Democratic Reform and Consolidation

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1 Democratic Reform and Consolidation The Cases of Mexico and Turkey Evren Çelik Wiltse

2 Evren Celik Wiltse 2015 First published by the ECPR Press in 2015 Cover: Evren Celik Wiltse (2014) Mexican Mural on Revolution The ECPR Press is the publishing imprint of the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR), a scholarly association, which supports and encourages the training, research and cross-national co-operation of political scientists in institutions throughout Europe and beyond. ECPR Press Harbour House Hythe Quay Colchester CO2 8JF United Kingdom All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Typeset by Lapiz Digital Services Printed and bound by Lightning Source British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: PDF ISBN: EPUB ISBN: KINDLE ISBN:

3 Contents List of Abbreviations List of Figures and Tables Acknowledgements Preface ix xiii xv xix Chapter One Introduction 1 Chapter Two Legacy of the Empires 13 Chapter Three Nation-Building through Corporatism: The Turkish Republic until the 1980 Crisis 49 Chapter Four Mexico after 1910: Revolution, Modernisation, Corporatist Nation-Building 97 Chapter Five Democratic Progress in Mexico and Turkey After Chapter Six Conclusion 213 Appendices 223 Bibliography 237 Index 255

4 List of Abbreviations AKP AMLO ANAP AP BoP CEDESA CHP CKMP CMHN CONCAMIN CONCANACO CROM CTM DGM DISK DP DPT DTP EU EZLN FDI FDR GATT GDP IFE IMF IMSS Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, Justice and Development Party of Turkey Andrés Manuel López Obrador Anavatan Partisi, Motherland Party of Turkey Adalet Partisi, Justice Party of Turkey Balance of Payments Centro de Desarollo Agropecuario, Center for Development in Agriculture Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, Republican People s Party of Turkey Cumhuriyetçi Köylü Millet Partisi, Republican Peasant and Nation Party of Turkey Consejo Mexicano de Hombres de Negocios, Mexican Council of Businessmen Confederation of Industrial Chambers of Mexico The Confederation of Chambers of Commerce of Mexico Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers Confederacion de Trabajadores de Mexico, Confederation of Workers of Mexico Devlet Güvenlik Mahkemeleri, State Security Courts in Turkey Devrimci İşçi Sendikaları Konfederasyonu, Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions in Turkey Demokrat Parti, Democrat Party of Turkey Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı, State Planning Organisation of Turkey Demokratik Toplum Partisi, Democratic Society Party of Turkey The European Union Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, Zapatista National Liberation Army Foreign Direct Investment Franklin Delano Roosevelt General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gross Domestic Product Instituto Federal Electoral, Federal Electoral Institute of Mexico International Monetary Fund Instituto Mexicano de Segura Social, Mexican Social Security Institute

5 x Democratic Reform and Consolidation IS/ISIS ISI MGK MHP MNP MSP MUSIAD NAFTA NATO OAS OPDA OYAK PAN PEMEX PNR PP PR PRD PRI PROCEDE PRONASOL SEE SSK TAF TEB TEKEL TGNA TIP TMMOB TOBB Islamic State, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Import substitution industrialization Milli Güvenlik Kurulu, National Security Council of Turkey Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, National Action Party of Turkey Milli Nizam Partisi, National Order Party of Turkey Milli Selamet Partisi, National Salvation Party of Turkey Independent Industrialists and Businessmen s Association of Turkey North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement North Atlantic Treaty Organization Organization of American States Ottoman Public Debt Administration, (Düyun-u Umumiye) Ordu Yardımlaşma Kurumu, Turkish Armed Forces Assistance and Pension Fund Partido Accion Nacional, National Action Party of Mexico Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexican national oil company Partido Nacional Revolucionario, National Revolutionary Party of Mexico People s Party, later became the Republican People s Party of Turkey proportional representation system Partido de la Revolución Democrática, Party of Democratic Revolution of Mexico Partido Revolucionario Institucional, Revolutionary Institutional Party of Mexico Programa de Certificación de Derechos Ejidales y Titulación de Solares, Certificate program for Mexican collective land owners. National Solidarity Program of Mexico for social assistance (later PROGRESA) State Economic Enterprise Turkish Social Security Institution Turkish Armed Forces Türk Eczacılar Birliği, Pharmacists Association of Turkey Turkish tobacco and alcohol monopoly Turkish Grand National Assembly Türkiye İşçi Partisi, Worker s Party of Turkey Türk Mühendis ve Mimar Odaları Birliği, Union of Chamber of Turkish Engineers and Architects Türkiye Odalar Borsalar Birliği, The Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey

6 List of Abbreviations xi TRT TUSIAD TUSKON Türk-İş UNAM VAT YÖK Turkish Radio Television, state-owned broadcasting agency of Turkey Turkish Industry and Business Association Turkish Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists Turkish Labour Confederation National Autonomous University of Mexico Value added tax Yüksek Öğrenim Kurumu, Higher Education Council of Turkey

7 List of Figures and Tables Figures Figure 2.1: Pyramid of Spanish colonial political and administrative hierarchy 18 Figure 2.2: Pyramid of Ottoman political hierarchy 30 Figure 2.3: Registered bullion production in Spanish colonies 38 Figure 3.1: State society relations under corporatism 55 Figure 3.2: Turkish political landscape, Figure 4.1: The corporatist triangle 113 Figure 4.2: The pendulum of Mexican politics 127 Figure 5.1: Concepts of democratic continuum 143 Figure 5.2: Exports and imports of goods and services in Mexico, , as % of GDP 153 Figure 5.3: Foreign direct investment (FDI) net flows, Mexico and Turkey compared, Figure 5.4: Transition from authoritarian clientelism to semi-clientelism and citizenship in Mexico 161 Figure 5.5: Import export performance of Turkey as % of GDP, Figure 5.6: Import export performance of Mexico as % of GDP, Figure 5.7: Political party landscape in Turkey after 1980 coup 187 Figure 5.8: Co-existence and hierarchy of multiple forms of state society relations in Turkey 202

8 xiv Democratic Reform and Consolidation Tables Table 3.1: Unanimous decisions of Turkish Grand National Assembly, Table 3.2: Prime ministers of Republic of Turkey, Table 3.3: Distribution of membership in rival union organisations, by economic sector, 1975 (%) 93 Table 4.1: Impact of land reform during Cárdenas years 117 Table 4.2: Mexican industry, Table 4.3: Increase in agricultural production, Table 5.1: State Economic Enterprises (SEEs) in Mexico, Table 5.2: Trade openness of Turkey, Table 5.3: Results of 2007, 2011 and 2015 general elections and distribution of seats in Turkish parliament 188 Table 5.4: Tolerance for diversity 198 Table 5.5: Interpersonal trust and sense of personal empowerment 199 Table 5.6: Provinces with highest % of Green Card holders in Table 5.7: Provinces with lowest % of Green Card holders in Table 6.1: Summary of findings on Turkish and Mexican cases 219 Table A1: Political Regimes in 2010 and 2015 according to the Freedom House Rating System 223 Table A2: Freedom House Individual Country Ratings and Status for Mexico and Turkey ( ) 226

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