Wireless Security Overview. Ann Geyer Partner, Tunitas Group Chair, Mobile Healthcare Alliance

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1 Wireless Security Overview Ann Geyer Partner, Tunitas Group Chair, Mobile Healthcare Alliance

2 Ground Setting Three Basics Availability Authenticity Confidentiality Challenge Achieve all three protections in a simple useable solution 1

3 Ground Setting Physical Protections Networked devices have to be physically connected to a network before gaining access to its resources Physical distinction between the corporate network and the public network Not true with wireless Wireless: the quintessential open network Relatively anonymous connections Backdoor into your corporate net 2

4 Vulnerabilities Why you are a target Surf the Internet free Steal data Plant virus Deface web sites Stage DOS attacks It s easy and almost free Cost to spy on your network: $79 card and free software 3

5 Vulnerabilities Radio broadcasting Leaky signals and close by access Limited physical controls Portable devices Lost and stolen Password weaknesses and off network attacks Limited security features 4

6 Vulnerabilities Unknown Access Points 20% of IT departments said they have WLANs 50% of purchasing departments said they bought them Rogue Access Points Laptops with wireless network cards Departmental and Home User APs Default Setting Security turned off Bluetooth: auto network with any nearby device : auto network locators 5

7 Vulnerabilities... AP Unauthorized entry retrieves data stored on net inserts a virus Launches attack on 3rd party with you identified as attacker Launches attack on mobile device retrieve info access network with compromised device 6

8 Los Angeles, CA 7

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11 IEEE B Wireless speeds up to 11 Mbps Multiple RF channels around the 2.4 Ghz band Effective range Transmission power of the device Physical topology of where the device is located May be well beyond the company s physical property Makes it hard if not virtually impossible to restrict access to the wireless network Gives rise to War Driving Afterthought security Tends to limit consideration to the security features of the already installed devices 10

12 Vulnerabilities Visibility Authentication Encryption 11

13 Visibility Wireless traffic can be sniffed Possible to collect the data as its travels over a wireless network If not encrypted, can easily be reassembled and read If intentionally left open, user should be informed there is not expectation of privacy If the wireless network is connected to the corporate network, then information gathered could be used to impersonate a legitimate user or device to perform network intrusion While an attacker is sniffing traffic they can remain completely undetected 12

14 Authenticity WEP (wired equivalent privacy) Specifies the use of pre-shared keys to authentication a device Does not specify how the key should be distributed or a frequency to update the key Mgfs haven t implemented key distribution forcing customers to manually configure each device with matching keys. Result: most devices uses a manually configured key that rarely changes 13

15 Authenticity SSID (service set identifier) Identifies the devices that belong to a Basic Service Set (BSS). A BSS is analogous to a LAN in wired terms SSID is meant as a method to identify what Service Set you want to communicate with; not as a security layer authentication. Even when using WEP, the SSID is fully visible. Some mgfr even allow the WLAN cards to poll for the SSID and self configure. 14

16 Authenticity MAC ( media access control) Possible to restrict access by MAC address on many AP (access points) by means of an ACL All standards compliant NIC cards, including WLAN cards, should have unique MAC, some software allow this address to be spoofed Spoofing Wireless Is easy Unlike internet devices which have routing issues to overcome, IP addresses of wireless devices can be manually changed at will Networks with DHCP or BOOTP server, serve up the IP address dynamically 15

17 Encryption WEP is the encryption protocol for Privacy to the level one would expect from a wired public network and WEP are implemented at the lowest layers- -physical and data link--which means it is independent higher level protocols such as TCP/IP Privacy equivalent to public network but without SSL or IPSEC which operate at a higher layer Also some known design flaws that assist the attacker to discover the decryption key Although WEP uses RC4- a perfectly good encryption algorithm, the fault lies in the WEP algorithm itself 16

18 Encryption WEP Flaw If I know the cipertext and plaintext, I can compute the key. Attacker monitors traffic and finds enough examples to work out the plaintext from message context. Voila -- the key The combination of pre-shared key and Initiation Vector (IV) is supposed to prevent duplicate keystreams from being used Both since the pre-shared key is rarely changed, the IV is the main factor in key uniqueness 17

19 Encryption WEP Flaw does not define how the IV should be randomized; leaving the decision up to the hardware vendor IV is 24 bits = 16M possible value, but not so greate when every frame is at issue Any two frames with the same IV have the same key unless the pre-shared key was changed in between Once the attackers knows or guess some part of a WEP packet, the key can be computed Large amounts of known data is the fastest way of determining as many keystreams as possible The information may be as innocuous as the fields in the protocol header or the DNS name query 18

20 Some Obvious Steps 1. Use WEP for in transit encryption to prevent casual snooper 2. Deploy higher layer encryption for sensitive data 3. Survey site to detect signal leakage 4. Change default AP SSIDs and dissable broadcast SSID 5. Use SNMP for AP management change default comm strings (passwords) 6. MAC level filtering limits the clients that your APslisten to 19

21 Some Obvious Steps 7. Determine if AP will use DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) for new clients trying to connect to network 8. Discipline, controls, and policies to address the dynamic nature of wireless 20

22 Security Approaches Multiple layers Compromise in one layer doesn t result in a complete exposure of your internal network Make your wireless connections abide by your corporate perimeter defense strategy Diminish the WEP weaknesses to being inconsequential Include some or all of: Firewall port filtering ( at all points of entry) Encrypted connections (for remote access) Double authentication ( for remote access) Multi-layer zones ( for publicly accessible servers) Network intrusion detection ( either/both sides of firewall) 21

23 Wireless Security 22

24 Security Elements b WEP enabled WEP key 104 bit MAC ACL enabled IPSEC (tunnel mode) Network Based Authentication ESP using 3DES Proxy Firewall IPSEC Tunnel End Point Deny All except: IPSEC tunneled traffic or BOOTP(DHCP) Change factory default Admin ID Admin password WEP key SSID Disable response to ESS beacons WEP key mgmt Change WEP keys frequently Distribute key within SSL tunnel prior to scheduled change 23

25 Justifications Multiple layer encryption Encrypting at both Layer 2 (data link) and 3 (network) makes WEP more resistant to a decryption attack Still not impervious to attack, since headers are still singly encrypted. Some information still in the clear MAC address, SSID, IV, key ID, and FCS This information is exposed at the physical and media access control layers MAC address is the most unfortunate exposure Informs attacker of a valid address that can be used for spoofing. MAC addresses should only be used as supplemental to other authentication methods. 24

26 Justification Authenticate both device and user Device by the WEP key, although crackable, can be somewhat trusted if the key is changed frequently and distributed securely User must be authenticated against a known user list before the device is permitted through the firewall Firewall Prevents unauthorized network entry, also blocks broadcast traffic that may contain helpful information about the internal network IPSEC Tunnel Doesn t give away any details of the network It encrypts and then replaces the IP header that contains the designation IP address 25

27 Justification Disabling response to ESS Beacons Doesn t prevent viewing SSID, but does reduce the chances your LAN will be discovered Popular network discovery applications depend on the ESS beacons 26

28 Securing Your Network WEP first If you ve already deployed wireless products, your choices may already be laid out for you If so, take the highest common denominator approach to decide what level of WEP ( 64 or 128) you can afford Key Distribution Distributing keys via SSL requires individuals to reconfigure their own keys which may not be practicable Some mgfr have incorporated key distribution into their products, but necessarily proprietary New X standards should fix this shortly 27

29 Securing Your Network Firewall Decide what type of firewall fits your needs Abstraction layer between wireless segment and corporate network. Some questions: What products are already protecting the Internet gateway Do they work for wireless gateway How many locations will need security; if a lot what is the incremental cost and can all of the gateways be managed centrally Does the product support the remote user authentication required by corporate policy Is the authentication implementation compatible with central accounts database Will the firewall allow encrypted traffic tunnels with the types of wireless devices you use 28

30 Securing Your Network IPSEC Is it viable for your infrastructure Secondary encryption doesn t have to be IPSEC, but you should understand the trade offs If SSL is used, creating a tunnel between the firewall and the client is not possible, therefore exposing the real destination of the address within the IP header SSL operates at a higher layer in the TCP/IP stake and exposes more information to the layers below SSL is primarily a web protocol, which means it may restrict the types of applications you enable over your wireless network. 29

31 Final Words is truly useful technology Wireless networking will continue to expand As the networking standards change so will the security issues Network security specialists need to understand wireless networking SANS Institute Information Security Reading Room 30

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