Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services

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1 Republic of Zambia Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services Digital Migration National Task Force Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) Guide and Notes

2 Introduction HAVE YOU HEARD OF DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION (DTT) Television broadcasts have been transmitted in analogue format since the 1940 s. Analogue terrestrial television uses one frequency to carry one television programme channel. This means if a broadcast area (Lusaka) has an allocation of only 4 frequency channels, then only a maximum of 4 programme channels will be transmitted. Furthermore, each broadcaster will have their own transmitter to carry their content; this means that the broadcast area will have 4 transmitters at different sites in the broadcast area. An inefficient way of use of spectrum. Due to advancement in technology including that of television broadcasting and the scarcity of frequencies (spectrum) and the competing requirements with other ICT applications, the International Telecommunications Agency a UN agency set the 17th June 2015 for countries to migrate from analogue to digital terrestrial television (DTT). This will enable the efficient use of spectrum and freeing up of some frequencies for other ICT applications (Digital Dividend). Whereas analogue terrestrial television uses one frequency to carry one programme channel, digital terrestrial television (DTT) uses one frequency to carry multiple programme channels, thereby allowing for transmission of many television programmes using fewer frequencies and at a lower cost. This means in each location in Zambia, one digital transmitter is capable of carrying all existing analogue channels (ZNBC, ZNBC TV2, MUVI, MOBI, TBN, CBC and others) channels simultaneously. Therefore, there is no need for all broadcasters to have to put up their own transmitters, multiplexers and network. 1

3 What is Digital Terrestrial Television WHAT IS DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION SWITCH OVER? This is the process when digital terrestrial television will be introduced to replace the current analogue terrestrial television. A date of 31st December 2013 has been set for when all Southern Africa Development Community member states would have switched over to DTT. As a country Zambia has set 31st December 2014 as a date by which all analogue terrestrial television should have been switched off. This is Analogue switch off commonly known as ASO. This will entail that both analogue and terrestrial television will be simultaneously transmitted for the period during digital switch over and analogue switch off (ASO). This is termed simulcast. After 17th June 2015, analogue television transmission will not be protected from harmful interference caused by digital television transmissions. Analogue television transmissions will not be allowed to interfere with digital television transmissions. Zambia being a landlocked country with 8 neighbors has to migrate to digital terrestrial television as failure to do so will affect the country, particularly, in border areas. 2

4 The Benefits of Digital Terrestrial Television WHY GO DIGITAL? More content in terms of television programmes is provided A brighter, sharper picture and much better sound quality More efficient use of network capacity Wider choice in television and radio channels Enhanced information services including Electronic Programme Guide (EPG) and interactive services like Video On Demand, e services, home shopping Uniform coverage for all broadcasters both in quality and area from each transmitter Entry into television broadcasting beneficial since capital expenditure is reduced due to removal of acquisition of transmitters and other network requirements Pay television services DTT can easily facilitate a full bouquet of services and incorporate a paying/billing system(conditional access and subscriber management) Bridging the digital divide( gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology and those with limited access or none at all. May present opportunities for local manufacture and assembly of receiving devices, such as, Set Top Boxes (STBs), Integrated Digital Television set (IDTV). 3

5 When are we going Digital WHEN ARE WE GOING DIGITAL The migration to digital television is a huge programme to implement, but Zambia is well on its way. Technology has been tested, set top boxes and broadcast signals have been tested. Zambia aims to roll out to the public during the second half of 2013, but the following should be available too Broadcasters having upgraded their channel production services and have channels ready to broadcast STBs and other receiving devices are available including IDTVs It is the intention of the country to get it right first time, Zambia will be switching over to full digital terrestrial television broadcasting making sure everything is working properly as we go. Digital Migration in Zambia DIGITAL MIGRATION IN ZAMBIA Zambia is in the process of implementing and undertaking a mass roll out of second generation Digital Video Broadcasting terrestrial (DVB-T2) technology standard with Moving Picture Expert Group 4 (MPEG 4) compression. This is an enhancement of Digital Video Broadcasting terrestrial (DVB-T) that was decided as a standard for DTT in the ITU region 1. This was at the Regional Radio Conference of 2006 (RRC-06) held in Geneva. This resulted in a 4

6 broadcast digital plan which was consolidated in Geneva 2006 agreement (GE-06). The Geneva 2006 agreement defines DVB-T as a standard for DTT in region 1, and on the basis of which all national frequency plans are coordinated with neighbouring countries and filed with ITU. Zambia belongs to region 1 of the ITU frequency family together with other African and European countries. DVB-T2 has enhanced features and an evolvement from DVB-T. The SADC region on 24th November 2010 at a meeting held at Intercontinental Hotel, Lusaka resolved to implement DVB-T2 as a regional standard. What will it cost 5 WHAT WILL IT COST? TV viewers will incur a once-off cost to buy a Set Top Box. The free-to-air channels such as ZNBC and all terrestrial free to air channels will continue to be available for free - no subscription fee will be charged. You may still be required to pay your TV levy. The final price of the STB is still to be determined and will depend on the functionalities as some STBs have added features such as recording capabilities. Consumers will be informed in due course once STBs are available to market and the purchase price has been determined. CAN'T AFFORD IT? Government is also developing a Scheme to allow ownership to support poor families that are unable to afford STBs. Once the details of the scheme has been finalised and the scheme is ready to be rolled out, consumers will be informed on criteria for qualification and the application process. It is also envisaged that tax waivers and subsidies will be granted by Government to mitigate the cost of transition both to broadcasters as well as consumers in terms of broadcasting equipment and receivers respectively.

7 ? What is DTT? DTT stands for digital terrestrial television (or digital terrestrial transmission). It refers to the terrestrial broadcasting of television in a digital format. Currently, terrestrial television in Zambia is broadcast in an analogue format. The country is in the process of implementing migration from analogue to digital broadcasting. What is the difference between analogue TV and digital TV? Terrestrial television uses a network of transmission towers to relay the signal across network of coverage that provides television signals across the country. The broadcast signal is sent to the various towers and if you are within the area covered by a tower, you will be able to receive the broadcast services via a terrestrial aerial which is usually place on your roof or on your television set. In analogue, the signal is transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves. This is not can be compressed this will therefore allow for more channels to be broadcast. A minimum of twenty new video SD channels can be provided in the same frequency as one analogue channel. Satellite television broadcasts, on the other hand, uses satellites in the sky to relay the signal to earth via a satellite dish and is referred to as Direct to Home (DTH). Why are we migrating from analogue to digital? The main reason for the world s migration to digital is to release valuable spectrum which can be used for other services. Spectrum is scarce; ther of the spectrum is necessary if more terrestrial telecommunications and broadcasting services are to be made available. Zambia also coordinates its frequency plans with other countries to ensure that there is no interference between various countries broadcasting signals. Currently, analogue broadcasting is protected from interference, but this protection will stop by It is therefore necessary to complete the migration from analogue to digital by Has this migration been done elsewhere in the world? Yes. Worldwide all countries will have to do the migration to ensure ongoing coordination and protection from interference. Examples of countries that 6 6

8 are advanced in their migration process include the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Sweden, the United States, France and Mauritius. Will I need a satellite dish to receive DTT? No, you will not need a satellite dish to receive DTT. The satellite signal is not the same as the terrestrial signal, which is received using a terrestrial TV aerial. Will I need a new aerial to receive DTT? It is unlikely the most current viewers of ZNBC and other private free to air terrestrial TV services will require a new aerial to receive DTT. However, some viewers may require new aerials, or may need to upgrade existing aerials. In some instances aerials may have to be adjusted. At this stage it is unclear who will be affected by such adjustments, but the majority of viewers will not require any changes to their aerial installations. Will I need any other additional equipment to receive DTT? You will need to have a DTT Set Top Box. This Set Top Box is not the same as the Multichoice satellite box or the current GOTV decoder. However, there are on the market in Europe Integrated Television sets (IDTV) that have digital tuners that are compatible to directly receive the digital signal with in- built digital tuners. What is a Set Top Box (STB)? The Set Top Box is a receiver that will decode the digital signal to enable the channels to be displayed on your analogue television set. This Set Top Box will plug directly into your TV set. Why do I need a Set Top Box? You need a device that decodes the digital signal received via a standard aerial antenna and supplies the TV set with a video signal. Without the Set Top Box you will be unable to view the digital television services on your television set if it is not an integrated digital TV set. There are also other gadgets that are being developed to substitute Set Top Boxes that are plugged into the analogue TV sets. What will the Set Top Box cost? Currently the cost has not been determined for the DVB-T2 Set Top Box, however measures are being made to make these inexpensive. This will be a once-off cost for purchasing the STB. Do you need a Set Top Box to receive the DTT services if you have DSTV? DSTV is a satellite service. The satellite signal is different from the DTT signal and the two systems are not compatible. DSTV subscribers will continue to receive the existing and some future channels. However, if you wish to receive all the DTT freeto-air services you will have to purchase a DTT Set Top Box or Integrated television set. 7 7

9 How is the Set Top Box installed? The Set Top Box is a plug and play device. It is installed by connecting the cable from the TV aerial to the Set Top Box (normally RF IN at the back) and then follow the Set Top Box installation menu using the supplied manual. You could also get assistance for installation by a professional installer. Yes, if you want each individual TV set to view a different channel. Other models of Set Top Boxes with functionality that allows you to connect more than one TV to a single Set Top Box may be developed and made available at a later stage. This STB will however be more expensive. Will I need to buy a new television set to receive DTT? No, you do not need to buy a new TV. All current analogue television sets will be able TV to receive DTT. A TV that is digital ready or HD ready does not mean that it can receive the digital TV broadcasting without a STB. Only TVs that have an integrated DVB-T2 tuner will be able to receive the digital signal. You should also be cautious of buying old analogue technology products just because it is cheap. Analogue technology is being phased out around the world. How do I establish if my TV will be compatible to the Set Top Box? All television sets will be compatible to the STB either via the RF/Aerial input in older television sets, or via the RCA/audio and video inputs in modern television sets When will the Set Top Box and the new DTT services be available to me? It is anticipated that the service will be available to the public in However, there are a number of issues that still need to be resolved before the service is available to the public. This includes the procurement and installation of a countrywide DTT network. It is also important to note that the digital network will be rolled out over a period of three years. Therefore, you will need to check when the digital signal will be available ct areas of coverage and when these will be covered closer to the time of the public launch of the service. 8 8

10 What if I cannot afford the Set Top Box? Does this mean that I will not be able to watch television after 2013? The Task Force on Digital Migration and Government are working on plans to establish a mechanism to support ownership of STBs to assist poor households that cannot afford a Set Top Box. More information will be available in due course about how to access the subsidy and how government will monitor and control the process. Will this migration only affect the ZNBC? No. The migration will affect all terrestrial free-to-air channels in the country. What are the benefits of digital TV? Digital TV will give you access to more free-to-air channels, in addition to the current channels offered by ZNBC and the other terrestrial free to air channels. Broadcasters intend to make a range of new services available on the additional channels, including interactive services such as games, weather and information services. Other benefits include better picture and sound quality, access to an Electronic Programming Guide (EPG) in the television screen, enabling you to view your TV guide on the TV screen Why is the DTT launch to the public taking so long? The digital migration process is extremely complex and requires the cooperation and agreement of several stakeholders in the industry. Significant progress on many key issues has been made, but there are still areas that need to be completed before a full DTT launch can take place. This includes the finalisation of DTT policy and regulations and the issuing of licences to terrestrial broadcasters by the authorities, the finalisation of a frequency plan, the roll-out of the DTT technology, the technical specifications for STBs, and the development of channel content by broadcasters. This is expected to be completed during What is the Digital Migration National Task Force? The Digital Migration National Task Force is an advisory body that was established to manage the digital migration process on behalf of Government. The Digital Migration National Task Force is made up of a wide range of representatives from government, broadcasters, Mobile service providers which were appointed by the Minister of Information and Broadcasting Services. Who are the various role players and what are their roles? Digital Migration National Task Force a body established to oversee the migration process for the country. Broadcasters terrestrial broadcasters need to migrate their services onto digital. The main affected broadcasters are and ZNBC, MUVI, MOBI, TBN, North West TV and CBC. They will be responsible for establishing new services, migrating existing services to digital. 9 9

11 Broadcasters are the most affected parties in the process (apart from consumers/ the public), as they will have to manage analogue and digital services during the dual illumination transition period i.e. a period of approximately two years during which both the analogue and digital signals will run parallel, whilst migration is being completed. Signal Distributors responsible for rolling out the digital network infrastructure on behalf of broadcasters. The main signal distributor will be established. Other signal distributors, may be licenced dependent on market forces using an an open and transparent method. Government responsible for developing the policy for broadcasting digital migration. They are also responsible for ensuring that funding is available for the implementation and the scheme for ownership support for poor households, The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services and Ministry of Transport, Works Supply and Communications is are driving this this process on on behalf of of government, and and will will work with with other government departments such as National Treasury. ZICTA the regulator responsible for regulating the telecommunications and broadcasting sectors. ZICTA will be responsible for the frequency planning and allocations, and may issue licences for digital services. New digital services cannot be launched without a licence or authorisation from ZICTA. Manufacturers responsible for the manufacturing of STBs and to ensure that the boxes are compliant with the standards set and do actually work. Retailers making the STBs and integrated television sets available for purchase by the public and to provide accurate information to consumers so that they can make the right choices when purchasing STBs. Other organisations are also included here such as provincial and district offices. Consumers responsible for ensuring that they have the information they need to make informed choices and to ensure that they get the necessary STBs timely before the analogue signal is switched off

12 Republic of Zambia Digital Migration National Task Force Digital Migration National Task Force Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) Guide and Notes

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