Microkernels, virtualization, exokernels. Tutorial 1 CSC469

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1 Microkernels, virtualization, exokernels Tutorial 1 CSC469

2 Monolithic kernel vs Microkernel Monolithic OS kernel Application VFS System call User mode What was the main idea? What were the problems? IPC, file system Scheduler, virtual memory Device drivers, dispatcher Kernel mode Application IPC Microkernel Unix server Device driver IPC, virtual memory File server Hardware Hardware

3 Exokernels Motivation OSes hide machine info behind abstractions (processes, files, address spaces, IPC) These abstractions are hardcoded => restrictive Idea Separate protection from management Application level (untrusted) resource management VM, IPC implemented at application level Library OSes implement all the abstractions Basically, it s a minimal kernel that multiplexes securely the hardware resources

4 Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) Definitions: A VMM is a hardware virtualization technique that allows multiple operating systems, termed guests, to run concurrently on a host computer A VMM is a software layer that runs on a host platform and provides an abstraction of a complete computer system to higher level software. Also called Hypervisor

5 VMM types Type 1: run directly on the host's hardware Type 2: run within a conventional operating system environment Disco, VMWare ESX Server, Xen VMWare workstation, VirtualPC, User Mode Linux, UMLinux

6 Disco Goals Extend modern OS to run efficiently on shared memory multiprocessors without large changes to the OS VMM can run multiple copies of Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system on a Stanford Flash shared memory multiprocessor

7 Problem Commodity OS's not well suited for ccnuma (1997) Do not scale: Lock contention, memory architecture Do not isolate/contain faults: more processors => more failures Customized operating systems Take time to build, lag hardware Cost a lot of money

8 Solution Add a virtual machine monitor (VMM) Commodity OSes run in their own virtual machines (VMs) Communicate through distributed protocols VMM uses global policies to manage resources Moves memory between VMs to avoid paging Schedules virtual processors to balance load

9 Advantages Scalability Flexibility Hide NUMA effect Fault Containment Compatibility with legacy applications

10 Disco

11 VM challenges Overheads Instruction execution, exception processing, I/O Memory Code and data of hosted operating systems Replicated buffer caches Resource management Lack of information Idle loop, lock busy waiting Page usage Communication and sharing Not really a problem anymore because of distributed protocols

12 Disco interface VCPUs provide abstraction of a MIPS R10000 processor Emulates all instructions, the MMU, trap architecture Enabling/disabling interrupts, accessing privileged registers > Memory based interface to VMM Physical memory Contiguous address space, starting at address 0 Physical to machine address translation, second (software) TLB

13 Disco interface (cont d) I/O devices Each VM assumes exclusive access to I/O devices Virtual devices exclusive to VM Physical devices multiplexed between virtual ones Special interface to SCSI disks and network devices Interpose on DMA calls Disk: Set of virtualized disks to be mounted by VMs Copy on write disks; for persistent disks, uses NFS Network: Virtual subnet across all virtual machines Uses copy on write mappings => reduces copying, allows sharing

14 Xen virtualization Technically, two kinds Paravirtualization Guests run a modified OS High performance on x86 Hardware assisted virtualization CPUs that support virtualization Unmodified guest OSes

15 Xen infrastructure

16 How does it compare to Disco? Three main differences Less complete virtualization Domain0 to initialize/manage VMs, incl. to set policies Strong performance isolation Other Interface is pretty close to hardware and enables lowoverhead high performance virtualization Need to change more OS code than in Disco All the cool details Xen and the art of virtualization SOSP 03

17 Questions What s the difference between a hypervisor and an exokernel?

18 Questions What about an exokernel and a microkernel? Performance? What about fault isolation?

19 Questions What is the difference between a hypervisor (VMM) and a microkernel?

20 Questions Can a microkernel be used to implement a hypervisor?

21 Questions Can a hypervisor be used to implement a microkernel?

22 Hypervisors for servers Type 1 or Type 2? Hyper V: MicroKernelized Hypervisor Design VMWare ESX Server: Monolithic hypervisor architecture

23 Monolithic Hypervisor Hypervisor design Microkernel Hypervisor VM1 (Admin) VM2 VMn VM1 (Admin) Virtualization Stack Virt Stack VM2 VMn Hypervisor Drivers Hardware Drivers Drivers Drivers Hypervisor Hardware Both true Type 1 hypervisors no host OS The hardware is the physical machine; OSs are all virtual

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