Cyclotron Centre in Poland and 2D thermoluminescence dosimetry

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1 Cyclotron Centre in Poland and 2D thermoluminescence dosimetry Jan Gajewski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kraków, Poland Department of Radiation Dosimetry Nuclear Physics Institute Academy of Science of Czech Republic

2 Presentation plan Two chapters Cyclotron facility 2D dosimetry system Institute of Nuclear Physics Existing facility Thermoluminescence 2D thermoluminescence dosimetry system (2D TLD) Incoming CCB facility elements Status of CCB project properties Applications

3 Kraków Prague

4 Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków Est Area 8 ha ~500 res. 41 full prof. 30 ass. prof. 147 PhD ~100 stud. 5 divisions The best institute now in Poland (A+ note from MSHE)

5 IFJ PAN - Main Research Equipment 2 x Proton Cyclotrons Van de Graaff Accelerator MR imaging 9.4 T source of thermal neutrons Two-beam ion implanter X-ray microprobe The 14 MeV Pulsed Neutron Generator Stands for calibration (Cs-137 source) Prof. Agnieszka Zalewska elected President of CERN Council

6 Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków

7 Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków

8 Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków

9 Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków

10 Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków

11 Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków

12 Existing cyclotron facility BEAM DELIVERY SYSTEM OF AIC-144 ISOCHRONOUS CYCLOTRON R1 - isotope position M1,M2,M3 - bending magnets Van de Graff accelerator AIC-144 Measurement room 2 Measurement room 1 Shutter R1 M3 M2 M1 EYE THERAPY Collimator Theratron 780E Scattering system System of environmental dosimetry gamma detector FHZ 621 GL-10 neutron detector FHT 751 wide energy neutron detector FHT 762 WENDI-2 wide energy gamma detector FHT 191N N/TL Cyclotron room

13 Existing cyclotron facility Cyclotron AIC-144 (~60 MeV protons) 25 patients till June 2012 Financed by NFZ Eye treatment room Regular treatment from April 2013

14 National Centre of Hadron Radiotherapy Established in Sep Institute of Nuclear Physics coordinator University of Science and Technology Warsaw University of Technology University of Silesia Universitas Varsoviensis Medical University, Warszawa, Center of Oncology, Warszawa Center of Oncology, Kraków Holycross Center of Oncology, Kielce Institute of Nuclear Problems, Warszawa

15 National Centre of Hadron Radiotherapy Established in Sep Institute of Nuclear Physics coordinator University of Science and Technology Warsaw University of Technology University of Silesia Universitas Varsoviensis Medical University, Warszawa, Center of Oncology, Warszawa Center of Oncology, Kraków Holycross Center of Oncology, Kielce Institute of Nuclear Problems, Warszawa contract for Bronowice Cyclotron Centre contract for gantry June 2009 December 2010 ~50 M

16 Bronowice Cyclotron Centre - Kraków Foundation act signing ceremony Prof. dr hab. Marek Jeżabek signing the contract building permission start of the construction installation of the C-235 cyclotron acceptance tests medical building installation of gantry first beam in the gantry first gantry ready second gantry ready Prof. dr hab. Paweł Olko

17 Bronowice Cyclotron Centre March 2011

18 Bronowice Cyclotron Centre March 2011 May 2012

19 Bronowice Cyclotron Centre February 2013

20 Bronowice Cyclotron Centre February

21 CCB main building plan eye treatment room Beam lines energy selector gantry Experimental room Medical Part 230 MeV cyclotron Laboratories

22 CCB cyclotron Cyclotron Proteus C-235 IBA, Belgium diameter 4.34 m / 2.1 m magnet 3.1 T - scanning Particle: protons energy MeV part/s FWHM 3-9 mm (scanning gantry)

23 CCB energy selector Beryllium absorber energy range MeV switching time < 1s for 10MeV dp/p < 1%

24 CCB proton gantry

25 CCB proton gantry Orthogonal X-rays FP imaging system Proton Scanning nozzle Robotic PPS

26 CCB beam time The proton beam will be shared between 4 lines: 1) Experimental room main user from Jan ) Eye therapy room tests of the new eyeline ) Gantry 1 and 2 start of acceptance tests May 2013 Starting in October 2015 Full operation in 2020 From September 2013 to June 2014 the priority to the gantry About patients/year ~200 patients/gantry ~100 eye melanoma patients about fractions/year

27 CCB beam QA Different tools for beam QA Radiographic films 2D TLD Gafchromic films Scintillator + camera 2-D arrays of ionization chambers multi-wire proportional chamber Single/multi photodiodes Flat-panel detectors

28 TL Phenomena Thermoluminescence is an emission of light by certain materials during heating after previous irradiation Amount of light absorbed dose

29 The principle of 2D TL Dosimetry Preparation of foil Irradiation Heating Collection of emitted light Data analysis

30 Dosimetric system TLD foils TL foil = TL powder + polymer + heat 1. The mixture needs to be uniformly distributed. 3. The mixture is welded at high temperature. 2. The detector is formed in a press. Dr Mariusz Kłosowski

31 Dosimetric system TLD foils Two types of TL: LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-2D) CaSO4:Dy Water resistance and flexibility Up to 20 x 20 cm2 Reusability Relative WER: 1.6 Linearity of dose response: Gy Zeff MPC-2D CaSO (d= mm)

32 Dosimetric system hardware Laboratory Reader: detector size 50 x 50 mm2 resolution 640 x 480 px2 fully adjustable Laboratory reader Clinical Reader: detector size 200 x 200 mm2 resolution 1024 x 1024 px2 easy and safe to use pixel size below 0.2 mm Clinical reader

33 Dosimetric properties uniformity After corrections the uniformity of readouts is around 3%

34 Dosimetric properties reproducibility More than 20 equivalent irradiations and readouts Repeatability was found below 3% For previous reader and software it was 5% For radiochromic films it is 1-6% [1] McLaughlin et al. Methods Phys. Res. A 302 [2] N. V. Klassen et al. Med. Phys. 24

35 Dose response Amount of light absorbed dose Broad dose response linearity J. Gajewski et al, The Response of 2D TL Foils After Doses of Co-60 Gamma-Ray, 6 Mv X-Ray and 60 MeV Proton Beams Applied In Radiotherapy, Acta Physica Polonica B, vol 6, no. 4, p Kodak EDR2 Kodak publication N-923

36 Energy/LET dependence Higher LET lower efficiency Good agreement with other experiments Sądel, M., et. al., Relative thermoluminescent efficiency of LiF detectors for proton radiation: Batch variability and energy dependence. Radiation Measurements.

37 Scanning Beam QA single spots Reference methods: Positions agree in <1% (~0.3mm) Shapes the same in ~10% Fluka simulations Kodak EDR2 films Multiwire Proportional Chamber EDR2 film TLD foils

38 Scanning Beam QA uniform fields ~2% R ED TL 2 D ~5% Uniformly irradiated fields hundreds of spots

39 Applications proton beam cross-section Diode TLD Irradiations have been performed with 60 MeV proton beam at IFJ PAN in Kraków (AIC-144 cyclotron) 3D visualisation of a cross-section of a proton broad beam

40 Applications X-ray microbeam Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) The aim is to check the applicability of the 2-D system for measuring complicated radiation fields. 1 px 20x20 μm2 FWHM: 50 μm Peak-to-peak: 400 μm

41 Applications Static/dynamic exposure Standard personal dosimeter with TL pellets The goal is to prepare the system to distinguish between static and dynamic exposure. Dr Mariusz Kłosowski Modified personal dosimeter

42 Applications Static/dynamic exposure New reader with CCD camera The system tested by clients of Personal Dosimetry Laboratory Linear heating rate up to 25 C/s Linear dose response from 1 mgy Resolution 100 LP/mm No geometric distortion No vignetting effect

43 2D TLD - summary Advantages of 2-D dosimetry: reusability water resistance and flexibility direct image readout spatial resolution (<0.5mm) adequate for clinical applications Disadvantages: difficulties of obtaining uniform sensitive foils energy and LET dependencies

44 Thank You for Your attention

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