Bioactive Essential Oils and Cancer

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1 Bioactive Essential Oils and Cancer

2 Damião Pergentino de Sousa Editor Bioactive Essential Oils and Cancer 1 3

3 Editor Damião Pergentino de Sousa Federal University of Paraiba João Pessoa, Paraíba Brazil ISBN ISBN (ebook) DOI / Library of Congress Control Number: Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

4 I dedicate this volume to my family, especially my little daughter Julia, my son Pedro, and my wife Sheila for her patience and encouragement. v

5 Acknowledgements I would like to thank Springer for inviting me to edit this volume. I would like to thank all contributors of the book for accepting the challenge of preparing the contents of the chapters. Their effort made possible the publication of the volume. vii

6 Preface This volume, intended for professionals and researchers in the fields of life sciences, biotechnology, and drug discovery, contains discussions of several aspects of bioactive essential oils and their potential clinical use in treating or preventing cancer. It is a valuable source of information and studies for all people who work with natural products, especially with applications in cancer. We present chemical structures designed to help the reader understand the key concepts of the chemical and pharmacological properties of essential oils. The content of the book is divided into 15 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of cancer pathogenesis and therapies. Several genetic aspects are covered, including critical genes and epigenetics in cancer, metastasis, epidemiology, and environmental risk factors. This chapter also discusses the main therapeutic approaches in cancer, such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In Chap. 2, the reader is introduced to the chemistry of essential oils. Key concepts, classification of the constituents of essential oils, and methods of analysis are some of the topics discussed. In short, the authors describe the relevant chemical aspects of aromatic plants and the chemical structures of the major compounds found in their essential oils. Chapter 3 describes the features of botanical classification of the main families containing plants that produce essential oils. Pharmacobotanical aspects of selected species are described. Chapter 4 presents recent developments in the synthesis of anticancer drugs from essential oil constituents, demonstrating the potential of this class of natural products as starting materials for the development of anticancer drugs. Chapter 5 introduces some successful examples of the use of medicinal chemistry tools applied to essential oils constituents focusing on antitumor activity. Chapter 6 reports some clinical studies with essential oil and chemical constituents. Chapter 7 describes the selected studies on antitumor activities of essential oils obtained from aromatic plants. A description of the general aspects of these plants and chemical composition of their essential oils is also presented. The antitumor monoterpenes found in essential oils and their possible mechanisms of action are reported in Chap. 8. The antitumor sesquiterpenes found in essential oils are described in Chap. 9; selected studies containing the mechanisms of action of essential oils are presented in the chapter. Chapter 10 presents a literature review on phenylpropanoids from essential oils which have antitumor activity. Chapter 11 ix

7 x Preface presents a comprehensive description of synergy and interaction of essential oil and the chemical constituents with drugs used in cancer therapy or other antitumor constituents. The use of essential oil components as cancer preventive agents is outlined in Chap. 12. Geraniol and farnesol are two selected constituents discussed in this topic as dietary bioactive food components with promising applications in cancer chemoprevention. Chapter 13 discusses the use of aromatherapy in promoting well-being of patients with cancer. Depression and anxiety, commonly found in people suffering from cancer, can affect the immune system and worsen the health of the patient. The use of psychotherapeutic essential oils for inhalation can help in the treatment of these patients by improving the quality of life. The perillyl alcohol is a monoterpene found in essential oils with significant antitumor activities. The scientific reports are promising and contain several clinical studies. Chapter 14 describes the studies of a research group using perillyl alcohol monoterpene. The experience of many years of research with perillyl alcohol is demonstrated in the results of clinical analyses and magnetic resonance imaging of patients undergoing treatment with perillyl alcohol, notably via inhalation. Chapter 15 comments on the potential of essential oils for use in cancer therapy and future prospects. I hope that this book will stimulate readers to appreciate the importance of natural products as health-promoting resources and generate a discussion and reflection on new approaches in cancer therapy. Damião Pergentino de Sousa João Pessoa, Brazil

8 Contents 1 Principles of Cancer Pathogenesis and Therapies: A Brief Overview... 1 Rosane Borges Dias, Ludmila de Faro Valverde, Clarissa Araújo Gurgel Rocha and Daniel Pereira Bezerra 2 Essential Oils Chemistry Mónica Zuzarte and Lígia Salgueiro 3 Pharmacobotanical Aspects of Aromatic Plants Basílio I.J.L.D., Nathalia Diniz Araujo and Rafael Costa Silva 4 Essential Oils as Raw Materials in the Synthesis of Anticancer Drugs Timothy J. Brocksom, Kleber T. de Oliveira, Marco A. B. Ferreira and Bruno M. Servilha 5 Antitumor Essential Oils: Progress in Medicinal Chemistry Sócrates Cabral de Holanda Cavalcanti, Rafael dos Reis Barreto de Oliveira and Damião Pergentino de Sousa 6 Clinical Advances in Anticancer Essential Oils Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Rubina Sohail, Sundas Fayyaz and Iryna Shatynska-Mytsyk 7 Antitumor Essential Oils Hemerson Iury Ferreira Magalhães and Élida Batista Vieira de Sousa 8 Antitumor Monoterpenes Janaina Fernandes xi

9 xii Contents 9 Sesquiterpenes from Essential Oils with Promising Antitumor Properties Fayaz Malik and Suresh Kumar 10 Antitumor Phenylpropanoids Miriam Teresa Paz Lopes, Dalton Dittz Júnior and Fernanda de Oliveira Lemos 11 Antitumor Essential Oils: Synergy and Chemotherapeutic Interactions Rogerio Correa Peres, Carolina Foot Gomes de Moura, Flavia Andressa Pidone Ribeiro and Daniel Araki Ribeiro 12 Dietary Essential Oils and Cancer Chemopreventive Potential Thomas Prates Ong 13 Cancer and Aromatherapy: A View of How the Use of Essential Oils Applies to Palliative Care Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá 14 Perillyl Alcohol: A Pharmacotherapeutic Report Clovis O Da Fonseca and Thereza Quirico-Santos 15 Conclusion and Future Perspectives Damião Pergentino de Sousa Index

10 Contributors Clarissa Araújo Gurgel Rocha Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (CPqGM-FIOCRUZ/BA), Salvador, Brazil Department of Propedeutics, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil Rosane Borges Dias Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (CPqGM-FIOCRUZ/BA), Salvador, Brazil Timothy J. Brocksom Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil Ludmila de Faro Valverde Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (CPqGM-FIOCRUZ/BA), Salvador, Brazil Élida Batista Vieira de Sousa Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Nathalia Diniz Araujo Postgraduate Program in Bioactive Natural and Synthetic Products, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Dalton Dittz Júnior Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Ammad Ahmad Farooqi Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan Sundas Fayyaz Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan Janaina Fernandes NUMPEX-BIO Pólo Xerém, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and National Institute for Translational Research on Health and Environment in the Amazon Region INPETAM Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil Marco A. B. Ferreira Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil xiii

11 xiv Contributors Clovis O Da Fonseca Faculty of Medicine, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Carolina Foot Gomes de Moura Departament of Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Sócrates Cabral de Holanda Cavalcanti Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Basílio I.J.L.D. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, Paraíba, Brazil Suresh Kumar Department of Cancer Pharmacology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, India Fernanda de Oliveira Lemos Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Hemerson Iury Ferreira Magalhães Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Fayaz Malik Department of Cancer Pharmacology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, India Kleber T. de Oliveira Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil Rafael dos Reis Barreto de Oliveira Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Thomas Prates Ong Laboratory of Nutrigenomics and Programming, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo and Food Research Center (CEPID/FAPESP), São Paulo, Brazil Miriam Teresa Paz Lopes Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Daniel Pereira Bezerra Gonçalo Moniz Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (CPqGM-FIOCRUZ/BA), Salvador, Brazil Rogerio Correa Peres Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Flavia Andressa Pidone Ribeiro Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Thereza Quirico-Santos Department of Cell and Molecular Biology Institute of Biology, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Daniel Araki Ribeiro Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Departament of Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

12 Contributors xv Lígia Salgueiro Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal Bruno M. Servilha Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil Iryna Shatynska-Mytsyk Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Department, Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine Rafael Costa Silva Graduate Program in Plant Biology, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá Department of Physiology and Pathology, Health Science Center, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil Rubina Sohail Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan Damião Pergentino de Sousa Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil Mónica Zuzarte Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

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