Organisation and Management Theories: An African Focus

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1 Organisation and Management Theories: An African Focus Integrating structure, people, Processes and the environment for human happiness Lewis B. Dzimbiri Chancellor College University of Malawi

2 Table of Contents PREFACE TO THE BOOK ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABOUT THIS BOOK 1 INTRODUCTION I THE WHAT WHY AND HOW OF THE BOOK I THEORY AND PRACTICE: ANY TENSION? 6 ORGANISATION OFTI IE BOOK 9 REVIEW QUESTIONS 10 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 10 STRUCTURAL ISSUES: THE CONCEPT OF ORGANISATION 11 INTRODUCTION 11 DEFINITION OF ORGANISATION 11 IMPORTANCE OF ORGANISATIONS 12 FEATURES OF AN ORGANISATION 15 Specificity of purpose 15 Hierarchy of authority 16 Division of labour 17 Employment of skilled personnel 18 Rules, regulations, procedures and controls 18 Formality of Communication.20 FORMAL AND INFORMAL ORGANISATIONS 20 CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISATIONS 22 RESOURCES IN ORGANIZATIONS 24 ACTIVITIES IN ORGANISATIONS 26 TECHNICAL VERSUS SUPPORT ACTIVITIES 28 WAYS OF VISUALISING OF ORGANISATIONS 29 Organisations as economic institutions 30 Organisations as mini societies 31 Organisations as political institutions 33 WHY STUDY ORGANISATIONS 35 AFRICA-EVOLUTION OF MODERN ORGANISATION 37 Africa as an organisation of organisations 38 The University of Botswana as an Organisation 40 SUMMARY 43 REVIEW QUESTIONS 43 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 43 THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRUCTURE 44 INTRODUCTION: A NOTE ON ORGANISATION THEORIES 44 FREDRICK TAYLOR AND THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 46 HENRI FA YOL AND THE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT 49 MAX WEBER AND BUREAUCRACY 56 LIMITATIONS OF CLASSICAL THEORIES 59 REVIEW QUESTIONS 60 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 61 THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE SCHOOL: PEOPLE IN ORGANISATIONS 63 INTRODUCTION 63 ELTON MAYO AND THE HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL 63 ABRAHAM MASLOW AND HUMAN NEEDS 64 DOUGLAS MCGREGOR - THEORY X AND Y 66 WILLIAM G Owucm AND THEORY Z 68 FREDRICK HERZBERG: MOTIVATOR AND HYGIENE FACTORS 68 V VII

3 CHRIS ARGYRIS- THE IMMATURE-MATURE THEORY 70 EDGAR HSCHEIN AND THE COMPLEX MAN 71 ROBERT R BLAKE AND JANE SMOUTON 71 VICTOR VROOM 72 EDWIN LOCKE- GOAL SETTING 72 OTHER MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES 72 SUMMARY 75 REVIEW QUESTION 75 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 76 THE IMPACT OF THE ENVIRONMENT: OPEN SYSTEMS AND CONTINGENCY THEORIES 78 INTRODUCTION 78 KATZ AND KAHN AND THE OPEN SYSTEM THEORY 78 CONTINGENCY THEORY 80 Joan Woodward 81 Burns T and Stalker CM HI Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch 82 James D Thompson 83 Michael T Hannan and John Freeman 83 Geert Hofstede 84 SUMMARY 86 REVIEW QUESTIONS 87 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 87 PROCESSES IN ORGANISATIONS: MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS.. INTRODUCTION 88 DEFINITIONS AND CLARIFICATIONS OF MANAGEMENT 88 SUMMARY 91 REVIEW QUESTIONS 91 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 92 PLANNING 93 INTRODUCTION 93 CONCEIT OF PLANNING 93 CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANNING ". 93 TYPES OF PLANNING 94 STEPS IN PLANNING 95 ADVANTAGES OF PLANNING 98 LIMITATIONS OF PLANNING 99 APPLICATION OF PLANNING TO THE AFRICAN ENVIRONMENT 101 SUMMARY 102 REVIEW QUESTIONS 102 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 102 ORGANISING 103 INTRODUCTION 103 NATURE OF OBJECTIVES 103 MISSION, OBJECTIVES AND GOALS 104 STATED OBJECTIVES AND ACTUAL OBJECTIVES 105 IMPORTANCE OF OBJECTIVES 105 MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) 107 Borrc>M-up AND TOP-DOWN OBJECTIVES 107 GUIDELINES FOR SETTING OBJECTIVES 108 ORGANISATION STRUCTURES 108 Line Structure 108 Line and Staff Organisation 109 Functional Structure 109 Committee Structure 109 Conditions for Effective Functioning of Committees 110 Project Structure /;/

4 Matrix Structure SUMMARY STAFFING 113 INTRODUCTION 113 DEFINITION OF RECRUITMENT 113 How RECRUITMENT CAN ARISE 114 RECRUITMENT POLICY 114 THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS 115 SOURCES OF HUMAN RESOURCES 115 METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF RECRUITMENT 117 SELECTION 119 SELECTION INTERVIEWING 120 PROBLEMS WITH INTERVIEWS 122 PLACEMENT OF PERSONNEL 123 SUMMARY 123 REVIEW QUESTION 124 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 124 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 125 INTRODUCTION 125 DEFINITION OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 125 OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 125 THE USE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL INFORMATION 126 APPROACHES TO PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 126 TYPES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 127 WHO CONDUCTS APPRAISALS? 130 PROBLEMS WITH PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 132 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 133 DEFINITION 133 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND PMS 133 FEATURES OF PMS 134 APPROACH TO THE INTRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF PMS 134 BENEFITS OF PMS 138 CHALLENGES 138 LESSONS 140 SUMMARY 141 REVIEW QUESTIONS 141 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 142 DIRECTING CONTROLLING AND COORDINATING 143 INTRODUCTION 143 DIRECTING 143 Human Relations Problems 145 CONTROLLING 146 The Process of Controlling CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLLING 149 COORDINATING 150 WHY COORDINATION 150 TYPES OF COORDINATION 151 METHODS OF COORDINATION 151 SUMMARY 152 REVIEW QUESTIONS 152 RESEARCH ACTIVITY 153 DECISION MAKING AND COMMUNICATION 154 INTRODUCTION 154 DECISION MAKING 154 Theories of Decision Making 154 Types of Decisions 156 Ill Ill

5 Decision Making Process 157 Factors influencing Decision Making 158 COMMUNICATION 159 The concept of communication 159 Process of Communication 159 Channels of Communication 161 The Communication Media 164 Barriers Communication 165 Improving Communication Effectiveness 166 SUMMARY 167 REVIEW QUESTIONS 167 RESEARCH ACTivri'Y 168 LEADERSHIP 169 INTRODUCTION 169 MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP 169 THE CONCEPT OF LEADERSHD APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP 171 The Trait Approach 171 The Use of Authority Approaches 172 Consideration vs Initiation 173 Managerial Grid 173 The Continuum Approach 174 Transactional versus Transformational leadership 175 Leading Above and Below the Line 175 The Contingency Approach 176 ORGANISATION THEORIES AND LEADERSHIP STYLES 176 SUMMARY 177 REVIEW QUESTIONS : 178 RESEARCH Acrivri'Y : 178 ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES: APPLICATION TO AFRICAN CONTEXTS 180 INTRODUCTION 180 OVERALL SUMMARY 180 WESTERN THEORIES IN AFRICAN CONTEXTS 183 Yes: Very relevant and applicable 184 A WORD OF CAUTION: CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT 187 Two CONCLUDING POINTS 189 BIBLIOGRAPHY 191 INDEX 194

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