in ready 22 22

23 Taking into account interrupts: Target of unblock might not be blocked tgt in ready unblock tgt in blocked schedule block add to wait queue Unblock of the target process. Resource available yes no remove from wait queue schedule State Test yield Kernel schedule tgt in ready 23 23

24 Unblock of the target process: Target of unblock might not be blocked tgt in ready E_unblock tgt in blocked E_schedule E_block add to wait queue Unblock of the target process Resource available yes no remove from wait queue E_schedule State test E_yield Kernel schedule tgt in ready 24 24

25 Linux event types (kernel expert) unblock.preemptive: [[] = RUNNING, tgt in BLOCKED] -> [[] = RUNNING, tgt in READY] [p in RUNNING, tgt in BLOCKED] -> {[p in RUNNING, tgt in READY], [[p, tgt] in READY]} [tgt in RUNNING] -> [tgt in RUNNING] [tgt in READY] -> [tgt in READY] block.*: [tgt in RUNNING] -> [tgt in BLOCKED] [[] = RUNNING, tgt in READY] -> [tgt in BLOCKED] 25 25

26 Bossa evaluation Benefit of new policies QoS for a video player on a highly loaded machine Precise control of CPU usage for legacy applications (web servers) Performance overhead w.r.t. the original Linux kernel LMbench micro-benchmark Impact of context switches on legacy applications Web server - Apache 26 26

27 QoS for multimedia applications Managing several classes of applications using a hierarchy of schedulers Priority Virtual scheduler Process scheduler for multimedia applications EDF Round Robin Standard Linux process scheduler Video player Parallel compilation 27 27

28 Impact of context switches on Apache Same number of req/s on Linux & Bossa (1160 req/s, 5kb pages) 50% 40% 30% 20% bossa <5K linux <5K bossa 10K-15K linux 10K-15K bossa >20K linux >20K 10% 0% <5K # cycles <10K <100K <250K <500K >500K 28 28

29 LMbench - Absolute overhead Bossa2.4/Linux 2.4 cycles Linux Bossa array size (KB) 0 processes

30 LMbench - relative overhead Bossa2.4/Linux % 130% 120% 110% 100% 90% array size (KB) 0 processes

31 On-going work Encyclopedia of scheduling policies (Bossa Nova) Bossa-Box: Personal Video Recorder with QOS Generalization to other resources Energy management (R. Urunuela) Multi-OS generalized approach (C. Augier) Port to Windows XP Port to Jaluna/Chorus (RT kernel) Port to the 2.6 linux kernel 31 31

32 Conclusion Programming scheduling policies is now possible for non kernel experts Dissemination of research work Nice support for teaching scheduling Verification of safety properties Confidence in system behavior Event types document kernel behavior 32 32

33 PUB! 2.4/2.6 bossa-linux kernel, Teaching lab, Bossa-Knoppix,

34 Re- PUB! 8 Octobre EuroSys Octobre SOSP, Brighton Novembre Middleware, Grenoble 3-7 Juillet 2006 ECOOP, Nantes 20 ans 34 34

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