Chapter 10 Social Psychology

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1 Psychology Third Edition Chapter 10 Social Psychology

2 Learning Objectives (1 of 3) 10.1 Explain the factors influencing people or groups to conform to the actions of others Define compliance and compare four common ways to gain the compliance of others Explain the factors making obedience more likely Distinguish among the three components of an attitude and describe the processes behind attitude formation and change Explain how people react when attitudes and behavior are not the same Explain the process of social categorization, including impression formation and implicit personality theories.

3 Learning Objectives (2 of 3) 10.7 Define attribution and describe the processes involved in attribution Define and distinguish between prejudice and discrimination and explain how people become prejudiced Summarize some methods for reducing prejudice Explain and discuss the influence of social factors on stress reactions and coping with stress Describe and compare the factors governing attraction and love Describe and explain the different kinds of love according to the triangular theory of love.

4 Learning Objectives (3 of 3) Define aggression and explain the influences of biology and learning on aggressive behavior Define altruism, and explain the bystander effect Define and describe the field of social neuroscience.

5 Social Psychology and Conformity (1 of 3) Learning Objective 10.1: Factors Affecting Conformity Social psychology looks at behavior and mental processes but also includes the social world in which we exist, as we are surrounded by others to whom we are connected and by whom we are influenced in many ways.

6 Social Psychology and Conformity (2 of 3) Learning Objective 10.1: Factors Affecting Conformity Social influence: the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual

7 Social Psychology and Conformity (3 of 3) Learning Objective 10.1: Factors Affecting Conformity Conformity: changing one s own behavior to match that of other people

8 Figure 10.1: Stimuli Used in Asch's Study

9 Groupthink and Compliance Learning Objective 10.1: Factors Affecting Conformity Groupthink occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned.

10 Table 10.1: Characteristics of Groupthink CHARACTERISTIC Invulnerability Rationalization Lack of introspection Stereotyping Pressure Lack of disagreement Self-deception Insularity DESCRIPTION Members feel they cannot fail. Members explain away warning signs and help each other rationalize their decision. Members do not examine the ethical implications of their decision because they believe that they cannot make immoral choices. Members stereotype their enemies as weak, stupid, or unreasonable. Members pressure each other not to question the prevailing opinion. Members do not express opinions that differ from the group consensus. Members share in the illusion that they all agree with the decision. Members prevent the group from hearing disruptive but potentially useful information from people who are outside the group. Source: Janis (1972, 1982).

11 Compliance Learning Objective 10.2: Ways to Gain Compliance Compliance: changing one s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change Consumer psychology: branch of psychology that studies the habits of consumers in the marketplace, including compliance

12 Gaining Compliance Learning Objective 10.2: Ways to Gain Compliance Foot-in-the-door technique: asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment Door-in-the-face technique: asking for a large commitment and then, after being refused, asking for a smaller commitment Lowball technique: getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment

13 Obedience Learning Objective 10.3: Making Obedience More Likely Obedience: changing one s behavior at the command of an authority figure Milgram study: a teacher administered what he or she thought were real shocks to a learner Participants consistently followed orders to administer apparently painful shocks.

14 Figure 10.2: Control Panel in Milgram s Experiment

15 Table 10.2: Sample Script Items From Milgram's Classic Experiment VOLTAGE OF SHOCK LEARNER S SCRIPT 150 Ugh!! Experimenter! That s all. Get me out of here. I told you I had heart trouble. My heart's starting to bother me now. Get me out of here, please. My heart's starting to bother me. I refuse to go on. Let me out Ugh!! Experimenter! Get me out of here. I ve had enough. I won t be in this experiment any more. (Agonized scream) I absolutely refuse to answer any more. Get me out of here. You can't hold me here. Get me out. Get me out of here. 330 (Intense and prolonged agonized scream) Let me out of here. Let me out of here. My heart s bothering me. Let me out, I tell you. (Hysterically) Let me out of here. Let me out of here. You have no right to hold me here. Let me out! Let me out! Let me out of here! Let me out! Let me out! Source: Milgram (1964a, 1974)

16 Attitudes (1 of 2) Learning Objective 10.4: Components of, Formation of, and Changes in Attitude Attitude: a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation Three Components of an Attitude 1. Affective (emotional) component 2. Behavioral component 3. Cognitive component

17 Figure 10.3: Three Components of an Attitude

18 Attitudes (2 of 2) Learning Objective 10.4: Components of, Formation of, and Changes in Attitude Attitudes are often poor predictors of behavior unless the attitude is very specific or very strong.

19 Formation of Attitudes Learning Objective 10.4: Components of, Formation of, and Changes in Attitude Direct contact with the person, situation, object, or idea Direct instruction from parents or others Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitude Vicarious conditioning: watching the actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, and situations

20 Persuasion (1 of 3) Learning Objective 10.4: Components of, Formation of, and Changes in Attitude Persuasion: the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation Key elements in persuasion are the source of the message, the message itself, the target audience, and the medium.

21 Persuasion (2 of 3) Learning Objective 10.4: Components of, Formation of, and Changes in Attitude Elaboration Likelihood Model People will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it. The future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than the actions of those who do not.

22 Persuasion (3 of 3) Learning Objective 10.4: Components of, Formation of, and Changes in Attitude Elaboration Likelihood Model (continued) Central-route processing: involves attending to the content of the message itself Peripheral-route processing: involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the expertise of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other non-content factors

23 Cognitive Dissonance Learning Objective 10.5: When Attitudes Do Not Match Actions Cognitive dissonance: the sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person s behavior does not correspond to that person s impression Lessened by changing the conflicting behavior, changing the conflicting attitude, or forming a new attitude to justify the behavior

24 Figure 10.4: Cognitive Dissonance: Attitude Toward a Task

25 Social Categorization (1 of 2) Learning Objective 10.6: Social Categorization, Impression Formation, and Implicit Personality Theories Impression formation: the development of the first knowledge a person has about another person Primacy effect: the very first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary

26 Social Categorization (2 of 2) Learning Objective 10.6: Social Categorization, Impression Formation, and Implicit Personality Theories Social categorization: the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past Stereotype: a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category

27 Implicit Personality Theories Learning Objective 10.6: Social Categorization, Impression Formation, and Implicit Personality Theories Implicit personality theory: sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other Implicit Association Test (IAT): measures the degree of association between concepts Schemas: mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people Schemas can become stereotypes.

28 Attributions (1 of 3) Learning Objective 10.7: How People Explain Others Actions Attribution: the process of explaining one s own behavior and the behavior of others Attribution theory: the theory of how people make attributions

29 Attributions (2 of 3) Learning Objective 10.7: How People Explain Others Actions Situational cause: cause of behavior attributed to external factors Delays Action of others Some other aspect of the situation Dispositional cause: cause of behavior attributed to internal factors Personality Character

30 Attributions (3 of 3) Learning Objective 10.7: How People Explain Others Actions Fundamental attribution error (actor-observer bias): the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors

31 Prejudice and Discrimination (1 of 3) Learning Objective 10.8: Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice: negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group Discrimination: treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong

32 Prejudice and Discrimination (2 of 3) Learning Objective 10.8: Prejudice and Discrimination Forms of prejudice include ageism, sexism, racism, and prejudice against those who are too fat or too thin. In-groups: social groups with whom a person identifies; us Out-groups: social groups with whom a person does not identify; them

33 Prejudice and Discrimination (3 of 3) Learning Objective 10.8: Prejudice and Discrimination Scapegoating: tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence

34 Stopping Prejudice (1 of 5) Learning Objective 10.8: Prejudice and Discrimination Social cognitive theory: theorists of this school view prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences Realistic conflict theory: this theory posits that conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination

35 Stopping Prejudice (2 of 5) Learning Objective 10.8: Prejudice and Discrimination Social identity theory: this theory states that the formation of a person s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison Social identity: the part of the self-concept that includes one s view of self as a member of a particular social category Social comparison: the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one s self-esteem

36 Stopping Prejudice (3 of 5) Learning Objective 10.8: Prejudice and Discrimination Stereotype vulnerability: the effect that people s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior Self-fulfilling prophecy: the tendency of one s expectations to affect one s behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to occur

37 Stopping Prejudice (4 of 5) Learning Objective 10.9: Ways to Reduce Prejudice Equal status contact: contact between groups in which the groups have equal status, with neither group having power over the other

38 Stopping Prejudice (5 of 5) Learning Objective 10.9: Ways to Reduce Prejudice Jigsaw classroom : educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, forcing individuals to work together to find the solution

39 Stress and Social Factors (1 of 3) Learning Objective 10.10: Social Factors and Stress Reactions Social factors increasing the effects of stress include: Poverty Stresses on the job or in the workplace Entering a majority culture that is different from one s culture of origin

40 Stress and Social Factors (2 of 3) Learning Objective 10.10: Social Factors and Stress Reactions Acculturative stress: results from the need to change and adapt to the majority culture Four Methods of Acculturation 1. Integration: maintaining a sense of the original culture while forming positive relationship with the majority culture 2. Assimilation: giving up the original cultural identity and adopting the majority culture 3. Separation: rejecting the majority culture s ways 4. Marginalization: maintaining no ties with one s original or majority cultures

41 Stress and Social Factors (3 of 3) Learning Objective 10.10: Social Factors and Stress Reactions Social support system: the network of family, friends, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer support, comfort, or aid to a person in need

42 Cultural Influences on Stress Learning Objective 10.10: Social Factors and Stress Reactions Different cultures perceive stressors differently. Coping strategies will also vary from culture to culture.

43 Religiosity and Stress Learning Objective 10.10: Social Factors and Stress Reactions People with religious beliefs have been found to cope better with stressful events.

44 Attraction Learning Objective 10.11: Factors that Govern Attraction and Love Interpersonal attraction: liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person Physical attractiveness Proximity: physical or geographical nearness People like people who are similar to themselves or who are different from themselves (complementary). Reciprocity of liking: the tendency of people to like other people who like them in return

45 Love (1 of 2) Learning Objective 10.12: Triangular Theory of Love Love: a strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration, or common interests Sternberg s Three Components of Love 1. Intimacy 2. Passion 3. Commitment

46 Figure 10.5: Sternberg s Triangular Theory of Love

47 Love (2 of 2) Learning Objective 10.12: Triangular Theory of Love Romantic love: consists of intimacy and passion Companionate love: consists of intimacy and commitment Consummate love: ideal love, in which all three components are present

48 Aggression (1 of 2) Learning Objective 10.13: Biology and Learning Influences on Aggression Aggression: behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person Frustration aggression hypothesis: aggression is a reaction to frustration Konrad Lorenz saw aggression as an instinct for fighting to promote the survival of our species.

49 Aggression (2 of 2) Learning Objective 10.13: Biology and Learning Influences on Aggression Biological influences on aggression may include genetics, the amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels. Social role: the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position Violent TV shows, movies, and videogames are related to aggression.

50 Altruism Learning Objective 10.14: Altruism and the Bystander Effect Prosocial behavior: socially desirable behavior that benefits others Altruism: prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is larger in individuals who make altruistic choices.

51 Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese (1 of 2) Learning Objective 10.14: Altruism and the Bystander Effect Bystander effect: the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help Help becomes less likely as the number of bystanders increases.

52 Figure 10.6: Elements Involved in Bystander Response

53 Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese (2 of 2) Learning Objective 10.14: Altruism and the Bystander Effect Diffusion of responsibility: a person fails to take responsibility for action or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility

54 Diffusion of Responsibility (1 of 2) Learning Objective 10.14: Altruism and the Bystander Effect Researchers Latané and Darley found that people who were alone were more likely to help in an emergency than people who were with others. One bystander cannot diffuse responsibility.

55 Diffusion of Responsibility (2 of 2) Learning Objective 10.14: Altruism and Deciding to Help Others Five Steps in Making a Decision to Help Noticing Defining an emergency Taking responsibility Planning a course of action Taking action

56 Table 10.3: Help or Don t Help: Five Decision Points DECISION POINT DESCRIPTION FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISION Noticing Realizing that there is a situation that might be an emergency. Hearing a loud crash or a cry for help. Defining an Emergency Taking Responsibility Planning a Course of Action Interpreting the cues as signaling an emergency. Personally assuming the responsibility to act. Deciding how to help and what skills might be needed. Loud crash is associated with a car accident, people are obviously hurt. A single bystander is much more likely to act than when others are present (Latane & Darley, 1969). People who feel they have the necessary skills to help are more likely to help. Taking Action Actually helping. Costs of helping (e.g., danger to self) must not outweigh the rewards of helping.

57 Social Neuroscience Learning Objective 10.15: What Is Social Neuroscience? Social neuroscience: the study of how biological processes influence social behavior Studies use fmri and other imaging techniques to discover areas of the brain involved in social actions.

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