Fundamentals of Mobile and Pervasive Computing

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1 Fundamentals of Mobile and Pervasive Computing Frank Adelstein Sandeep K. S. Gupta Golden G. Richard III Loren Schwiebert Technische Universitat Darmstadt FACHBEREICH INFORMATIK B1BLIOTHEK Inventar-Nr.: //Q > - 0QA61 Sschgebiete: i Siandort: JL McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

2 Preface xv Acknowledgments xix Chapter 1. Mobile Adaptive Computing What Is Mobile Computing? Adaptability The Key to Mobile Computing Transparency Constraints of mobile computing environments Application-aware adaptation Mechanisms for Adaptation Adapting functionality Adapting data How to Develop or Incorporate Adaptations in Applications Where can adaptations be performed? Support for Building Adaptive Mobile Applications Odyssey Rover Summary 24 Chapter 2. Mobility Management Mobility Management Location Management Principles and Techniques Registration area-based location management Location Management Case Studies PCS location management scheme Mobile IP Summary 53 Chapter 3. Data Dissemination and Management Challenges Data Dissemination Bandwidth allocation for publishing Broadcast disk scheduling 65 vii

3 viii Contents 3.3 Mobile Data Caching Caching in traditional distributed systems Cache consistency maintenance Performance and architectural issues Mobile Cache Maintenance Schemes A taxonomy of cache maintenance schemes Cache maintenance for push-based information dissemination Broadcasting invalidation reports Disconnected operation Asynchronous stateful (AS) scheme To cache or not to cache? Mobile Web Caching Handling disconnections Achieving energy and bandwidth efficiency Summary 88 Chapter 4. Context-Aware Computing Ubiquitous or Pervasive Computing What Is a Context? Various Definitions and Types of Contexts Enumeration-based Role-based Context-Aware Computing and Applications Core capabilities for context awareness Types of context-aware applications Developing context-aware applications Middleware Support Contextual services Actuator service An example: context toolkit Providing location context Summary 106 Chapter 5. Introduction to Mobile Middleware What Is Mobile Middleware? Adaptation Agents Service Discovery 111 Chapter 6. Middleware for Application Development: Adaptation and Agents Adaptation The spectrum of adaptation Resource monitoring Characterizing adaptation strategies An application-aware adaptation architecture: Odyssey A sample Odyssey application More adaptation middleware 120

4 ix 6.2 Mobile Agents Why mobile agents? And why not? Agent architectures Migration strategies Communication strategies Summary 133 Chapter 7. Service Discovery Middleware: Finding Needed Services Common Ground Services Universally unique identifiers Standardization Textual descriptions Using interfaces for standardization More on Discovery and Advertisement Protocols Unicast discovery Multicast discovery and advertisement Service catalogs Garbage Collection Leasing Advertised expirations Eventing Security Jini Service location protocol Ninja Interoperability Interoperability success stories Summary 167 Chapter 8. Introduction to Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Overview Outline of chapter Properties of an Ad Hoc Network No preexisting infrastructure Limited access to a base station Power-limited devices No centralized mechanisms Unique Features of Sensor Networks Direct interaction with the physical world Usually special-purpose devices Very limited resources Operate without a human interface Specialized routing patterns Proposed Applications Military applications Medical applications Industrial applications Environmental applications Other application domains 188

5 Chapter 9. Challenges Constrained Resources No centralized authority Limited power Wireless communication Limited computation and storage Storage constraints Limited input and output options Security Small keys Limited computation Changing network membership Arbitrary topology Mobility Mobility requirements Loss of connectivity Data loss Group communication Maintaining consistent views Summary 209 Chapter 10. Protocols Autoconfiguration Neighborhood discovery Topology discovery Medium access control schedule construction Security protocol configuration Energy-Efficient Communication Multihop routing Communication scheduling Duplicate message suppression Message aggregation Dual-radio scheduling Sleep-mode scheduling Clustering Mobility Requirements Movement detection Patterns of movement Changing group dynamics Resynchronization _ Summary 240 Chapter 11. Approaches and Solutions Deployment and Configuration Random deployment Scalability Self-organization Security protocol configuration 247

6 xi Reconfiguration/redeployment Location determination Routing Event-driven routing Periodic sensor readings Diffusion routing Directional routing Group communication Synchronization Fault Tolerance and Reliability FECandARQ Agreement among sensor nodes (Reliability of measurements) Dealing with dead or faulty nodes Energy Efficiency Uniform power dissipation Sensor component power management MAC layer protocols Tradeoffs between performance and energy efficiency Summary 284 Chapter 12. Wireless Security Traditional Security Issues Integrity Confidentiality Nonrepudiation Availability Mobile and Wireless Security Issues Detectability Resource depletion/exhaustion Physical intercept problems Theft of service War driving/walking/chalking Mobility Problems in Ad Hoc Networks Routing Prekeying Reconfiguring Hostile environment 12.5 Additional Issues: Commerce Liability Fear, uncertainty, and doubt Fraud Big bucks at stake Additional Types of Attacks "Man in the middle" attacks Traffic analysis Replay attacks Buffer-overflow attacks Summary 299

7 xii Contents Chapter 13. Approaches to Security Limit the Signal Wire integrity and tapping Physical limitation Encryption Public and private key encryption Computational and data overhead Integrity Codes Checksum versus cryptographic hash Message authentication code (MAC) Payload versus header Traffic analysis IPSec Authentication header (AH) Encapsulating security payload (ESP) Other Security-Related Mechanisms Authentication protocols AAA Special hardware Summary 315 Chapter 14. Security in Wireless Personal Area Networks Basic Idea Bluetooth specifications Bluetooth network terms Bluetooth security mechanisms Bluetooth Security Modes Basic Security Mechanisms Initialization key Unit key Combination key Master key Encryption Authentication Limitations and Problems Summary Chapter 15. Security in Wireless Local Area Networks Basic Idea Wireless Alphabet Soup Wired-Equivalent Privacy (WEP) WEP goals WEP data frame WEP encryption WEP decryption WEP authentication WEP flaws WEP fixes 338

8 xiii 15.4 WPA i Encryption protocols Access control via x Fixes and "Best Practices" Anything is better than nothing Know thine enemy Use whatever wireless security mechanisms are present End-to-end VPN Firewall protection Use whatever else is available Summary 348 Chapter 16. Security in Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (802.16) Broadband Wireless Access IEEE Security Key management Security associations Keying material lifetime Subscriber station (SS) authorization Encryption Problems and Limitations Summary 354 Chapter 17. Security in Wide Area Networks Basic Idea 17.2 CDMA 17.3 GSM GSM authentication GSM encryption 17.4 Problems with GSM Security Session life Weak encryption algorithm Encryption between mobile host and base station only Limits to the secret key Other problems 17.5 The Four Generations of Wireless: 1G-4G G 17.7 Limitations 17.8 Summary Appendix A Brief Introduction to Wireless Communication and Networking 369 Appendix B Questions 375 Index 389

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