Single- and Multi-Carrier CDMA Multi-User Detection, Space-Time Spreading, Synchronisation and Standards

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1 Single- and Multi-Carrier CDMA Multi-User Detection, Space-Time Spreading, Synchronisation and Standards by L. Hanzo, L-L. Yang, E-L. Kuan and K. Yen We dedicate this monograph to the numerous contributors of this field, many of whom are listed in the Author Index

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3 Title Page - for Wiley to do iii

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5 Copyright Page - for Wiley to do v

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7 About the Authors Lajos Hanzo received his degree in electronics in 1976 and his doctorate in During his career in telecommunications he has held various research and academic posts in Hungary, Germany and the UK. Since 1986 he has been with the Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, UK, where he holds the chair in telecommunications. He has co-authored 10 books on mobile radio communications, published about 400 research papers, organised and chaired conference sessions, presented overview lectures and has been awarded a number of distinctions. Currently he heads an academic research team, working on a range of research projects in the field of wireless multimedia communications sponsored by industry, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) UK, the European IST Programme and the Mobile Virtual Centre of Excellence (VCE), UK. He is an enthusiastic supporter of industrial and academic liaison and he offers a range of industrial courses. He is also an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer. For further information on research in progress and associated publications please refer to Lie-Liang Yang vii

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9 Other Wiley and IEEE Press Books on Related Topics 1 R. Steele, L. Hanzo (Ed): Mobile Radio Communications: Second and Third Generation Cellular and WATM Systems, John Wiley-IEEE Press, 2nd edition, 1999, ISBN , p 1064 L. Hanzo, W. Webb, and T. Keller, Single- and Multi-Carrier Quadrature Amplitude Modulation: Principles and Applications for Personal Communications, WLANs and Broadcasting. IEEE Press, L. Hanzo, F.C.A. Somerville, J.P. Woodard: Voice Compression and Communications: Principles and Applications for Fixed and Wireless Channels; IEEE Press-John Wiley, 2001, p 642 L. Hanzo, P. Cherriman, J. Streit: Wireless Video Communications: Second to Third Generation and Beyond, IEEE Press, 2001, p 1093 L. Hanzo, T.H. Liew, B.L. Yeap: Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation and Space-Time Coding, John Wiley - IEEE Press, 2002, p 751 J.S. Blogh, L. Hanzo: Third-Generation Systems and Intelligent Wireless Networking: Smart Antennas and Adaptive Modulation, John Wiley - IEEE Press, 2002, p408 L. Hanzo, C.H. Wong, M.S. Yee: Adaptive wireless transceivers: Turbo-Coded, Turbo- Equalised and Space-Time Coded TDMA, CDMA and OFDM systems, John Wiley - IEEE Press, 2002, p 737 L. Hanzo, M. Münster, T. Keller, B-J. Choi: OFDM and MC-CDMA for for Broadband Multi-user Communications, WLANs and Broadcasting, John Wiley - IEEE Press, For detailed contents please refer to ix

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11 Contents About the Authors Other Wiley and IEEE Press Books on Related Topics v viii Acknowledgments 1 1 Prologue - Intelligent Broadband Wireless Transceivers Motivation of the Book Organisation and Novel Contributions of the Book Introduction to Flexible Transceivers FH/MC DS-CDMA Characteristics of the FH/MC DS-CDMA Systems Adaptive Rate Transmission Why Adaptive Rate Transmission? What Is Adaptive Rate Transmission? Adaptive Rate Transmission in FH/MC DS-CDMA System Software Defined Radio Assisted FH/MC DS-CDMA Chapter Summary and Conclusions I Multi-User Detection for Adaptive Single-Carrier CDMA 29 2 CDMA Overview Introduction to Code Division Multiple Access DS-CDMA transmission model DS-CDMA transmitter DS-CDMA receiver Recovery of the information signal Recovery of the information signal in multiple access interference Frequency-domain representation Spreading sequences Correlation of sequences xi

12 xii CONTENTS m-sequences Gold sequences Kasami sequences DS-CDMA system performance Theoretical BER performance of asynchronous BPSK/DS-CDMA over Gaussian channels Theoretical BER performance of bit-synchronous BPSK/DS-CDMA systems over Gaussian channels Simulation results and discussion Estimation of Simulated DS-CDMA BER performance over Gaussian channels for synchronous users Simulated DS-CDMA BER performance versus the number of users over Gaussian channels Simulated DS-CDMA BER performance versus spreading code length over Gaussian channels Simulated DS-CDMA BER performance for spreading code sets having different cross-correlation values over Gaussian channels Discussion Multiuser detection Survey of multiuser receivers Chapter Summary and Conclusions List of Symbols in Part I 34 3 Joint Detection of CDMA Signals Basic equalizer theory Zero-forcing equalizer Minimum mean square error equalizer Decision feedback equalizers Equalizer modifications for joint detection System model Joint detection techniques Whitening filter Matched filter Whitening matched filter Zero Forcing Block Linear Equalizer Minimum Mean Square Error Block Linear Equalizer Zero Forcing Block Decision Feedback Equalizer Minimum Mean Square Error Block Decision Feedback Equalizer Complexity calculations Whitening matched filter Zero Forcing Block Linear Equalizer Minimum Mean Square Error Block Linear Equalizer Zero Forcing Block Decision Feedback Equalizer Minimum Mean Square Error Block Decision Feedback Equalizer.. 120

13 CONTENTS xiii 3.5 Advantages and disadvantages of joint detection receivers Experimental work on joint detection receivers Experimental conditions Comparison of joint detection receivers in different channels Effect of multipath diversity Effect of increasing the number of users, Joint detection and channel coding Effect of channel estimation errors Chapter Summary and Conclusions Adaptive-Rate Joint Detection Aided CDMA Introduction Adaptive Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Joint detection assisted AQAM based CDMA System model Output SINR for the joint detection receiver Output SINR of the MMSE-BDFE Numerical analysis of the JD-CDMA system performance Simulation parameters Performance of a two-user, twin-mode AQAM/JD-CDMA system Performance comparisons of a twin-mode AQAM/JD-CDMA system for various number of users Performance of a two-user, triple-mode AQAM/JD-CDMA system Performance comparisons of a triple-mode AQAM/JD-CDMA system for various number of users Performance of a five-mode AQAM/JD-CDMA system Effect of imperfect SINR estimation on AQAM performance Discussion Variable Spreading Factor based adaptive-rate CDMA System model Simulation results Comparison of AQAM/JD-CDMA and VSF/JD-CDMA Combining AQAM and VSF with JD-CDMA Chapter Summary and Conclusions Adaptive-Rate Interference Cancellation Assisted CDMA Successive interference cancellation Complexity calculations BER performance of SIC-CDMA Adaptive-rate SIC-CDMA AQAM/SIC-CDMA VSF/SIC-CDMA Parallel interference cancellation Complexity calculations BER performance of PIC-CDMA Adaptive-rate PIC-CDMA

14 xiv CONTENTS AQAM/PIC-CDMA Comparison of JD, SIC and PIC CDMA receivers for AQAM transmission Comparison of JD, SIC and PIC CDMA receivers for VSF transmission Chapter Summary and Conclusions Blind Per-Survivor Processing Aided CDMA Blind PSP for bit-synchronous CDMA data detection and multipath CIR estimation Tree-search algorithm for data sequence detection Metric calculation Adaptive Recursive Least Squares multipath CIR estimator Blind PSP receiver performance PSP with turbo coding Chapter Summary and Conclusions Space-Time Spreading Aided Single-Carrier Wideband CDMA Motivation System Model Transmitted Signal Channel Model Receiver Model Detection of Space-Time Spreading W-CDMA Signals BER Performance BER Analysis Numerical Results and Discussions Adaptive Space-time Spreading Chapter Summary and Conclusions II Genetic Algorithm Assisted Multiuser Detection Overview of Genetic Algorithms Invoked for Multiuser Detection An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms Genetic Algorithms at Work Why do GA work? Optimisation from a Human s Perspective Optimisation from a GA s Perspective Effects of Selection on the Schemata Effects of Crossover on the Schemata Effects of Mutation on the Schemata Elements of Genetic Algorithms Representation Binary Encoding Gray Encoding Selection Fitness-proportionate Selection Sigma Scaling

15 CONTENTS xv Linear Ranking Selection Tournament Selection Incest Prevention Crossover Single-point Crossover Double-point Crossover Uniform Crossover Mutation Mutation of binary decision variables Mutation of real-valued decision variables Elitism Termination Criterion Survey of Genetic Algorithm-Assisted CDMA Multiuser Detection Chapter Summary and Conclusions List of Symbols in Part II GA-Assisted Multiuser Detection for Synchronous CDMA Introduction Synchronous CDMA System Model Discrete-Time Synchronous CDMA Model Optimum Multiuser Detector for Synchronous CDMA Systems Experimental Results Effects of the Population Size Effects of the Probability of Mutation Effects of the Choice of Crossover Operation Effects of Incest Prevention and Elitism Effects of the Choice of Selection Schemes Effects of a Biased Generated Population Simulation Results AWGN Channel Single-path Rayleigh Fading Channel Chapter Summary and Conclusions Joint GA-Assisted Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection Introduction System Model Joint GA-assisted Multiuser Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection Initialisation Effects of the Mating Pool Size Effects of the Mutation Size Simulation Results Chapter Summary and Conclusions

16 xvi CONTENTS 11 GA-Assisted, Antenna Diversity Aided Multiuser Detection Introduction System Model GA-Assisted Diversity-Aided Multiuser Detection Direct Approach Pareto Optimality Approach Simulation Results Chapter Summary and Conclusions GA-Assisted Multiuser Detection for Asynchronous CDMA Introduction Asynchronous CDMA System Model GA-Assisted Multiuser Detection in Asynchronous CDMA Systems Matched Filter-Assisted EEB Estimation GA-Assisted EEB Estimation Complexity Issues Simulation Results Effects of the Mating Pool Size Chapter Summary and Conclusions III M-ary Single-Carrier CDMA Non-Coherent -ary Orthogonal Modulation in CDMA Background Introduction to -ary Orthogonal Modulation Fundamentals of -ary CDMA System Model The Transmitter Model Channel Model The Receiver Model Performance Analysis Noise analysis Self-interference analysis MAI analysis Decision Statistic and Error Probability Bandwidth Efficiency in -ary modulated CDMA Numerical Simulation Results Summary of Performance Results Chapter Summary and Conclusions RS Coded Non-coherent -ary Orthogonal Modulation in CDMA Motivation System Description and Channel Model The Transmitted Signals The Channel Model The Detection Model

17 CONTENTS xvii Equal Gain Combining Selection Combining Average Error Probability without FEC Equal Gain Combining Selection Combining Performance using RS forward error-correction codes Error-Correction-Only Decoding Errors-and-Erasures Decoding Numerical Results Chapter Summary and Conclusions Residue Number System Arithmetic Invoked for M-ary CDMA Introduction Residue Number System Transform and Its Inverse Redundant Residue Number System Error-Detection and Error-Correction in RRNS Chapter Summary and Conclusions Redundant Residue Number System Coded M-ary DS-CDMA State of the Art Performance in AWGN channels Communication Model Performance of Coherent Receiver Receiver Model Coherent RNS-CDMA System s Probability of Error Numerical Results and Analysis Performance of Noncoherent Receiver Receiver Model The Noncoherent Receiver s Probability of Error Numerical Results Performance in Multipath Fading channels Multipath Slow-Fading Channel Model Performance of the Coherent RNS-Based CDMA Receiver Using Maximum Ratio Combining Receiver Model Decision Statistics Upper-Bound of the Average Probability of Error Numerical Results Performance of Noncoherent RNS-Based DS-CDMA Receiver Using Equal Gain Combining and Selection Combining Receiver Model Decision Statistics Average Probability of Error Numerical Results Performance of RRNS Coded Systems Introduction

18 xviii CONTENTS Ratio Statistic Test Probability Density Function of the Ratio Using EGC Probability Density Function of the Ratio Using SC Decoding Error Probability Error-Correction-Only Decoding Error-Dropping-Only Decoding Error-Dropping-and-Correction Decoding Numerical Results Performance of Concatenated RS-RRNS Coded Systems Concatenated RS-RRNS codes Decoding Error Probability of RS-RRNS codes Numerical Results Chapter Summary and Conclusions IV Multi-Carrier CDMA Overview of Multicarrier CDMA Introduction Overview of Multicarrier CDMA Systems Frequency-Domain Spreading Assisted Multicarrier CDMA Scheme Orthogonal Multicarrier DS-CDMA scheme Type I Orthogonal Multicarrier DS-CDMA Scheme Type II Multitone DS-CDMA Scheme Adaptive Frequency-Hopping Assisted multicarrier DS-CDMA scheme Adaptive Subchannel Allocation Assisted Multicarrier DS-CDMA Slow Frequency-Hopping Multicarrier DS-CDMA Summary Channel Model Performance of MC-CDMA System System Description The Transmitter Receiver Performance Analysis Noise and Interference Analysis Decision Statistics and Error Probability Performance of Overlapping Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems Preliminaries System Description Transmitted Signal Receiver Model Interference Analysis Performance Analysis Performance of Multicarrier DS-CDMA-I Systems Decision Variable Statistics Performance Analysis

19 CONTENTS xix 17.7 Performance of AMC DS-CDMA Systems Performance of SFH/MC DS-CDMA Systems System Description The Transmitted Signal Channel Description Receiver Model Performance of SFH/MC DS-CDMA Using Hard-Detection Probability of Error Numerical Results Blind Joint Detection of the SFH/MC DS-CDMA Signals Maximum Likelihood Detection Approach I Approach II Performance of SFH/MC DS-CDMA Using Soft-Detection Approach I Approach II Numerical Results Chapter Summary and Conclusions Space-Time Spreading Assisted Broadband Multicarrier DS-CDMA Motivation and Outline Comparison of CDMA, MC-CDMA and MC DS-CDMA Motivation Introduction Overview of CDMA Schemes Using No Frequency-Hopping SC DS-CDMA MC-CDMA MC DS-CDMA Flexibility Comparison Broadband Wireless Communications Based on CDMA Deficiencies of Broadband SC DS-CDMA and Broadband MC-CDMA Using Broadband MC DS-CDMA for Supporting Ubiquitous Wireless Communications Transmit Diversity Assisted MC DS-CDMA Based on STS Capacity Improvement Based on TF-domain Spreading Conclusions Space-Time Spreading Assisted Multicarrier DS-CDMA Introduction System Description Transmitter Model Channel Model and System Parameter Design Receiver Model Bit Error Rate Analysis Capacity Extension Using Time-Frequency-Domain Spreading System Description

20 xx CONTENTS Signal Detection BER Performance Conclusions Performance of Generalized MC-CDMA over Nakagami- Channels Motivation Introduction Generalized Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems Transmitted Signal Channel Model Receiver Model Decision Variable Statistics Performance Analysis Numerical Results Conclusions Chapter Summary and Conclusions Initial Synchronization of DS-CDMA and MC-CDMA Systems Introduction System Model The Transmitted Signal The Channel model and The Received Signal Acquisition Procedure Description Serial Search Acquisition Scheme Parallel Acquisition Scheme Asymptotic Mean Acquisition Time Mean Acquisition Time of Serial Acquisition Parallel Acquisition Scheme Detection Performance over AWGN Channels Statistics of the Decision Variables Probabilities of False-Alarm and Overall Missing for the Serial Search Acquisition Scheme Overall Detection, Missing and False-Alarm Probabilities of The Parallel Acquisition Scheme Detection Performance over Multipath Fading Channels Statistics of Decision Variables Probabilities of Overall Missing and False-Alarm for the Serial Acquisition Scheme Probabilities of Overall Successful Detection, Overall Missing and Overall False-Alarm for the Parallel Search Based Acquisition Scheme Serial Search Using Multicell Joint Detection Joint Two-Cell Detection Model Detection Performance over AWGN Channels Detection Performance over Dispersive Multipath Rayleigh Fading Channels Conditional Probability Density Functions

21 CONTENTS xxi Probabilities of Overall Missing and False-Alarm for Joint Two-Cell Detection Code-Acquisition in Multi-Carrier DS-CDMA System System Model The transmitter Code-Acquisition Description Decision Variable Statistics Equal Gain Combining Selection Combining Probability of Detection, Missing and False-Alarm Equal Gain Combining Selection Combining V Standards and Networking Third-Generation CDMA Systems Introduction Third-Generation Systems Introduction UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) Characteristics of UTRA Transport Channels Physical Channels Dedicated Physical Channels Common Physical Channels Common Physical Channels of the FDD Mode Common Physical Channels of the TDD Mode Service Multiplexing and Channel Coding in UTRA CRC Attachment Transport Block Concatenation Channel-Coding Radio Frame Padding First Interleaving Radio Frame Segmentation Rate Matching Discontinuous Transmission Indication Transport Channel Multiplexing Physical Channel Segmentation Second Interleaving Physical Channel Mapping Mapping Several Multirate Services to the UL Dedicated Physical Channels in FDD Mode

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