Infrastructure. the transition from analogue to digital. broadcasting

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1 Infrastructure G u i d e l i n e s f o r the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting Report j a n u a r y T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t S e c t o r

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3 Guidelines for the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting January 2014

4 These Guidelines were co-written by ITU experts Mr Jan Doeven, Mr Gu-Yean Hwang, Mr Colin Knowles, Mr Junji Kumada, Mr Yukihiro Nishida, Mr Sharad Sadhu, Dr Kazuyoshi Shogen and Mr Peter Walop, with contributions from Mr Roger Bunch, vice-chairman of ITU-R Study Group 6, under the supervision of the ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) Spectrum Management and Broadcasting Division and the ITU Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and with the co-operation of the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau (BR). Special thanks are also extended to the Korean Communications Commission (KCC), Republic of Korea and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) in Japan, for their contribution to the development of the Guidelines. Please consider the environment before printing this report. ITU 2014 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, by any means whatsoever, without the prior written permission of ITU.

5 Foreword The broadcasting revolution is well-underway, and the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting is not only creating opportunities for the provision of ICT applications and multimedia services but is also contributing to the efficient use of spectrum through the digital dividend and the release of spectrum for other uses such as wireless broadband communications. The transition to digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) and the introduction of mobile television broadcasting (MTV) services is benefiting regulators, service providers, network operators and consumer electronics manufacturers but it is a complex process that differs from country to country. This is in part due to different national regulatory frameworks, service offerings and network configurations but is also due to national priorities, market circumstances, geography, and population distribution. Independent of national variations, I believe that this publication can lead to well-motivated decisions on digital migration process, close cooperation between the regulator and market players, clear and timely regulatory frameworks, including decisions on the digital dividend, and adequate information and assistance to viewers. The Guidelines for the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting is intended for a global audience to provide information and recommendations on policy, regulation, technologies, network planning, customer awareness and business planning for the smooth transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. This updated version of the Guidelines is a complete review of the previous editions and is applicable to all regions. Furthermore, annexes have been added with information on satellite TV, cable TV and IPTV. These delivery means could be supportive to DTTB services, for example in providing interactive services. ITU is assisting the Membership in the DTTB transition and has developed frequency plans for digital terrestrial broadcasting (GE 06 plans) for Region 1 and Iran, which should be implemented by 17 June 2015, with the exception of some developing countries for which the transition period will end on 17 June We are also in the process of assisting developing countries and least developed countries (LDCs) in the smooth transition from analogue to digital broadcasting through the development of several projects and I hope that this updated version of the Guidelines will help continue to support the work on defining country specific roadmaps for the transition that will benefit consumers, and both the public and private sectors. I would like to thank the experts who have developed these Guidelines for their expertise and experience, and for their continued support throughout the transition phase. I would also like to extend special thanks to the Korean Communications Commission (KCC), Republic of Korea and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) in Japan, for their contribution with financial and human resources to the development of these Guidelines. Brahima Sanou Director Telecommunication Development Bureau iii

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7 Executive summary Introduction to the Guidelines The broadcasting industry and the national regulators face both opportunities and challenges in dealing with the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting. The transition requires decisions to be made on a large number of political, social, economic and technological issues. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a well-defined roadmap covering national strategies and key decisions. The Guidelines on transition to digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) and introduction of mobile television (MTV) are intended to provide information and recommendations on policy, regulation, technologies, network planning, customer awareness and business planning for the smooth introduction of DTTB and MTV. Included in the Guidelines are: options for policy and technology choices; context and introduction to the policy and technology choices; relevancy and impact of choices; cost/benefit analysis; implementation guidelines; generic roadmaps and main activities; documentation references. The Guidelines have been developed on the basis of the World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC-06 and WDTC-10) instructions and with the support of ITU, the Korea Communications Commission (KCC), Republic of Korea and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) in Japan. The first edition of the Guidelines was published in 2010 and was the result of an ITU project on the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting in Africa as a part of ITU/BDT activities on the implementation of regional initiatives projects approved by WTDC-06. All African countries are situated in the planning area of the Geneva 2006 Agreement (GE06); therefore the provisions of the GE06 Agreement were an integral part of the Guidelines. However, most sections of the first edition of the Guidelines were applicable in all regions. The second edition of the Guidelines was published in 2012 and contained a number of additions particularly relevant to the Asia-Pacific region, following the initiatives approved by WTDC-10. In the Asia- Pacific region the need arose for Guidelines that not only deal with DTTB delivery but also programme production and more; in particular, digital archiving. For that reason an annex was added containing Guidelines for migration of broadcast archives from analogue to digital. The current edition of the Guidelines is a complete review of the previous editions and is applicable to all regions. This edition has been updated with the latest ITU-R Recommendations and reports, including Recommendations regarding the five DTTB systems that are in use worldwide, the decisions taken at WRC-12 and the experience gained in the applications of the Guidelines in the ITU/BDT analogue to digital roadmap projects. Furthermore annexes have been added with information on satellite TV, cable TV and IPTV. These delivery means are competing with DTTB in many countries, but could be also supportive to DTTB services e.g. in providing interactive services. v

8 Figure 1: Functional framework of the Guidelines Source: ITU Functional framework of the Guidelines The Guidelines follow a comprehensive functional framework indicating the decisions to be considered for the introduction of DTTB and MTV. It consists of five functional layers: A B C D E Policy and regulation Analogue switch-off (ASO) Market and business development Networks (DTTB and MTV) Roadmap development vi

9 In each layer a number of functional building blocks have been identified (see Figure 1). In general, layers A to E are either government led or market led. However in some countries different roles and tasks can be assumed by the different players. For each of the functional building blocks shown in Figure 1, guidelines on key topics and choices are provided. These guidelines are described in sections with corresponding numbers. Each section includes implementation guidelines assisting in making the right trade-offs, applicable to the local situation. Many of the key topics and choices identified for each of the functional building blocks are interrelated to other functional building blocks in the functional framework. In a number of cases a trade-off should be made between several key topics or choices. The final choice can often only be made after several iterations. Brief description of each part and annex The report has been structured in six parts and seven annexes. The relation between the parts and annexes of the Guidelines and the functional framework is shown in Table 1. Table 1: Structure of the report Part Subject Related layer of functional framework Part 1 Introduction Part 2 Policy and regulation Layer A and B Part 3 Market and business development Layer C Part 4 DTTB networks Layer D regarding DTTB Part 5 MTV networks Layer D regarding MTV Part 6 Roadmap development Layer E Annex A Implementation of the GE06 Agreement Layer D Annex B More detailed information on some regulatory topics Layer A and B Annex C More detailed information on some DTTB network topics Layer D regarding DTTB Annex D More detailed information on some MTV network topics Layer D regarding MTV Annex E Guidelines for migration of broadcast archives from analogue to digital - Annex F Television broadcasting via satellite Layer B and C Annex G Television broadcasting via cable TV networks and IPTV Layer B and C Part 1 (Introduction) provides general information on the functional framework of the Guidelines, guidance to readers, advantages of digital switch-over and references to the status of digital switch-over. Part 2 (Policy and regulation) provides an overview of the key issues and choices the regulator faces when formulating DTTB, MTV or ASO policy objectives. In striving for a rapid service up-take and development of the DTTB and MTV markets, the regulator will implement such policies by issuing information, funds, rights, licences and permits to (qualified) market parties in compliance with the relevant legislation. Because of the specific nature and the one-off character of the ASO, this process is dealt with in five separate and consecutive sections (relating to functional building blocks 2.14 to 2.18), which can be read independently from the other sections in Part 2. Part 3 (Market and business development) provides an overview of the key business issues and choices DTTB and MTV service providers/broadcast network operators face when planning the commercial launch of these services. Part 3 includes a set of business activities and tools for defining the DTTB/MTV service proposition and associated business case and plan, taking into account identified demand drivers, service barriers, financial feasibility and more specifically receiver availability and customer support issues. vii

10 This part is not only intended for commercial market parties seeking an acceptable return on their investments, such as DTTB/MTV service providers and broadcast network operators. The national regulators should also acquire an understanding of the key business issues and choices at hand as to define realistic DTTB/MTV policies and licence conditions. Commercial parties will seek a DTTB or MTV service proposition which fulfils a consumer demand, generating sufficient revenues (either advertising of subscription based). In contrast, public service broadcasters (PSB) normally meet the objectives of public interest in the field of information and culture. That is why they are interested in viewing ratings, high population coverage and mainly prefer unencrypted broadcasting. Market and business development works differently as they have to fulfil primarily these information and culture objectives. However, PSBs can also have advertising-based income and some of the topics addressed in this Part might also be relevant for PSBs. Parts 4 and 5 (DTTB networks and MTV networks respectively) cover functional building blocks 4.1 to 4.9 and 5.1 to 5.9 (see Figure 1) and contain guidelines on key issues and choices operators face when planning transmitter networks for broadcasting DTTB and MTV services. Choices in network architecture, frequency planning, network planning, roll out planning and network operation should be made in such a way that the licence conditions are fulfilled and that the business objectives are met. In doing so, optimum solutions should be found between, often conflicting, requirements regarding picture and sound quality, coverage quality and transmission costs. Many of the issues regarding technology choices, frequency planning and network planning may also be relevant to regulators, depending on the roles and responsibilities of regulator and network operator in a country. DTTB and MTV networks are described in separate parts because in general there are different key topics and choices involved regarding technology, regulation and business aspects. However, because of the similarity of the issues, guidelines regarding functional building blocks 5.3, 5.5 and 5.7 (see Figure 1) relating to MTV networks, are described in the corresponding sections in Part 4 (DTTB networks). Part 6 (Roadmap development) deals with the development a set of generic roadmaps regarding the whole process of transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV by the regulator and DTTB and MTV network operator and service provider. This part covers functional building blocks 6.1 to 6.3 (see Figure 1). In addition, information is given on the development of a national roadmap, illustrated with examples from national roadmaps that have been prepared with ITU assistance. A roadmap is a plan that matches short-term and long-term goals and indicates the main activities needed to meet these goals. Developing a roadmap has three major uses: 1 It helps to reach consensus about the requirements and solutions for transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. 2 It provides a mechanism to help forecast the key milestones for the transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. 3 It provides a framework to help plan and coordinate the steps needed for transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. The roadmap for regulator, DTTB and MTV operator consists of a number of phases. Figure 2 shows these phases and the order of the phases. The roadmap is constructed by placing the relevant functional building blocks in each phase in a logical order and in a time frame. In practice the selection of functional building blocks may differ from country to country, depending on the roles of the regulator, network operator and service provider, in particular regarding the responsibility for technology choices and network planning. It is important to adopt realistic time schedules, noting that in DTTB deployed countries the period between DTTB launch and completion of analogue TV switch-off ranges from 3 to 14 years. viii

11 There is no clear marker that will indicate the start of the process. The start could be triggered by the wish of broadcasters to introduce DTTB or MTV services, or by mobile operators wishing to use part of the Digital Dividend for mobile services. Sometimes governments initiate the process, taking into account that the GE06 Agreement stipulates that the transition period ends on 17 June 2015 and for a number of countries 1 on 17 June 2020 with regard to Band III. The process ends when all analogue television services are switched-off and all DTTB and MTV stations are in operation without any restrictions that were necessary to protect analogue television services. However, further evolution of DTTB and MTV networks is likely to take place resulting from the introduction of new services, regulatory obligations or technology changes. Figure 2: Phases of the roadmap of the regulator and DTTB and MTV network operator and service provider Actor Regulator ASO planning Phases of the roadmap DTTB/MTV policy development Licensing policy & regulation License administration DTTB network operator Preparation Planning Implementation Analogue switch-off MTV network operator Preparation Planning Implementation Source: ITU Annex A (Implementation of the GE06 Agreement) gives information and additional guidelines in relation to GE06 implementation. In countries situated in the GE06 planning area, the provisions of GE06 are of great importance in applying the Guidelines described in Parts 4 and 5. The entries in the digital TV plan annexed to the GE06 Agreement are the basis for the national DTTB frequency plan (as well as the MTV frequency plan) in countries situated in the GE06 planning area. However the digital plan is not necessarily compatible with the analogue TV plan annexed to the GE06 Agreement. Annex A indicates that during transition the operation of DTTB stations is possibly restricted or totally blocked because analogue TV services in the same country and in neighbouring countries need to be protected. The GE06 Agreement is very flexible in its implementation. In order to achieve this flexibility, a set of rather complex procedures for implementation (Article 5 of the GE06 Agreement) and modification of the plan (Article 4 of the GE06 Agreement) were agreed. Annex A also describes these procedures and the impact it may have on the station characteristics and coverage. 1 The countries with a prolonged transition period in Band III are listed in footnote 7 related to Article 12 of the Geneva 2006 Agreement. ix

12 Annex B (More detailed information on some regulatory topics) gives more detailed information regarding spectrum regulation and describes: 1. overview of spectrum management approaches; 2. economic aspects of assigning licences; 3. assignment procedure steps; 4. overview of different auction designs. Annex C (More detailed information on some DTTB Network topics) gives more detailed information regarding DTTB networks and describes: 1. considerations on satellite links used for DTTB signal distribution; 2. planning principles, criteria and tools; 3. practical considerations on timing of signals in SFN; 4. consideration on signal-to-noise ratio of transmitters. Annex D (More detailed information on some MTV Network topics) gives more detailed information regarding MTV networks and describes: 1. testing of transmission equipment; 2. measurement system for MTV and field measurement case examples. 3. MTV status in some countries Annex E (Guidelines for migration of broadcast archives from analogue to digital) is intended as a basis upon which users can develop a roadmap for the migration of their archives from analogue to digital. Much of the material contained in these archives may be of significant historical and cultural significance to the countries in which it was created. ITU and other UN agencies have long recognized the importance of preservation of this material, and the World Telecommunications Development Conference (WTDC-10) identified assistance to broadcasters in the migration of archives from analogue to digital as a broadcasting development priority. These guidelines focus on the broader strategic and operational questions of archives migration, including the benefits that can flow from migration in addition to the basic proposition of preservation of historical programme content. These guidelines do not attempt to provide the technical solutions to archives migration because those solutions will depend very much on local needs, resources, and available funds. Annex F (Television broadcasting via satellite) focuses on the broader strategic and operational questions of satellite TV and is intended to obtain insight in the prospects of an alternative means of television delivery. Satellite broadcasting may have an impact on DTTB and ASO (analogue switch-off) regulation and on market and business development regarding the DSO (digital switch-over) process. Annex G (Television broadcasting via cable TV networks and IPTV) provides information on IPTV, cable TV and broadcasting via telecommunication networks to give insight in the prospects of alternative means of television delivery. These alternative delivery means may have an impact on DTTB and ASO (analogue switch-off) regulation and on market and business development regarding the DSO (digital switch-over) process. x

13 Conclusions The transition to DTTB and the introduction of MTV services is a complex process, involving decisions on key topics and choices of 41 functional building blocks. In a practical situation, a number of decisions may have already been taken. Perhaps some decisions may need to be reviewed when applying the Guidelines. When implementing the Guidelines it should be taken into account that: Transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV will benefit regulators, service providers, network operators and consumer electronics manufacturers. However, ultimately the market will determine the success of the services that are offered. DTTB and MTV networks may need to be modified in the future because of changing viewer needs, new technologies and services. Regulatory frameworks, service offerings and network configurations are likely to be different from country to country, taking into account national (political) priorities, market circumstances, geography, and population distribution. Independent of national variations, experience has shown that it is essential to meet a number of conditions to achieve a successful transition to DTTB and the introduction of MTV services, including: strong leadership from government; firm decision that sets the analogue TV switch-off date; close cooperation between the regulator and market parties; clear and timely regulatory framework (including decisions on the digital dividend ); adequate information and assistance to viewers. xi

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15 Table of contents Part 1 Introduction Functional framework Guidance to readers Advantage of digital broadcasting transition Status of digital switch-over Part 2 Policy and regulation Technology and standards regulations Technology and standards policy trade-offs Technology and standards choices for DTTB and MTV Implementation guidelines Licensing framework General licensing framework for television services Licensing framework for DTTB and MTV Licensing public broadcasters for DTTB and MTV Implementation guidelines ITU-R regulations The international context of the ITU-R regulations Applicability and implications of the GE06 plan and ITU-RR Implementation guidelines National spectrum plan The context of the national spectrum plan Planning current and future DTTB and MTV spectrum use National spectrum plan publication and DTTB/MTV introduction General approaches for pricing spectrum usage Implementation guidelines Assignment procedures Basic assigned instruments and procedures Assignment procedures for DTTB and MTV services Implementation guidelines License terms and conditions Licensing and fair competition rules Frequency licence terms and conditions Implementation guidelines Local permits (building and planning) Economics of rolling out transmitter sites Instruments to facilitate transmitter site erection Implementation guidelines Page xiii

16 2.8 Media permits and authorizations Broadcast licensing framework Broadcast licensing requirements Implementation guidelines Business models and public financing General PSB financing models and sourcing DTTB specific financing issues Implementation guidelines Digital dividend Definition of the digital dividend and its application Determining the size of the digital dividend Digital dividend options Implementation guidelines National telecom, broadcast and media act Check compliancy with telecommunication, broadcast and media acts Checking compliancy with other legislation Implementation guidelines Law enforcement and execution Centralized and segmented models Impact of convergence Implementation guidelines Communication to end-consumers and industry Scope of government led communications DTTB/MTV communication moments and topics Implementation guidelines Transition models ASO objectives and hurdles ASO factors ASO transition models Implementation guidelines Organizational structures and entities Key success factors for ASO Organizational ASO structures and entities ASO costs and support Implementation guidelines ASO planning and milestones Outlining the ASO planning Overall ASO planning set-up ASO planning phases Implementation guidelines Page xiv

17 2.17 Infrastructure and spectrum compatibility Scoping incompatibility Implementation guidelines ASO communication plan Communication strategy and messages Communication tools Implementation guidelines Part 3 Market and business development Customer insight and research Overview of the DTTB and MTV markets Market research methods Implementation guidelines Customer proposition DTTB competitive advantage and related service proposition attributes MTV competitive advantage and related service proposition attributes Implementation guidelines Receiver availability considerations DTTB functional receiver requirements and availability MTV function receiver requirements and availability Implementation guidelines Business planning Business models for DTTB services Business models for MTV services Example business cases Implementation guidelines End-consumer support Customer call centre operations Retail shops and other channels Tools to check service availability Smart card and service activation Implementation guidelines Part 4 DTTB networks Technology and standards Technical tests to evaluate system performance SDTV and HDTV specifications Selection of DTTB transmission standard Compression system Encryption system Additional applications and features Design principles and network architecture Trade-off between network roll-out speed, network costs and network quality. 184 Page xv

18 Page Main reception mode and defining receiving installations Services for national, regional, or local coverage Frequency plan and network topology Head- end configuration System redundancy requirements Type of distribution network Network planning Service trade-off SFN or MFN Fill-in transmitters Feed back to business plan and service proposition System parameters Fast Fourier transform size Carrier modulation and code rate Guard interval Choices per DTTB system Radiation characteristics Transmitter power and antenna gain Polarisation Use of existing antennas or new antennas Network interfacing Interfaces with head-end Interfaces in the network Radio interface between transmitting station and receiving installations Interfaces between transmitter sites and network monitoring system Shared and common design principles Application of shared and common design principles Site and antenna sharing Transmission equipment availability Market research Technical specifications Network roll-out planning Technical tests Implementation plan Information to end consumers Part 5 MTV networks Technology and standards application Comparison of MTV Standards Selection of MTV standard Formation of services and channels Case studies of MTV services xvi

19 Page Encryption system Additional services Design principles and network architecture Trade-off between factors Network architecture: Head-end Network architecture: transmission Network planning System parameters FFT size Carrier modulation and code rate Guard interval Radiation characteristics Network interfacing and studio facilities of additional services Connection between studio and head end system Production facility for data services or additional services Shared and common design principles Transmission equipment availability Transmission equipment specification Market research of transmission equipment Testing of transmission equipment Network rollout and planning Setting up a pilot system Field test and analysis Audience research and analysis Developing the master plan Additional Information on MTV Part 6 Roadmap development Roadmap for the regulator Construction of a roadmap Generic roadmap for transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV by a regulator Implementation guidelines Roadmap for transition to DTTB by a network operator Construction of a roadmap Generic roadmap for transition to DTTB by a network operator Implementation guideline Roadmap for introduction MTV by a network operator Construction of a roadmap Generic roadmap for introduction of MTV by a network operator Implementation guidelines xvii

20 6.4 National roadmap development Analysis of national TV market Formulation of DSO objectives Construction of the national roadmap Implementation guidelines Bibliography Useful websites Annex A GE06 implementation A.1 GE06 plans A.2 GE06 compliance of stations in the national frequency plan A.2.1 Implementation conditions A.2.2 Use of different characteristics of a digital plan entry A.2.3 Application of other transmission systems A.2.4 Modifications of the GE06 plans Annex B More information on some regulatory topics Overview of spectrum management approaches (section 2.4) Economic effects of assigning licences Assignment procedure steps Overview of different auction designs Annex C More detailed information on some DTTB network topics C.1 Considerations on satellite links used for DTTB signal distribution C.2 Planning principles, criteria and tools C.3 Practical considerations on timing of signals in SFN C.4 Consideration on signal-to-noise ratio of transmitters Annex D More information on some MTV network topics D.1 Testing of transmission equipment in details D.2 Measurement system for MTV and field measurement case examples D.3 MTV in Chile: Status of OneSeg services D.4 How ATSC mobile TV works D.5 Overview of NOTTV mobile TV service in Japan D.6 Examples of system parameters data for DVB-H Annex E Guidelines for migration of broadcast archives from analogue to digital E.1 Introduction E.2 The concept of digital work flow and archives E.3 What material is a candidate for conversion Page xviii

21 E.4 Archives and content strategies E.4.1 Access and repurposing content E.4.2 Content metadata E.5 Storage and preservation of content E.5.1 Need for and benefits of migration E.5.2 Machine availability E.5.3 Digital archives options E.5.4 Analogue-Digital E.5.5 Digital-Digital E.5.6 Preservation of quality, a critical decision E.6 Establishing priorities for migration E.6.1 Estimating workload E.6.2 Managing new content E.7 The migration roadmap E.7.1 Compile an inventory of content assets E.7.2 Assess risk and classify items E.7.3 Estimate conversion workload for each group E.7.4 Estimation of work hours E.7.5 Ingest of new material E.7.6 Definition of desired production and archives workflow E.7.7 Metadata definition E.7.8 Physical storage Attachment 1 to Annex E Example of a digital television archiving project Attachment 2 to Annex E Archiving showcase project Attachment 3 to Annex E Archiving in Vietnam Attachment 4 to Annex E UNESCO facilitates archiving activity Annex F Television broadcasting via satellite F.1 Introduction F.2 ITU Radio Regulations, Procedures F.3 Satellite network design principles and roll-out planning F.3.1 System parameters F.3.2 Network architecture and planning F.3.3 Satellite interference F.3.4 Feed for terrestrial television stations via satellites F.4 Facilities in broadcasting stations F.5 Satellite TV policies and framework F.6 Consumer Side, Receivers, Technical Issues F.7 Equipment Availability F.8 Cease of analogue television broadcasting via satellite F.9 Future issues F.10 Conclusions Page xix

22 Annex G Television delivery via cable TV networks and IPTV G.1 Introduction G.2 IPTV domains G.3 Cable TV G.3.1 Hybrid fibre coaxial systems G.3.2 Other cable-based services G.4 IPTV and cable TV services G.4.1 Broadcast services G.4.2 On-demand services G4.3 Public services G.5 Quality of Experience (QoE) and Quality of Service (QoS) G.5.1 Introduction to QoE and QoS G.5.2 QoE for video and audio G.5.3 Network QoS parameters affecting QoE Page xx

23 Part 1 Introduction This report contains guidelines on migration from analogue television to digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) and introduction of mobile television broadcasting (MTV). The guidelines identify the policy, economic and technology choices to be made and their potential impact on the transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. Included in the guidelines are the elements related to the choices and information regarding the cost benefit analysis of policy decisions and best practices. The importance of these topics is stressed by the World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC-10). In the Final Acts of WDTC-10 it is stated: Given the increasing demand for limited radiofrequency resources, efficient spectrum management and the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting are critical issues for policy makers, regulators, broadcasters and other stakeholders. 2 Countries will continue to implement the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting with different time-scales according to their national priorities as well as, where applicable, the deadlines set by the ITU Regional Radiocommunication Conference (RRC-06) and its associated plan and agreement. During the period of this strategic plan, there will be a continuing need, as a high priority, to assist administrators, regulators, broadcasters and other stakeholders in developing countries in researching and supporting the introduction of digital broadcasting. Continued assistance to developing countries on spectrum management will also be a necessity. 3 The first edition of the Guidelines was published in 2010 and was the result of an ITU project on the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting in Africa as a part of ITU/BDT activities on the implementation of regional initiatives projects approved by WTDC-06. All African countries are situated in the planning area of the Geneva 2006 Agreement (GE06); therefore the provisions of the GE06 Agreement were an integral part of the Guidelines. However, most sections of the first edition of the Guidelines were applicable in all regions. The second edition of the Guidelines was published in 2012 and contained a number of additions particularly relevant to the Asia-Pacific region, following the initiatives approved by WTDC-10. In the Asia- Pacific region the need arose for Guidelines that not only deal with DTTB delivery but also programme production and more in particular digital archiving. For that reason an Annex was added containing Guidelines for migration of broadcast archives from analogue to digital. The current edition of the Guidelines is a complete review of the previous editions and is applicable to all regions. This edition has been updated with the latest ITU-R Recommendations and reports, including the Recommendations regarding the five DTTB systems that are in use worldwide, the decisions taken at WRC-12 and the experience gained in the applications of the Guidelines in the ITU/BDT roadmap projects. Furthermore Annexes have been added with information on satellite TV, cable TV and IPTV. These delivery means are competing with DTTB in many countries, but could also be supportive to DTTB services e.g. in providing interactive services. 1.1 Functional framework The guidelines on migration from analogue television to DTTB and introduction of MTV were developed on the basis of a functional framework indicating the functional building blocks to be considered for the transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. 2 3 WTDC Final Acts Annex B, Hyderabad Declaration, declares 12. WTDC Draft Final Annex A, ITU-D contributions to the ITU strategic plan, Section

24 Figure provides an overview of the functional framework. Figure 1.1.1: Functional framework of guidelines for the transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV Source: ITU 2

25 This functional framework consists of five layers: A. Policy and regulation B. Analogue switch-off (ASO) C. Market and business development D. Networks (DTTB and MTV) E. Roadmap development In each layer a number of functional building blocks have been identified (see Figure 1.1.1). For each of the functional building blocks guidelines on key topics and choices are given in Part 2 to 6. In general, layers A to E are either government led or market led. However, in some countries government departments or agencies have a broader role than in others. The functions in each layer are described for the situation that exists in most countries that have introduced digital television services. If government departments or agencies have responsibilities for one or more of the functions in layer C or D, the relevant guidelines in these layers should be followed. Government departments or agencies not having direct responsibility for functions described in layer C or D should nevertheless be aware of the complexity of these functions and the impact government decisions may have on it. Layer E (Roadmap development) relates to government as well as market led functions. The objectives of each of the five layers of the functional framework are described in the following: Layer A: Policy and regulation Layer A deals with the key issues and choices the regulator faces when either formulating DTTB, MTV or ASO policy objectives. In striving for a rapid service up-take and development of the DTTB and MTV markets, the regulator will implement such policies by issuing information, funds, rights, licences and permits to (qualified) market parties in compliance with the relevant legislation. Layer B: Analogue switch-off (ASO) Analogue switch-off (ASO) is the process of turning off the analogue terrestrial television signal and replacing it with a digital signal. It will basically require changing existing television broadcast networks and changing end-consumer television receiver equipment (either connecting a digital converter to the existing television set/recorder or replacing the existing television set for an integrated digital television set and/or digital recorder). The ASO is a government initiated policy, aiming at gaining spectrum efficiency which will bring consumer benefits (more choice in television channels and services) and industry benefits (new revenue streams and business models). The key objective in the ASO process is reducing the risks of disenfranchising viewers. Layer C: Market and business development Layer C deals with key business issues and choices that service providers and broadcast network operators face when planning the commercial launch of DTTB and MTV services. It includes a set of business activities and tools for defining the DTTB/MTV service proposition and associated business case and plan, taking into account identified demand drivers, service barriers, financial feasibility and more specifically receiver availability and customer support issues. This layer is not only intended for commercial market parties seeking an acceptable return on their investments, such as DTTB or MTV service providers and broadcast network operators. The regulators should also acquire an understanding of the key business issues and choices at hand to enable them to define realistic DTTB/MTV policies and licence conditions. 3

26 Commercial parties will seek a DTTB or MTV service proposition which fulfils a consumer demand that generates sufficient revenues (either advertising of subscription based). In contrast, public service broadcasters (PSB) normally meet the objectives of public interest in the field of information and culture. That is why they are interested in viewing ratings, high population coverage and mainly prefer unencrypted broadcasting. Market and business development works differently as it has to fulfil primarily information and culture objectives. However, PSBs can also have advertisement-based income so some of the topics addressed in this section might also be relevant for PSBs. Layer D: Networks Layer D deals with key issues and choices operators face when planning transmitter networks for broadcasting DTTB and MTV services. Choices in network architecture, frequency planning, network planning, roll out planning and network operation should be made in such a way that the licence conditions are fulfilled and that the business objectives are met. Optimum solutions should be found between, often conflicting, requirements regarding picture and sound quality, coverage quality and transmission costs. Many of the issues regarding technology choices, frequency planning and network planning may also be relevant to regulators, depending on the roles and responsibilities of the regulator and network operator in a country. A DTTB network consists basically of one or more head-ends, a distribution network and transmitter sites. The coverage area of a DTTB network is often achieved by one or more high or medium power transmitters and a number of additional low power transmitters. The transmitters may operate in single frequency networks (SFN) or multi frequency networks (MFN) or combinations of SFN and MFN. Normally high and medium power transmitters are fed by satellite, radio relay link or optical fibre. The additional low power transmitters could also be fed by satellite, radio relay link or optical fibre or by off-air reception from a high or medium power transmitter. In practice low power stations are referred to by a variety of terms often related to the way the station is fed or the frequency relation to a high or medium power station (see the Table 1.1). These terms may have different meanings from country to country. In these Guidelines the term fill-in transmitter (or in short fill-in ) is used as the general term for a low power station used to supplement the coverage achieved by a high or medium power station, except in cases where one of terms shown in Table 1.1 appears in a quote, table or figure taken from another publication. Table 1.1: Often used terms for lower transmitters Input signal Transmission frequency Often used terms Baseband signal (either fed by fixed link or satellite, or by off-air reception and Different receive and transmit frequency Fill-in transmitter Re-transmitter demodulation) RF signal (off-air reception) Different receive and transmit frequency Fill-in transmitter Transposer Translator Transponder Repeater RF signal (off-air reception) Same receive and transmit frequency Fill-in transmitter Active reflector On-channel repeater Gap-filler 4

27 Layer E: Roadmap development Layer E deals with the development a set of generic roadmaps regarding the whole process of transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. In addition, information is given on the development of a national roadmap, illustrated with examples from national roadmaps that have been prepared with ITU assistance. A roadmap is a plan that matches short-term and long-term goals and indicates the main activities needed to meet these goals. Developing a roadmap has three major uses: 1. It helps to reach consensus about the requirements and solutions for transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. 2. It provides a mechanism to help forecast the key miles stones for the transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. 3. It provides a framework to help plan and coordinate the steps needed for transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV. In the description of the guidelines, a common set of definitions is used with regards to different involved players. Figure shows the players and related key activities of the government led layers. Figure 1.1.1: Players in the government led layers Source: ITU Figure shows the value chain of the market players and their related key activities. 5

28 Figure 1.1.3: Players in the market led layers Source: ITU It is important to note that in practice one organization may encompass more than one role. For example a broadcaster could carry out all activities of a content creator, content aggregator, multiplex operator, service provider and content distributor. Alternatively, a network operator could have for instance the role of multiplex operator, service provider and content distributor. 1.2 Guidance to readers Structure of the Guidelines The ITU Guidelines for the transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV are based on a functional framework consisting of five functional layers and for each layer a number of functional building blocks have been identified (Figure 1.1.1). For each block, guidelines are described in Part 2 to Part 6. Sections in Part 2 to Part 6 and the related functional blocks have corresponding numbers. The Guidelines consists of six parts, seven annexes, a glossary of abbreviations used in the Guidelines and a bibliography. The relation between the parts and annexes of the Guidelines and the functional framework is shown in Table

29 Part Table 1.2: Structure of the report Subject Part 1 Introduction Part 2 Policy and regulation Layer A and B Part 3 Market and business development Layer C Related layer of functional framework Part 4 DTTB networks Layer D regarding DTTB Part 5 MTV networks Layer D regarding MTV Part 6 Roadmap development Layer E Annex A Implementation of the GE06 Agreement Layer D Annex B More detailed information on some regulatory topics Layer A and B Annex C More detailed information on some DTTB network topics Layer D regarding DTTB Annex D More detailed information on some MTV network topics Layer D regarding MTV Annex E Guidelines for migration of broadcast archives from analogue to digital Annex F Television broadcasting via satellite Layer B and C Annex G Television broadcasting via cable TV networks and IPTV Layer B and C The sections in Part 2 to Part 6 are structured as follows: an introduction of the functional block; sections addressing: key topics and choices identified for the functional block; implementation guidelines. In Part 2, 3 and 6 the implementation guidelines have been placed at the end of each section. Part 4 and 5 contain a multitude of choices, therefore the implementation guidelines have been placed at the end of each subsection. In the sections many examples are given and the provided footnotes give references to sections or paragraph of documents for additional or more detailed information. These documents are also listed in the Bibliography of this report. Each section identifies the policy, economic, and technology choices to be made and their potential impact on the transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV., and also include practical guidance on the choices to be made. These Guidelines are of a general nature and cannot be applied without considering local circumstances and the status of DTTB or MTV implementation in each individual country. Nevertheless, in a number of cases a generic choice is given that suits best in most practical circumstances, or alternatively, the best model is provided for some practical circumstances. Use of the Guidelines The development of a national roadmap for transition to digital terrestrial television starts with an analysis of the current TV market structure, analogue TV networks and regulatory framework. The aim or end milestones of the roadmap are identified by formulating the digital switch-over (DSO) objectives. The next step in developing the national roadmap is the selection of the functional building blocks, taking into account the local situation, the responsibility of the players involved and the status of DTTB and MTV implementation, followed by the construction of the roadmap. Sections 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3 provide generic roadmaps for transition to DTTB and introduction of MTV by a regulator and an operator. Sections 6.4 describes the development of a national roadmap and gives references to the national roadmaps that were developed with ITU assistance in a number of countries in Africa and the Asia and Pacific region. 7

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