HVAC Systems and Indoor Air Quality. Douglas K. Spratt, M.Sc., P.Eng.

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1 HVAC Systems and Indoor Air Quality Douglas K. Spratt, M.Sc., P.Eng.

2 The 5 Senses Architecture Electrical Structural Mechanical Hearing Seeing Smelling Feeling Tasting

3 HVAC Systems are Dynamic Heat Gains Solar Response Loads Outdoor temperature Lights Required Air Conditioning People Equipment

4 Presentation Agenda Why We Have HVAC Systems Definitions HVAC Control Strategies HVAC Pollutant HVAC Systems

5 The Purpose of HVAC Systems H V A Thermal Control (ASHRAE - 55) Air Quality (ASHRAE - 62) (Contaminant Control) C HVAC = Artificial Environment

6 The IAQ Lexicon Acceptable IAQ: 1. No known contaminants of harmful Concentration (objective) 2. >80% people satisfied with air quality (subjective) Sick Building Syndrome: 1. > 20% people complaining over 2 weeks 2. Symptoms only occur when in building Headaches Fatigue Nausea Eye irritation Throat irritation

7 More Definitions cfm: cubic feet per minute (flow rate) cfm/person - usually refers to outdoor air ACH: Air Change Rate (per hour) Example: Office 10 x 10 x 8 high, with one person Supply air = 120 cfm Outdoor air = 20% of S/A = 24 cfm/person Air change = (120ft 3 /min) (10x10x8/) x 60 min/h = 9 ACH

8 More Definitions Conscienceness: that annoying state in between naps. Dopelar effect: the tendency of stupid ideas to seem smarter when you come at them rapidly.

9 HVAC Control Strategies Outline Ventilation Air Cleaning Humidification

10 Ventilation - removes emissions Source Emissions Reduce Remove

11 Two Contaminant Control Strategies 1. Source Extraction 2. Dilution

12 Source Extraction When? Design - Velocity (100 fpm) - Minimize Working Exposure - Make Up Air

13 Two Dilution Methods 1. Natural Operable Windows Infiltration 2. Mechanical Exhaust HVAC relief air and outdoor air

14 Natural Ventilation Advantages - Low 1st Cost - Low Maintenance - Natural ( green )

15 Natural Ventilation Disadvantages Limited to Low Occupant Densities Limited to Mild Climates Poor Distribution Uncontrollable factors

16 Natural Ventilation Design Cross Drafts Stack Effects Hybird Systems

17 Mechanical Ventilation How much? Depends on: Type of Pollutants Emission Rates Ventilation Effectiveness

18 How Much Ventilation? ASHRAE Standard 62-89: cfm O/A per person or go scientific Proposed Revision to cfm/person + cfm/ft 2 i.e., people + building Other approaches: Olf (the nose test) exposure limits

19 People & Pollution Some emission rates correlate to people s activities People consume oxygen People can have diseases which are air borne Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels can be an indicator of overall indoor air quality

20 Mechanical Ventilation Methods Exhaust Fan Exhaust With Make-Up Air Mixed Supply Air Fixed Dampers Modulating Dampers

21 The Economizer Section EXHAUST RETURN RECIRCULATED OUTDOOR M-2 MIXED SUPPLY M-1

22 Example 20 ton Roof-top unit 9,000 cfm supply 1,000 cfm toilet exhaust 9,000 ft 2 floor space Office space with 150 ft 2 /person O/A = 20 cfm/person x 9,000 ft ft 2 /person = 1,200 cfm

23 Ignoring Infiltration 200 cfm 1,000 cfm R/A 8,000 cfm 7,800 cfm 1,200 cfm S/A 9,000 cfm T/E % O/A = 1,200 cfm = 13% 9,000 cfm

24 Mechanical Ventilation Distribution Effectiveness Grilles & Diffusers Location

25 Ventilation Summary Source Emissions Removal Source Extraction Natural Dilution Mechanical

26 HVAC Control Strategies Ventilation Air Cleaning

27 Filters Gases Viruses Smoke Dust Pollens Micrometers HEPA Filters 90 % Filters 80 % Filters 60 % Filters 30 % Filters

28 O/A R/A ASHRAE 52.1 Test Procedure Efficiencies HEPA DOP Penetration Test Final (Bag/Cartridge) Atmospheric Dust-Spot Pre (Panel) Atmospheric Dust-Spot % 20-30%

29 Filter Types Standard (panel, pleated, bag, etc.) Electrostatic Sorption

30 HVAC Control Strategies Ventilation Air Cleaning Humidification

31 Humidification Desired Range 30-40% Limitations Means (Covered Later) Steam & Water

32 HVAC Pollutant Sources Source Emissions Reduce Remove

33 Ducts Sources: Acoustic Lining Ceiling Plenums Tenant Changes Dust and Moisture

34 Ducts Strategies Inspection Cleaning Sealing

35 Intakes Proximity to Exhausts: Kitchen Flues Vehicles Smokers

36 Intakes Strategies Discharge Location Terminus Velocity

37 Moisture Sources Humidifiers Cooling Towers Cooling Coils Uninsulated Ducts

38 Moisture Strategies Eliminate Treat

39 Combustion Sources Faulty Heat Exchangers Faulty Flues Back Drafting

40 Combustion Strategies Inspection Testing O/A Control

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