2 The potential to use high energy particle beams to treat many types of cancer has been known even before their creation. The availability of these treatments has been based on 2 main factors: precisely locating the target and the very expensive cost
3 Recognition Dr. Robert R. Wilson illustrated in his paper the great potential for proton beams to be used in medicine, specifically for the treatment of certain cancers. His paper was published when cyclotrons were being created which, for the first time, had enough energy to sufficiently penetrate human tissue Dr. R. Wilson s predictions concerning the interaction of proton beams and tissue were confirmed at the Berkeley Laboratory (later named the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory after the Lawrence brothers). The first treatments were performed on pituitary glands at Berkeley s- pituitary gland treatments were successfully duplicated first at Uppsala Sweden and then at the Harvard cyclotron.
4 Benefits of Proton Beam vs. X-ray Beam Radiotherapy Proton beams can be conformed and controlled more easily and precisely. -magnets vs. lenses Less dispersion within tissue for proton beams. -Photons interact more directly with the electrons as the beam transfers its kinetic energy to the tissue. Proton beams leave the protons at the target. -As an added bonus the protons are left behind changing the chemistry of the site. Bragg Peak-Protons deposit the majority of their ionizing energy at the end of their path. -Termed Bragg Peak, this phenomenon is in stark
5 Dr. Robert R. Wilson ( ) Major Achievements: 1967-Wilson touring, on bicycle, the facility later named the Wilson Synchrotron Laboratory Wilson receiving the National Medal of Science from President Nixon -Headed the Manhattan Project s Experimental Nuclear Physics Division in Los Alamos during WWII. -Joined Cornell in 57. -Designer of High Energy particle accelerators. -First director of Fermilab until Paper: In his 1946 paper he describes the upcoming availability of high energy ion beams and their advantages: Higher-energy machines are now under construction, however, and the ions from them will in general be energetic enough to have a range in tissue comparable to body dimensions. It must have occurred to many people that the particles themselves now become of considerable therapeutic interest. The object of this paper is to acquaint medical and biological workers with some of the physical properties and possibilities of such rays., Dr. Robert Wilson.
6 Bragg Peak This graph from Dr. Wilson s 1946 paper shows dosage vs. tissue depth. Dosage is proportional to Specific Ionization. As the protons slow, their ability to ionize molecules increases. Curve 1 shows proton range in tissue as a function of proton energy. Curve 2 shows specific ionization as a function of residual range in tissue.
7 Other Key Players
8 Lawrence Brothers Ernest Orlando & John H. E.O.L. invented the cyclotron John Lawrence was the first to treat cancer with a cyclotron.
9 Ernest Orlando Lawrence ( ) Ernest Orlando Lawrence ( ) completed his Ph.D. in 1924 at Yale, where he was appointed assistant professor in 27. He soon switched to Berkeley as associate professor where he would head the Radiation Laboratory (Rad Lab). He produced a series of cyclotrons starting in the 30 s The first cyclotron was produced by Lawrence and Livingston (a grad. Student at the time) in 31. It was 4.5 inches in diameter and used 1800V to produce 80KeV protons He also produced an 11 inch cyclotron which could supply 1MeV protons His 27 inch cyclotron advanced to 3.6MeV. In 37 he produced a 37 inch cyclotron His 60 inch cyclotron could supply a beam of 16MeV deuterons EOL was awarded the Nobel Prize for his invention of the cyclotron. Lawrence continued to be a main player in front line physics research. He was involved in the Manhattan Project and many cold war activities. The Rad Lab became the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. E.O. Lawrence (right) poses with his sixty inch cyclotron E.O.L. at the controls of his 37 inch cyclotron Rad Lab chalk board announcing EOL s Nobel Prize
10 John H. Lawrence (1905- ) Ernest s younger brother John Lawrence was a Doctor of Medicine. He came to Rad Lab in 35, where he experimented with nuclear medicine. John Lawrence was the first to treat cancer with cyclotrons when, in 1954, he began irradiating the pituitaries of patients with metastatic breast cancer. He treated 30 patients with protons, then switched to alpha particles in John Lawrence using the 60 inch cyclotron to treat a patient with neutrons Lawrence brothers Mother was diagnosed with cancer and given 3 months to live. The brothers saw that she got the best radiation available. She lived 15 more years to reach 83.
11 Cornelius Anthony Tobias ( ) In 1939 Tobias went to Lawrence s lab at Berkeley In 1942 Tobias received his Ph.D. in nuclear physics from Berkeley after being, as part of his dissertation research, the first to accelerate carbon in a cyclotron. He became Professor of Medical Physics at Berkeley in Worked closely with John H. Lawrence. His research focused on nuclear medicine and include using radioisotope tracers to research various biological physiologies and using ion beams to treat cancer. His cancer research focused on using heavy-ion beams to treat cancers. Known as The Father of Hadron Therapy, his contributions to the field were great, including helping to develop hadron treatment facilities worldwide. Hadrons are subatomic particle heavier than electrons including: protons, neutrons, pimesons, α-particles, and heavier ions.
12 First Large Cyclotrons
13 Berkeley Laboratory s Ernest Lawrence with his 60 inch cyclotron 60 inch cyclotron - The 60 inch cyclotron became operational in Produced 16 MeV deuteron beams. One of a succession of cyclotrons built by Lawrence and his group, the 60 inch cyclotron would be used for research for many years and was the first cyclotron used to treat cancer.
14 Harvard Cyclotron Completed in 1948 Provides a 160 MeV proton beam Most cancer treatment occurred here after 1961.
15 Uppsala Sweden 1951 the first synchrotron became operational. Ernest Lawrence flipped the switch to start the first beam. Produced a beam of 200 MeV protons, which gave it the ability to penetrate tissue 20cm The first malignant tumor to be irradiated with protons (a large malignant tumor of the uterus) 1958 The first brain tumors to be irradiated with protons.
16 Bevatron Synchrotron built and used by the Berkeley Lab. When it was completed in 1954, it was the world's largest particle accelerator. (180 foot diameter) 6 GeV protons Currently decommissioned for environmental reasons.
17 There are now over 130 cyclotrons world wide.
18 Primary Historical Limitations to Treatment Accurate detailed imaging was the original limitation. Then computational abilities became the factor limiting the quality of treatment. -the calculations required to plan a typical one of today s treatments takes a Pentium II possessor 1 day to complete. Expense of building facilities.
19 History of Imaging Developments Computerized Tomography (CT,CAT) is a process of combining many 2-D scans (x-rays) taken from different angles, to form detailed cross sectional views. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses a large magnetic field to detect the spin of fermion nuclei (mostly hydrogen). The machine uses Fourier transforms for analysis. Every species of fermion nucleus will have a particular resonance for a given magnetic field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was discovered. Between 1950 and 70 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was used for molecular analysis X-ray based CT was introduced. Several years later MRI was demonstrated for imaging of the body and subsequently has been improved upon to date. Positron Emitting Tomography (PET) - In a PET scan the radiation comes from within the volume being imaged. PET scans provide excellent images of brains. When certain radioisotopes decay a positron is emitted. The positron and an electron annihilate each other, converting their rest energy into 2 anti-parallel gamma-rays. In PET scans a radioactive pharmaceutical is given to the patient. The precise choice of drug depends on the part of the body being scanned. Example: 2-flouro-2-deoxy-D-glucose is essentially a sugar with an added radioactive fluorine atom. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is similar to PET except the radiopharmaceutical emits a photon directly instead of a positron.
20 Main US Facilities that Treat Patients with Proton Beams Loma Linda University Medical Center Northeast Proton Treatment Center Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute
21 Types of Cancers Typically Treated Today Conformal Beam Therapy is best utilized for tumors that are isolated and hard or impossible to slice out. Cancerous tumors of the brain and spinal chord (any tumor touching the spinal chord) Eye diseases and cancers Some cancers of the head and neck including nasal Lung cancer (non-small cell) Prostate cancer and other pelvic cancer Lymphoma Pediatric tumors
22 Loma Linda University Medical Center Loma Linda treats their first patients with protons people had been treated at Loma Linda as of Loma Linda currently reports treating 160 people per day. They treat the most types: all types from previous slide.
23 Northeast Proton Treatment Center The proton beam unit of Massachusetts General Hospital was founded in It replaced the Harvard cyclotron becoming the world s second hospital based treatment facility. They specialize in brain and spinal tumors and arteriovenous malformations.
24 Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute In 1999 the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility completed their new synchrotron at which time their old cyclotron became dedicated to medical use. This is the cyclotron constituting the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. MPRI specializes in treating children, but also treats adults with certain tumors.
25 TRIUMF The first Canadian treatment of cancer using protons was at TRIUMF in August TRIUMF is one of the worlds largest subatomic physics research facilities. It is located in British Columbia. Their treatment of cancer is typically limited to choroidal melanomas (a type of eye cancer). Primary researchers of pion beam therapy.
26 Typical Treatment Preliminaries: Styrofoam mold made Imaging, mostly CT scans Alignment: The patient is fitted into the mold and positioned to the approximate target position with lasers. Precise alignment is then achieved through a series of scans (usually radiographs). Duration: The treatment is spread out over many daily doses (a typical treatment regimen for prostate cancer would consist of 30 consecutive days). The dose is not felt and is delivered rapidly.
27 Treatment Totals by Location (as of July 2000) 5262 Loma Linda (90- ) USA & Canada (Protons) 284 UCSF-CNL (94- ) 57 TRIUMF (95- ) 34 MPRI (93- ) Japan (Protons) 30 Berkeley (54-57) 8558 Harvard (61- ) 1029-St. 142 Dubna, Petersburg, Russia Russia 3268 Moscow 999 Clatterbridge, England Europe (Protons) 3055 PSI, Sw itzerland 1590 Nice, France 309 Uppsala, Sw eden Pions 1527 Orsay, France 21 Louvain-la- Neuve, Belgium 35 Kashiwa (98- ) 629 Tsukuba (83- ) 133 Chiba (79-) Worldwide Totals: 27,434 Protons + 2,054 α-particles + 1,250 heavy ions + and 1,100 Pions = 31,838 with charged particles 503 PSI, Switzerland (80-93) 745 Chiba, Japan heavy ions (94- ) 433 Berkeley heavy ions (75-92) Other Ions 230 Los Alam os (74-82) 367 TRIUMF (79-94) 72 GSI, Dormstadt, Germany heavy ions (97- ) 2054 Berkeley alpha particles (57-92)
28 There have now been over 40,000 proton treatments world wide.
29 Future of Cancer Treatment with Particle Accelerators Pion Beam Therapy Neutron Boron Capture Therapy Heavy Ion Beam Therapy
30 Heavy Ion Beam Therapy Any element can be ionized and accelerated into a beam and then used the same way a proton beam is to irradiate a tumor. The K1200 cyclotron (of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University) accelerates any element through uranium to more than 1/2 the speed of light. Typically carbon, also oxygen and nitrogen can be used. The idea with heavy ions is to make the most use of the secondary effect that the ions stop in the tumor, changing its chemical composition.
31 Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) When B-10 captures a neutron a nuclear reaction occurs. The products are an α-particle, Li-7, and MeV. The ranges of the α-particle and lithium nucleus are comparable to cell sizes. First the patient is given a boron-containing drug which builds up in the tumor cells and in healthy cells (hopefully more in the tumor). The patient is then subjected to a flux of appropriately energized neutrons. The neutron energies are too low to form a beam. For this reason, the volume irradiated with neutrons is much larger than the tumor itself. The challenge with BNCT is to create boron containing drugs that are absorbed by the tumor but not healthy tissue. This is the main limitation to the treatment.
32 Other Uses of Particle Accelerators for Medicine and Cancer Treatment (Production of Radioisotopes) Seeds substances for PET and SPECT scans radioisotopes used to seek and destroy tumors
33 Works Sited Dr. Robert R Wilson's Paper, originally published in "International Journal of Radiation Oncology" 1947 (http://www.protons.com/bobwilsn.htm) (Cornelius Tobias Obituary) (Loma Linda) (The National Association for Proton Therapy) (National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at MSU) [T-2 Nuclear Information Center (Los Alamos)] (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) (Massachusetts General Hospital - Harvard) (Harvard Cyclotron) (treatment totals by location) (history) (history) (history: Lawrence brothers and early cyclotrons) (history: Lawrence) (Dr. Robert Wilson biography) (Dr. Robert Wilson biography)
The Science behind Proton Beam Therapy Anthony Zietman MD Shipley Professor of Radiation Oncology Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School Principles underlying Radiotherapy Radiation related
AMERICAN BRAIN TUMOR ASSOCIATION Proton Therapy Acknowledgements About the American Brain Tumor Association Founded in 1973, the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) was the first national nonprofit
Proton beam Medical Technical Complex Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia Egyptian Candidates Proton therapy It can do more!!! Effectiveness of the proton therapy in targeting and curing
Current Status and Future Direction of Proton Beam Therapy National Cancer Center Hospital East Division of Radiation Oncology and Particle Therapy Tetsuo Akimoto Comparison of status of particle therapy
Medical Applications of radiation physics Riccardo Faccini Universita di Roma La Sapienza Outlook Introduction to radiation which one? how does it interact with matter? how is it generated? Diagnostics
Proton Therapy: Cutting Edge Treatment for Cancerous Tumors By: Cherilyn G. Murer, JD, CRA Introduction Put simply, proton therapy is a new cutting edge cancer treatment that promises better outcomes for
HADRON THERAPY FOR CANCER TREATMENT Seminar presented by Arlene Lennox at Fermilab on Nov 21, 2003 CANCER STAGES LOCAL TUMOR REGIONAL METASTASIS SYSTEMIC DISEASE CANCER TREATMENT SURGERY RADIATION THERAPY
PROTON THERAPY FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Table of contents 1. What is cancer?... 2 2. How is cancer treated?... 3 3. What is proton therapy?... 4 4. What are the clinical benefits of proton therapy?...
Scan for mobile link. Proton Therapy Proton therapy delivers radiation to tumor tissue in a much more confined way than conventional photon therapy thus allowing the radiation oncologist to use a greater
Seminar 7 Medical application of radioisotopes - radiotherapy Radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. Gamma camera. Radionuclide imaging (PET, SPECT). Radiotherapy. Sources of radiation. Treatment planning.
Nuclear medicine Answering your questions ANSTO s OPAL research reactor in Sydney What is nuclear medicine? This is a branch of medicine that uses radiation from radioactive tracers to provide information
Dictionary Radiation therapy involves using many terms you may have never heard before. Below is a list of words you could hear during your treatment. Applicator A device used to hold a radioactive source
In 1946 Harvard physicist Robert Wilson (1914-2000) suggested: Protons can be used clinically Accelerators are available Maximum radiation dose can be placed into the tumor Proton therapy provides sparing
Vincent Bossier System Architect Vincent.firstname.lastname@example.org IBA Proton Therapy Biomed days 2015 Protect, Enhance and Save Lives 1 Agenda AN INTRODUCTION TO IBA WHY PROTON THERAPY CLINICAL WORKFLOW TREATMENT
PROTON TREATMENT AND THE CONTROL OF CANCER AT LOMA LINDA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER A NEW ERA BEGINS IN THE SEARCH "To MAKE MAN WHOLE" We stand at the threshold of an important advance in the control of
Proton therapy at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI proton therapy for tumours of the eye (OPTIS). The patient s head is fixed using a mask and a bite block. Actual irradiation of the eye tumour lasts less
Medical Physics and Radioactivity Radioactivity Unstable nucleus Electromagnetic wave particle Atoms which emit electromagnetic radiation or a particle by the spontaneous transformation of their nucleus
1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.
Scan for mobile link. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear accelerators to safely and painlessly deliver precise radiation doses to a tumor while
CONQUERING CANCER SAVING LIVES Mayo Clinic Proton Beam Therapy Program A MALIGNANT TUMOR IS A TYRANT Cancer takes all the body s resources for itself invading and displacing surrounding tissues. Abolishing
Radiotherapy in Hungary: present status and future needs Tibor Major, PhD National Institute of Oncology Radiotherapy Department Budapest, Hungary Academia Europaea Section Workshops, Bergen, 10 September,
PTC Czech The main goal of radiotherapy is to irreversibly damage tumor cells, whereas the cells of healthy tissue are damaged only reversibly or not at all. Proton therapy currently comes closest to this
APA format (title page missing) Proton Therapy 3 A paper A New Cancer Treatment: Proton Therapy A Review of the Literature Cancer is a widespread disease that is defined as a malignant or invasive growth
Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom
The best for life. To nejlepší pro život. Advanced Cancer Treatment Proton therapy is a highly advanced and effective treatment of malignant tumors. Proton therapy offers a low risk of complications during
www.ijcsi.org 621 Head and Neck Cancer Treatment with Particle Beam Therapy Mehrzad Zargarzadeh Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch Tehran, Iran Abstract In this
Hitachi Review Vol. 58 (29), No.5 225 World-first Proton Pencil Beam Scanning System with FDA Clearance Completion of Proton Therapy System for MDACC Koji Matsuda Hiroyuki Itami Daishun Chiba Kazuyoshi
March 20th, 2014 Advanced Radiation Therapy of Cancer by Proton Beam Fukui Prefectural Hospital Proton Therapy Center Yamamoto, Kazutaka Wave (electromagnetic wave) IR (Ionizing) Radiation 700 400 350~100
Basic Radiation Therapy Terms accelerated radiation: radiation schedule in which the total dose is given over a shorter period of time. (Compare to hyperfractionated radiation.) adjuvant therapy (add-joo-vunt):
Proton Therapy World Market Report Edition 2015 PROTON THERAPY WORLD MARKET REPORT EDITION 2015 A report written by Paul-Emmanuel Goethals & Richard Zimmermann Page 1/7 www.medraysintell.com Proton Therapy
Proton therapy, yesterday, today and tomorrow Opening of the BNEN 14th Academic Year 2015-2016 Mol, September 21 2015 Yves Jongen (Founder, CRO) IBA Group email@example.com Protect, Enhance and
Scan for mobile link. Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Overview A brain tumor is a group of abnormal cells that grows in or around the brain. Tumors can directly destroy healthy brain cells. They can
September 8, 2009 Volume 6 / Number 17 A Closer Look This is the second article in a series of stories related to cancer technology. Look for the symbol on the left in an upcoming issue for the next article
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE The PROBEAT-RT Proton Beam Therapy System Incorporating Real-time Tumor-tracking is Approved for Commercial Manufacturing and Sales under Japan s Pharmaceutical Affairs Law Treatments
Development of on line monitor detectors used for clinical routine in proton and ion therapy A. Ansarinejad Torino, february 8 th, 2010 Overview Hadrontherapy CNAO Project Monitor system: Part1:preliminary
3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least
Cancer Treatment Alpha radiation is used to treat various forms of cancer. This process, called unsealed source radiotherapy, involves inserting tiny amounts of radium-226 into cancerous organs. The alpha
ACCELERATING THE FIGHT AGAINST CANCER 20 Photo courtesy of Heidelberg University Hospital As charged-particle therapies grow in popularity, physicists are working with other experts to make them smaller,
Northern Illinois proton therapy facility February, 2007 Northern Illinois proton therapy facility 2 Projected 16-State Service Area The Need Scale Legend Potential service region Existing proton therapy
Applications & Review This isn t an x ray; it s a bone scan. Radioactive nuclei were used to show the presence of arthritis in a woman s hands. How was this image created? Warming Up A 60 kg laboratory
With nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, physicians can obtain unique insights into a patient s body that allow for a more personalized approach to the evaluation and management of heart disease, cancer
MEMORIAL RESOLUTION JOHN MONTGOMERY CAMERON (August 9, 1940 July 3, 2014) John M. Cameron, Professor Emeritus of Physics, was born on August 9, 1940 in Coleraine, Northern Ireland and raised on his family
2-13/13 Radiobiology lecture The introduction of Fractionation Time, Dose and Fractionation in Radiotherapy The Four Rs of Radiobiology Repair of Sublethal Damage Efficacy of fractionation based on the
UniversitätsKlinikum Heidelberg University Hospital Heidelberg Prof. Dr. med. Eike O. Martin Medical Director Universitätsklinikums Heidelberg Irmtraut Gürkan Administrative Director Universitätsklinikums
What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that is used to diagnose and treat diseases in a safe and painless way. Nuclear medicine procedures permit the determination of medical
INTERVIEW: DR. GUY TURQUET DE BEAUREGARD We Need to Expand Medical Isotope Production! Dr. Turquet de Beauregard, a nuclear physicist with 15 years experience in nuclear medicine, is the vice president
Renal cell cancer Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which
Proton Cancer Therapy: Using Laser Accelerate Protons for Radiation Therapy A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Graduation with Research Distinction in Engineering Physics
Scan for mobile link. Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the use of imaging during radiation therapy to improve the precision and accuracy of treatment delivery.
Radiation Oncology Nursing Care Helen Lusby Radiation Oncology Nurse BAROC 2012 Definitions Radiation Therapy: Treatment of cancer using x- ray particles that cause ionisation within the cells. External
Secondary Neutrons in Proton and Ion Therapy L. Stolarczyk Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Poland on behalf of WG9 EURADOS Acknowledgments EURADOS Workig Group 9 Roger Harrison Jean Marc Bordy Carles
ACCELERATORS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS 2 Ugo Amaldi University of Milano Bicocca and TERA Foundation EPFL 2-28.10.10 - U. Amaldi 1 The icone of radiation therapy Radiation beam in matter EPFL 2-28.10.10 - U.
Radionuclide Production Paul Kinahan Imaging Research Laboratory Department of Radiology Emission versus Transmission Imaging External versus internal radiation sources f(x,y,z) f(x,y,z) source Transmission
Atomic structure A. Introduction: In 1808, an English scientist called John Dalton proposed an atomic theory based on experimental findings. (1) Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.
Molecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb electromagnetic radiation at a
Loma Linda University and Siemens PETNET Solutions, Inc. announce operational state-of-theart PET production and research facility to advance molecular imaging FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: Susan Onuma
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? Like tobacco smoking, exposure to asbestos can result in the development of lung cancer. Similarly, the risk of developing asbestos induced lung
Staus of hadrontherapy in Europe By P. Le Dû firstname.lastname@example.org P. Le Dû - NSS-MIC 07 Honolulu 1 Facilities Worldwide P. Le Dû - NSS-MIC 07 Honolulu 2 List of European facilities Protons ++ Facilities -PSI (Eros
Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Atomic Structure Introduction dabe page 1 Atoms & Elements Part 0: Atomic Structure
AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 This achievement standard involves demonstrating understanding of atomic and nuclear physics. Assessment typically
Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes
Overview of Proton Beam Cancer Therapy with Basic Economic Considerations Wayne Newhauser, Ph.D. Proton Therapy Project, Houston Cyclotron 235 MeV 300 na Extraction Channel Radial Probe Energy Degrader
General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing
Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center Department of Radiation Oncology 55 Fruit Street Boston, MA 02114 (617) 726-8650 www.massgeneral.org/cancer PROTON RADIOSURGERY Teresa M. McCue August Morning
Proton Therapy Center at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków - from the Eye Treatment to the Scanning Gantry Teresa Cywicka - Jakiel Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN), Kraków, POLAND National
PRINIPLES OF RADIATION THERAPY Adarsh Kumar The basis of radiation therapy revolve around the principle that ionizing radiations kill cells Radiotherapy terminology: a. Radiosensitivity: refers to susceptibility
Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter Chapter 2 1 Chapter Outline 2.1 The Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure 2.2 Nuclides and Their Symbols 2.3 Navigating the Periodic Table 2.4 The
ACCELERATOR DEVELOPMENTS FOR CANCER THERAPY Satoru Yamada, Gunma University Heavy-Ion Medical Center, Maebashi, Japan Abstract Japanese accelerator developments in heavy-ion cancer therapy can trace its
Current and Future Trends in Proton Treatment of Prostate Cancer Reinhard W. Schulte Assistant Professor Department of Radiation Medicine Loma Linda University Medical Center Loma Linda, CA, USA Outline
X-Rays were discovered accidentally in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Due to their short wavelength, on the order of magnitude of cells, and their high energy, they can penetrate skin and other soft tissue.
Chapter 5 History of the Atom & Atomic Theory You re invited to a Thinking Inside the Box Conference Each group should nominate a: o Leader o Writer o Presenter You have 5 minutes to come up with observations
C-A/AP/#122 November 23 Simulation of Proton Therapy Treatment Verification via PET imaging of Induced Positron-Emitters J. Beebe-Wang, P. Vaska, F.A. Dilmanian, S.G. Peggs and D.J. Schlyer "This paper
Nuclear Chemistry Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Nuclear Chemistry 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition
DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL IMAGING 1st Part --Introduction Ing. Tommaso Rossi email@example.com Tommaso Rossi - Modulo di SEGNALI, a.a. 2013/2014 Overview 2 How we can look on the inside of human body?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging What are the uses of MRI? To begin, not only are there a variety of scanning methodologies available, but there are also a variety of MRI methodologies available which provide
THE POWER AND PRECISION OF PROTON BEAM THERAPY IS WITHIN REACH PROTON THERAPY OVERVIEW The American Cancer Society estimates 1.6 million new cancer cases in the United States this year. Approximately two
Unit 1 Practice Test Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. proton d. electron b. nucleus e. neutron c. atom 1. the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of
Discovery Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852 Summit Environmental Technologies, Inc. Analytical Laboratories 3310 Win Street Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 44223 Fax: 1-330-253-4489 Call
Imaging Technology Diagnostic Medical Sonographer, Dosimetrist, Nuclear Medicine Technologist, Radiation Therapist, Radiologic Technologist Diagnostic Medical Sonographer, Dosimetrist Diagnostic Medical
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.