Virtual Private Networks

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1 Virtual Private Networks ECE 4886 Internetwork Security Dr. Henry Owen

2 Definition Virtual Private Network VPN! Virtual separation in protocol provides a virtual network using no new hardware! Private communication over VPN is encrypted! Network infrastructure over which computers communicate

3 VPN Elements Encrypted Tunnel! Privacy of Information Important!! Internet is a public network <- need for secure communications! Data is encrypted upon transmission and decrypted upon arrival at the destination! Two hosts effectively communicate directly! Data is tunneled from one to the other

4 VPN Elements Authenticated Endpoints! Messages are authenticated! Possible replay attack to reveal crypto key! VPN hashing algorithm If the packet has been changed by one bit, VPN will drop the packet Hackers are reduced to guessing the key Replay attack ineffective

5 VPN Elements Underlying Transport! Uses existing network connection! TCP/IP Protocol VPN & Internet VPNs can be placed anywhere! Personal network! Internet

6 VPN Advantages Improved Security Consolidation of Scattered Resources Transparency to Users Reduced Cost Ease of Administration

7 VPN Disadvantages Time Consuming Setup Troubleshooting Internet Availability Interoperability with other Networks

8 Implementing VPNs SSH over PPP SSL over PPP IPSec PPTP

9 VPN via SSH & PPP Point-to-Point Protocol over a Secure Shell connection Establishing a Network Connection! Establish an SSH connection VPN Client " VPN Server! Each have PPP daemons that will communicate through the SSH connection! Viola! A VPN CONNECTION!

10 VPN via SSL & PPP Point-to-Point Protocol over a Secure Socket Layer connection Secure Socket Layer! Built-in support for Host Authentication! Certificates

11 VPN via SSL & PPP Establishing a Network Connection! Initial Handshake for secure communication! Hello messages establish: SSL Version, support for Cipher suites, and some random data! Key is determined separately from handshake! SSL Connection Complete!! Data transferred over the link

12 VPN via IPSec Internet Protocol Security IPSec Security at the IP layer Two Modes! Transport Modifies only upper levels by adding headers and protection between upper level and original IP header Designed for hosts to protect IP traffic between each other

13 VPN via IPSec Two Modes (Cont d)! Tunnel Treats entire packet as a block Encapsulates the packet into an encrypted payload Designed to tunnel traffic between gateways Relies on sets of rules that specify the type of protection needed for certain packets similar to firewall rules

14 VPN via PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol! Microsoft s Implementation of VPN! Data is first encapsulated inside PPP packets! PPP packets are then encapsulated in GRE packets and sent over the link PPTP uses two connections! One for the data being sent! Another for a control channel

15 VPN via PPTP PPTP Not Usually Used on Linux! Only for interoperability with Windows machines PPTP VPN can be established without encryption! Possible security issue here Not recommended for Linux systems, since there are easier and more secure VPN implementations

16 Resources Books:! Building Linux Virtual Private Networks Oleg Kolesnikov, Brian Hatch! Linux Server Hacks Rob Flickenger Websites:!

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