1 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 1 DigiPoints Volume 1 Module 5 Growing Capacity Through Technology Summary This module covers the North American Digital Hierarchy (NADH), the European Digital Hierarchy (EDH), digital signals at levels higher than T1, the concept of bit stuffing, and how multiplexers are designated or named. T1 lines, the most common example of TDM, as well as concentrators will be covered. The purpose is to learn the appropriate application of each and to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each type of device. Specific sections to be covered in this module are Virtual Tributaries (VT), how VTs are used and mapped, VT Overhead, VT Groups, and SONET STS Multiplexing. Module Objectives Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to: Name the digital signal levels of the North American Digital Hierarchy. Contrast and compare the NADH with the EDH. Explain why bit stuffing is used when multiplexing lower level digital signals into higher levels. Describe the disadvantages of bit stuffing as it impacts the economies of a network. Describe the technique used to designate multiplexers. Describe why SONET was developed. Explain the advantages of SONET over the TDM systems studied. Describe the SONET frame. Explain the functions of the overheads used in SONET: Section Overhead Line Overhead Path Overhead Explain the function of the DCC. Explain the function of the K bytes. Explain the purpose of the J1 and G1 bytes. Explain the function of the pointer bytes, H1 and H2. Describe what a VT is. Describe how VTs are used. Name the four types of VTs.
2 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 2 Know the purpose and use of a VT Group. Explain the advantages of byte vs. bit stuffing, and where each is used. Describe what STM-1, STC-3c, and STS-3 signals are, and how they are related. Prerequisites Read, Chapter 5. As you complete this module, you should be filling in answers and definitions for the items found on the following pages.
3 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 3 What is the difference between FDM and TDM? What is the T1 line rate? How many voice grade channels? What type of things must be done to the metallic facilities to increase line rates? How many T1s are carried by a T1C system? A T2 system? A T3 system?
4 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 4 North American Digital Hierarchy (NADH) DIGITAL SIGNAL NUMBER NUMBER O F 64 kb/s CHANNELS BIT RATE IN Mb/s T CARRIER IMPLEMENTATION DS n/a DS T-1 DS1C T-1C DS T-2 DS T-3 What is the bit rate for a DS0? DS T-4 From what does the DS0 bit rate derive? Where did the NADH originate? What does DS mean? Why did the Europeans develop their own digital hierarchy?
5 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 5 Bit Stuffing If a T1C carries two T1s, and a T1 bit rate is Mbps, why is the bit rate for a T1C not 2 x or Mbps? What is the purpose of bit stuffing? Explain in detail. At the far end, stuff bits must be removed. How does the receiver know which bits to remove? What is the concept of add/drop multiplexing? Can systems using bit stuffing take advantage of add/drop multiplexing? Why or why not? SCTE
6 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 6 Digital Multiplexer Designations DS Mbps M34 6:1 DS Mbps DS Mbsp. M13 28:1 MX3 7:1 (DS2) 14:1 (DS1C) or 28:1 (DS1) M12 4:1 DS1C Mbps M1C 2:1 DS Mbps What does the M stand for in the multiplexer designation? What do the two characters after the M stand for in the multiplexer designation? How many DS levels in the NADH? Name them.
7 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 7 European Digital Hierarchy LEVEL NUMBER OF VOICE CIRCUITS MULTIPLEXER DESIGNATION BIT RATE (Mb/s) NUMBE R CEPT CEPT2 120 M CEPT3 480 M CEPT M CEPT M How does the EDH differ from the NADH? What does the acronym CEPT mean? How is bit robbing handled in the EDH? Compare the T1 frame of the NADH to the CEPT1 of the EDH. Channel size: Frame size: Bits per second: Sample rate:
8 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 8 WHY SONET Break up of Bell System Open Standards Bellcore Telecommunications Act of 1996 How did the break up of the Bell System influence the development of the SONET standard? What is meant by Open Standards? Bellcore and Bell Labs: how are these two entities related?
9 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page 5. 9 Open Standards 1985, ANSI T1X1 Committee Fiber Optic Equipment Multi-vendor Environment Open Systems and Standards» DO NOT GET LOCKED INTO A VENDORS TECHNOLOGY What is ANSI? What could be the problem of using just one vendor? What is meant by a multi-vendor environment?
10 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page Phase 1 Rates and formats Mapping hierarchical signals Performance monitoring Automatic protection switching Synchronization requirements Optical parameter specifications. Phase 2 Phase 1 & 2 SONET Short reach (INTRA-office) specifications for OC-1 to OC-12 rates. Electrical intra-office specifications from EC-1 to EC-12 Intra-office LAN topology Data communications channel protocol using a seven layer stack Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) signal mapping Core OAM&P Synchronization specifications Payload and interface jitter and wander specifications. What are OAM&P functions? What is APS?
11 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page SONET Line Rates OPTICAL CARRIER LEVEL ELECTRICAL CONNECTIO N LINE RATE Mb/s OC-1 EC OC-3 EC OC-9 EC OC-12 EC OC-18 EC OC-24 EC OC-36 EC OC-48 EC OC-192 EC OC-N EC-N = N * How does the increase in the line rates of a SONET signal differ from the increase in line rates in the NADH? Why? What is the speed of an OC-18?
12 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page SONET Frame 9 X 90 Bytes 51,840,000 bits per second Transport Overhead STS Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) SECTION OVERHEAD PATH OVERHEAD LINE OVERHEAD PAYLOAD What is the advantage of ADM (Add/Drop Multiplexer)? Name the three basic types of overhead in the SONET frame? How big is a SONET frame, in bits? How much, as a percentage, does the overhead occupy in the frame?
13 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page Types of SONET Overhead Section 9 Bytes 72 bits Line 18 Bytes 144 bits Section and Line Overhead are called the Transport Overhead. Path 9 Bytes 72 bits Overhead Total 36 Bytes 288 bits Payload 774 bytes 6,192 bits Frame Total 810 bytes 6,480 bits There are 8000 of these frames each second to give a total bit rate of 51,840,000 bps. Thus, the fixed overhead for the SONET frame is 36 bytes or 4.4% of the total bits transmitted. How does the POH differ from the Section and Line Overhead? What is the TOH? What does it consist? What percentage of a SONET frame is overhead? What types of changes in position and size can manufacturers make in this overhead?
14 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page End to End SONET Transmission Path Terminating Equipment Line Terminating Equipment (MUX) Regenerator Regenerator Line Terminating Equipment (MUX) Path Terminating Equipment Section Section Section Line Path What does Section Overhead do? What is the purpose of the Line Overhead? When do the SOH and the LOH co-locate? How does the SONET frame use overhead differently than a NADH TDM?
15 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page SONET Overhead Content SECTION OVERHEAD Framing Framing A1 A2 BIP-8 Orderwire B1 E1 Data COM Data COM D1 D2 Pointer Pointer H1 H2 BIP-8 APS B2 K1 Data COM Data COM D4 D5 Data COM Data COM D7 D8 Data COM Data COM D10 D11 Growth Growth Z1 Z2 LINE OVERHEAD STS-1 ID C1 User F1 Data COM D3 Pointer Action H3 APS K2 Data COM D6 Data COM D9 Data COM D12 Orderwire E2 PATH Overhead Trace J1 BIP-8 B3 Signal Label C2 Path Status G1 User Channel F2 Multiframe H4 Growth Z3 Growth Z4 Growth Z5 Line Overhead and Section Overhead together are referred to as Transport Overhead (TOH). Where are the framing bytes found? What are the two primary functions of the SOH? What are the three primary functions of the LOH? How much time is allotted for protection switching?
16 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page What is a FERF? What is an AIS? What do the H1 and H2 bytes do? What does the DCC on the LOH do? What is the difference between LOH and SOH? How is the POH different from the TOH? What does the path trace byte do (J1)? What does the path status byte do (G1)?
17 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page When is the POH built? When is it dissassembled?
18 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page VT Data Rates VT Type VT Rate Mb/s Example Payload Mb/s VT VT VT VT STS-1 Columns Needed Total Payloads Carried in a STS What is the DS3 rate? How much bigger is the VT2 rate then the CEPT1 rate? What is the DS1 capacity of a SONET signal?
19 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page Size Comparison of VT Frames Carried in the SPE VT Mb/s VT Mb/s VT Mb/s VT Mb/s VT Overhead How many columns are being used? How many DS1s can be mapped into a SONET frame? How many VT4s? What is a VT Group, how is it used, and how many in a SONET frame?
20 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page VT Combination Examples Asynchrono us Signal Quanti ty VT Frames Required VT Groups Used for this Signal Level Total VT Groups Spare Space in VT Group at this Rate EXAMPLE 1 DS VT DS-1 DS-1C VT DS-1C DS VT CEPT VT CEPT-1 EXAMPLE 2 DS VT DS-1 DS-1C DS VT CEPT VT EXAMPLE 3 DS DS-1C DS VT CEPT VT CEPT-1 How many different types of signals can be carried in a SONET frame? What are the limits of putting these signals into the SONET frame? Where are bits stuffed in a SONET frame?
21 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page SONET Frame A1 1 A1 2 A1 3 A2 1 A2 2 A A1 3 A A1 2 A A1 1 A STS Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) STS Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) 9 STS Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) With three SONET frames, what is the sequence of transmitting bytes? What is the effect of interleaving bytes in the SONET frame? What is the difference between Locked and Floating mode? Can a DS3 be mapped into a SONET frame? Is there enough room? What is the disadvantage of mapping a DS3 to SONET?
22 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page SONET STS Mapping STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 3:1 3: STS-3 STS-3 4th Frame s Byte in 2nd Position 1st Frame s byte in 1st Position :1 STS-9 7th Frame s Byte in 3rd Position STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 3: STS-3 What is the 1 st stage of SONET multiplexing? What is the highest rate that the SONET standards have defined? How is an STS-3 and an STM-1 differ? What does concatenating a signal mean? How is a concatenated signals handed differently from other signals on the SONET network?
23 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page SONET (US) and SDH (ITU) standards and protocols US ANSI T1.106 ANSI T1.105 ANSI T1.117 ANSI T1.119 ANSI T1-101 ANSI T1-204 ANSI T1-208 ANSI T1-210 ITU-T (formerly CCITT) G.707 ~ G.709 Bellcore Generic Requirements TR NWT 253 G.957 TA NWT 253 G.958 TA NWT 1042 G.803 TA NWT 1042 issue 3 G.774 TA NWT 1250 G.831 TA TSY Blue Books TR TSY TR TSY TR TSY
24 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page Study Questions 1. What is the benefit of digital rates above T1? 2. What is the NADH? 3. What are the levels in the NADH? 4. Why are the bit rates of each level NOT a simple multiple of the rates below it? That is, if a DS3 contains 28 DS1s, or 14 DS1Cs, or 7 DS2s, why is not a DS3 just a multiple of the lower rate? 5. What is the purpose of Bit Stuffing? Why is it needed? 6. What is made more difficult by this bit stuffing technique? How is it overcome?
25 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page What type of multiplexer is a M34? 8. How are multiplexers designated/named? 9. Why was SONET developed? 10. What are the three types of overhead? 11. What is the purpose of the pointer bytes? Where are they found? 12. How many bytes are in the TOH? How are they divided?
26 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page What percent of the SONET frame is devoted to overhead? 14. What does SOH allow? 15. What does LOH provide? 16. Name two things the POH provides. 17. How many Virtual Tributary rates are available? What are they? 18. How big is the VT1.5?
27 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page What is a VT Group? How big is it? 20. How many columns in the STS-1 SPE are not used by the VTs? What are these used for? 21. What is the advantage of SONET multiplexing over TDM? 22. What is the first stage in SONET multiplexing? 23. How is the STM-1 different from the STS-3? 24. What is the difference between Locked Mode and Floating Mode?
28 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page Glossary for Module 5 AIS - Alarm Indication Signal ANSI - American National Standard Institute APS - Automatic Protection Switching ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode Bit Interleaving - The process of combining low speed input signals onto a higher speed output line of a multiplexer Bit Rate - Rate at which data flows Bit Stuffing - The process of adding non-information bits to a multiplexer high speed output line, to compensate for differences in clock rates of low speed input lines. Bridged tap - Tap on a wire pair used for termination of subscribers. In voice circuits, when a subscriber is removed from the pair, the tap is often left unterminated. Byte stuffing - The process of adding extra bytes to align an SPE frame to an STS-1 frame, because there is a difference in phase or frequency. CCITT - Consultative Committee for International Telephone & Telegraph CEPT - Conference of European Postal and Telecommunications Administrations - A part of the CCITT that created the European Digital Hierarchy standard. Conditioning - (Also known as Line Conditioning) - Adding impedance compensating equipment to a voice grade communications line to ensure that it meets specifications for transmission of a test signal, specifically for amplitude and distortion. DCC - Data Communications Channel DCS - Digital Cross-Connect System DSx - Digital Signal Level, where x can be 1, 1C, 2, 3, or 4. Basic level of the Digital Signal Hierarchy. EC-1 - Electrical Carrier for 1 - STS-1 FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Interface FERF - Far End Receive Failure signal Interleaving - The interlacing of whole bytes from several subchannels in successive time slots LAN - Local Area Network LOH - Line Overhead LTE - Line Terminating Equipment Multiplexing - The process of combining several signals into one higher level signal NADH - North American Digital Hierarchy NE - Network Element
29 Growing Capacity Through Technology Page OAM&P - Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning OC-n - Optical Carrier for n - STS-1 level signals, e.g., 3 - STS-1 are carried by an OC-3 ORDERWIRE - The overhead used by workers to communicate with other workers via overhead bits on a channel. Historically, the term referred to a physical wire used solely for maintenance communications. Orderwire Channel - A channel for voice communication between network elements OSI - Open Systems Interconnection POH - Path Overhead PTE - Path Terminating Equipment SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. CCITT (European) Standard for digital signal levels in a multiplexing hierarchy SOH - Section Overhead SONET - Synchronous Optical Network SPE - Synchronous Payload Envelope STM-1 - Synchronous Transport Module Level 1; the bit rate is equal to an STS-3 STS-1 - Synchronous Transport Signal Level 1 with a transmission rate of Mb/s TOH - Transport Overhead, which is the Section and Line Overhead combined VT - Virtual Tributary VT Group - A 108-byte structure (9 rows X 12 columns) carrying one or more VT of the same size
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