Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session HVAC Products. Richard Lord

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session HVAC Products. Richard Lord"

Transcription

1 Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session HVAC Products Richard Lord

2 Overview and Agenda My goal today is to give you quick an overview of the current status of HVAC products and near term improvements that should you can considered when evaluating School Upgrade programs The presentation will cover the following topic; Typical school Building Load Profiles Typically HVAC Equipment used in Schools Efficiency Metrics for HVAC Equipment Historical Perspective on Efficiency Requirements Recent and Future Efficiency Improvement Initiatives Future Industry Initiatives 2

3 School Building Load One of the key things we have learned in ASHRAE 90.1 is to model the typical buildings so that we can understand the load profiles as well as all the operating characteristics For this, ASHRAE 90.1, with support from PNNL, have developed 15 benchmark buildings of which two are schools (primary and secondary) Schools have a unique building load profile They are different than other buildings like office buildings; High internal people load with average 42.6 ft2/person vs. an office at 200 ft2/person (4.7 times higher occupancy density) Average plug load of 4.8 W/ft2 vs. offices at.45 W/ft2 (10.6 times higher) Weekday occupancy from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm, often with limited summer operation vs. offices with annual operation and similar operating hours High percentage of ventilation air with an average of 64% outside air during occupancy vs. offices at 27% (2.4 times higher) 3

4 Climate Zones Weather data is not the same, and has a big impact on building loads as well as the performance of HVAC equipment. ASHRAE 90.1 has divided the US and the World into 17 climate zones as shown in the following map. 4

5 California Climate Zones Title 24 does not use the ASHRAE climate zones and has further divided the California requirements into 16 California Specific climate zones as shown, but these can be mapped to ASHRAE zones so that we can look at building modeling work that ASHRAE 90.1 has done 5

6 School Load Data Metrics Using the ASHRAE 90.1 benchmark buildings models I have developed the following metrics for typical primary and secondary school. US Zone US City California Zone California City Summer Design Heating Design Drybulb Wetbulb Drybulb Wetbulb F F F RH Cooling Design Intensity Heating Intensity Heat/Coil Ratio ft/ton ft-hr/kbtu % Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Secondary 1A Miami % % 73% 1B Riyadh % % 64% 2A Houston % % 74% 2B Phoenix % % 65% 3A Memphis % % 74% 6 Los Angeles % 7 San Diego % 8 El Toro % 9 Burbank % 3B El Paso 10 Riverside % 11 Red Bulff % % 68% 12 Sacramento % 13 Fresno % 14 China Lake % 15 El Centro % 3C San Francisco 3 Oakland % % 76% 4A Baltimore % % 74% 4B Albuquerque % % 66% 4C Salem 4 Sunnyvale % % 77% 5A Chicago % % 76% 5B Boise % % 70% 5C Vancouver 5 Santa Maria % % 81% 6A Burlington % % 78% 6B Helena 2 Sata Rosa % % 72% 7 Duluth 1.0 Arcata % % 71% 8 Fairbanks % % 74% US Average % 73% California Avg % 74% Design % OA 6

7 School Load Profiles Over the years most design decisions and regulations have focused on the design conditions and full load operation. Full load and full ambient design conditions are only 0.4% of the operating hours and do not always represent the annualized energy It is also common for equipment to be oversized and in fact ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G which defines requirements for building simulation, requires that cooling equipment be oversized by 15% and heating by 25% Building HVAC loads are typically calculated with maximum possible occupancy and worst case plugs loads Bottom line is equipment never runs at the design conditions and is always running at part load as well as reduced ambients This has resulted in new thinking about performance metrics as well as design features and options that I will talk more about 7

8 Climate Zone 3B Primary School Load Profile Equivalent to California climate zone 6-Los Angeles, 7-San Diego, 8-El Toro, 9-Burbank, 10- Riverside, 11-Red Bluff, 12, Sacramento, 13, Fresno, 14-China Lake, 15-El Centro 8

9 Climate Zone 3C Primary School Load Profile Equivalent to California climate zone 3-Oakland 9

10 Climate Zone 4C Primary School Load Profile Equivalent to California climate zone 4-Sunnyvale 10

11 Climate Zone 5C Primary School Load Profile Equivalent to California climate zone 5-Santa Maria 11

12 Climate Zone 6B Primary School Load Profile Equivalent to California climate zone 2-Santa Rosa 12

13 Climate Zone 7 Primary School Load Profile Equivalent to California climate zone 1-Arcata 13

14 Typical School HVAC Equipment The following are typical HVAC Systems that are used in schools Packaged Air cooled rooftops Air Cooled Central Chiller systems with fan coils or air handlers Water Cooled Central Chiller systems with fan coils or air handlers Geothermal Water Source Heat Pumps (WSHP) with DOAS for ventilation Single Packaged Vertical Air Conditioners (SPVAC) Packaged Air Cooled (Portable Class Rooms) Variable Refrigerant Systems with DOAS for ventilation 14

15 Typical Full Load Efficiency Metrics Minimum efficiency standards started back in the 1970 s Until recently the primary metrics used were full load efficiency metrics determined at defined common rating conditions EER Ratio of the Net Cooling Capacity in Btu/hr divided by the total unit power. This metric is typical used on most packed equipment, air cooled chillers, and VRF systems KW/ton Ratio of the total power input divided by the capacity in tons. This used for water cooled chillers COP Ratio of the output heating capacity in watts divided by the power input in watts. This is used for heat pump when operating in heating. E C, E T Combustion Efficiency. Used for gas and oil fired heating products 15

16 Typical Annualized Efficiency Metrics Recently the industry has started to used annualized metrics that also consider part load operation SEER Seasonal Energy Efficiency ratio which is the total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period for cooling (in Btu/h) divided by the total electric power input during the same period (in W). Used on residential and light commercial IPLV Integrated part load Value which is a weighted average of the EER, or kw/ton at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% loads for a typical US commercial building and climate zone. Used for chillers. IEER Integrated energy efficiency ratio which is the weighted average of the EER, at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% loads for a typical US commercial building and climate zone. HSPF - Heating seasonal performance factor which is the total heating output of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating (in Btu/h) divided by the total electric energy input (in W) during the same period 16

17 Typical Efficiency Metrics Trends With the new annualized metrics the industry and efficiency standards are gradually switching from a focus on full load metrics to the annualized metrics These better represent the potential efficiency improvements that will be obtained when purchasing new more efficient equipment, but they do not represent the direct savings that will be obtained in a given building and climate zone They typically represent the performance of a HVAC units, but do not include all the power and efficiency impacts of the complete HVAC System. The current best approach to determine the energy savings in a specific building and climate zone is to run an energy model of a building using tools like EQuest, DOE2, EnergyPlus, HAP, Trace, etc But currently only about 20% of the buildings are being modeled as the modeling is expensive to run and time consuming 17

18 Current Industry Efficiency Standards The current approach to industry efficiency standards like ASHRAE 90.1, Title 24 and DOE federal requirements are to define prescriptive requirements for components like unit efficiencies They also then define prescriptive requirements for components like economizers, energy recovery, cooling towers, piping, controls, etc But not all the components are currently regulated This approach also does not factor in the system aspects of things like multiple chillers, ductwork pressure drop, pumping power, and more When looking at new systems or replacement systems you should consider the full system impact. We are working on new approaches for HVAC systems which I will talk more about. 18

19 Chiller Water System Efficiency Example ASHRAE 90.1 fan power requirement, no approach requirement and ignore water use Regulations Cooling Tower No regulations Do not address multiple chillers and towers although most are applied that way Condenser Water Pump Current 550/590 Chiller Standard and Certification focus ASHRAE 90.1 Full and part load efficiency Condenser Evaporator Compressor No focus on condenser water pumping power other than a pipe sizing requirement No focus on chilled water pumping power other than pipe sizing No integration of economizers, exhaust fans, ERV and IAQ Very little focus on the effective air distribution Chart prepared by Richard Lord Outside Air Air Handler Conditioned Space Chilled Water Pump No focus on duct pressure drop and very little on applied fan power 19

20 Packaged Ducted Rooftop System Example Economizer and outside air not reflected in ratings ERV/Rooftop CEF can be used for full load, but not part load and annualized Power Exhaust not included in ratings Demand ventilation not reflected in ratings Packaged Rooftop Rating of the rooftop EER and IEER with part of the fan power is covered by AHRI 340/360 but we do not certify the full operating map No annualized performance for heating Only part of the duct work pressure drop included in the ratings Very little focus on the effective air distribution Conditioned Space On VAV units reheat not reflected in ratings Chart prepared by Richard Lord 20

21 HVAC Efficiency Improvement Background Great progress has been made in building efficiency and HVAC unit efficiencies and this can be important when considering replacement units Chart based on ASHRAE 90.1 determination study conducted by PNNL 21

22 HVAC Efficiency Improvements As you can see considerable progress has been made in efficiency improvements with considerable progress made in 2010 with an overall improvement of 32% for regulated building loads More improvements also have been approved for the 2013 release of ASHRAE 90.1 standards which typically are aligned with the title 24 requirements In the following pages I will summarize some of the improvements that you should be aware of when consider school upgrades 22

23 Efficiency (Btu/hr) Rooftop Efficiency Improvements For packaged equipment including rooftops the IEER will increase by an average of 13% effective in 2016 Similar improvements also being made for heat pumps and split systems EER 2016 EER Series IEER 2016 IEER <65K 65K to 135K 135K to 240K 240K to 760K >760K Capacity Category (KBtu/hr) Chart based ASHRAE 90.1 Packaged Rooftop Efficiency Requirements 23

24 2015 Chiller Efficiency Change Details Chiller efficiencies are also being improved with increased full and part load requirements as well as expanded path B part load intensive requirements. Categories have also be revised and aligned ASHRAE ASHRAE Final Proposal Equipment Type Size Category Units Path A Path B ASHRAE Final Proposal Path A Path B Path A Path B Full IPLV Full IPLV Full IPLV Full IPLV Full IPLV Full IPLV Air Cooled Chiller < 150 Tons EER Tons EER < 75 Tons kw/ton Tons and <150 Tons kw/ton % 9.6% 1.5% 26.4% 5.6% 9.8% 1.5% 26.3% 3.8% 4.8% 2.5% 16.7% 7.1% 8.9% 5.1% 16.4% Water Cooled Positive Displacement Water Cooled Centrifugal 150 Tons and <300 Tons kw/ton Tons and <400 Tons kw/ton Tons and <500 Tons kw/ton Tons and <600 Tons kw/ton Tons kw/ton < 75 Tons kw/ton Tons and <150 Tons kw/ton Tons and <300 Tons kw/ton Tons and <400 Tons kw/ton Tons and <500 Tons kw/ton Tons and <600 Tons kw/ton Tons kw/ton % 6.9% 5.3% 18.5% 1.6% 3.7% 2.2% 16.3% 1.6% 3.7% 2.2% 16.3% 1.6% 3.7% 2.2% 16.3% 9.7% 7.4% 8.5% 22.4% 3.8% 7.7% -8.8% 2.2% 3.8% 7.7% -8.8% 2.2% 3.8% 7.7% 0.6% 11.1% 2.8% 5.3% 0.8% 2.5% 2.8% 8.9% 2.5% 5.0% 2.8% 8.9% 2.5% 5.0% 1.8% 7.2% 0.8% 5.0% 24

25 Other Prescriptive Requirements 25 In addition to the HVAC unit efficiency improvements there also have been changes made to other prescriptive requirements in 2010 and in the 2013 ASHRAE 90.1 standard and the new 2014 Title 24 requirements Addition of 2 speed indoor fan requirements New staging requirements for packaged units New economizer requirements including in Title 24 diagnostics and commissioning Economizer damper leakage requirements Lower threshold on demand ventilation Expanded requirements for energy recovery Controls requirements for VAV systems We do not have time to go through all of these, but I will cover some of the significant changes that will impact school energy efficiency

26 2 Speed Fan and Staging Indoor Fan Speed Control Because the power of the indoor fan decreases to the cube of the speed and the fan runs continuously during occupancy for ventilation, the savings are significant New requirements are being added to ASHRAE 90.1 and Title 24 for 2 speed fans on constant volume and inverters on VAV >110K Btu/hr effective 1/1/2010 >75K Btu/hr effective 1/1/2014 >65K Btu/hr effective 1/1/2016 Compressor Staging ASHRAE 90.1 and Title 24 are also adding requirements for compressor staging CV Units shall have a minimum of 2 stages >75K Btu/hr effective 1/1/2014 >65K Bu/hr effective 1/1/2016 VAV units shall have the following staging effective 1/1/ K to 240K minimum 3 stages >340K minimum 4 stages Additional staging and modulation 26

27 2 Speed Fan Savings When the speed of a fan decreases the airflow decreases directly with the speed, but the fan power decreases to the cube of the speed resulting in significant energy savings Compared to single speed indoor fan motor systems, Carrier s staged air volume (SAV) system utilizing variable frequency drive (VFD) and 2-speed indoor fan motor can save substantial energy. Up to 65%* Staged Air Volume % Energy Savings ($) * 60% 40% 20% 0% Miami Los Angeles Phoenix New York St. Louis Atlanta * Annual estimated electric energy savings utilizing Carrier s Hourly Analysis (HAP) Program v4.6. Based on cooling and ventilation fan runtime hours using ASHRAE 90.1 office application, default schedule, weather and building data. Carrier model 48/50TC 12 at.10 ($/kwh) energy rate. 27

28 Fan Energy Savings Additional energy savings are possible with further fan speed control and the new high efficiency Carrier 48/50LC is using a triple speed fan control The fan speed options also require multiple minimum position economizers to control minimum ventilation 28

29 Economizer Changes In addition to efficiency changes there also has been significant changes to the requirements for economizers Economizers are now required on all systems with a fan and a capacity greater than 54K all Title 24 zones and ASHRAE 90.1 zones 1a and 2a In addition new requirements have been defined for integrated economizers as to how they should operate during integration as a result of field problems. Testing on high limit sensors has also shown that there are issues with sensor accuracy and quality and new requirements have been added to Title 24 and the same are being added to ASHRAE 90.1 Tighter damper leakage requirements have been added for outside air as well as return air dampers There are also changes for the high limit set points as well as the high limit changeover methods. Due to problems with economizers, California as also expanded the requirements for economizer design and commissioning and this is also being considered by ASHRAE 90.1 and the IECC standard 29

30 Economizer Problems Several field studies have been conducted and the following problems have been found with economizers Damper Linkage Failure Economizer damper motor not functioning Economizer disconnected Minimum ventilation position not properly set Changeover sensor inaccuracy and failure Solar impact on changeover temperature sensor failure Supply temperature sensor failure and inaccuracy Integrated Economizer controls and operational issues Building pressurization (improper exhaust/relief) Exhaust air recirculation Damper blade leakage (outside and return) Lack of Maintenance Lack of and improper commissioning These are being addressed by the industry thru new economizer design, new economizer controllers, and new standards requirements like the Title diagnostics and commissioning requirements 30

31 Economizer Problems Damper Linkage Problems Damper Leakage Problems Economizer Hoods and Maintenance Problems Sensor and Actuator Problems High Limit Controls and Sensor Accuracy Integrated Economizer and Controls Problems 31

32 Airside Economizer Technology Shown is a typical packaged rooftop with an airside economizer 32

33 Typical Commercial Building Load Profile Economizer only Operation 1322 hrs Integrated Economizer Comp + Economizer 1316 hrs Mechanical Cooling No Economizer 73 hrs 33

34 Economizer Annual Energy Savings The following chart shows the energy savings for an integrated economizer vs. a small rooftop unit without an economizer for a small office building. Note that these savings are not factored into the IEER metric 8 - Fairbanks 7 - Duluth 41.97% 44.73% 6B - Helena 37.96% 6A - Burlington 31.99% 5C - Vancouver 41.05% 5B - Boise 37.13% 5A - Chicago 29.41% 4C - Salem 4B - Albuquerque 37.24% 35.69% 4A - Baltimore 30.70% 3C - San Francisco 39.71% 3B - El Paso 26.93% 3A - Memphis 13.28% 2B - Phoenix 2A - Houston 17.19% 15.77% 1B - Riyadh 11.37% 1A - Miami 4.95% California climate zones 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 45.00% 50.00% 34

35 Economizer Integration Requirements Building standards require that economizers be integrated where the economizer can be used and supplemented by mechanical cooling Some controls today do not do this properly, especially for VAV and the economizer and compression fight each other due to poor control integration as shown in the following plot New requirements have been added to ASHRAE to address this 35

36 Economizer Operating Hrs The following chart shows the operating hr profiles for a small office building in each of the ASHRAE climate zones and benchmark cities and the benefits of integrated economizers Economizer Only Integrated Mechanial Only 8 - Fairbanks 7 - Duluth 6B - Helena 6A - Burlington 5C - Vancouver 5B - Boise 5A - Chicago 4C - Salem 4B - Albuquerque 4A - Baltimore 3C - San Francisco 3B - El Paso 3A - Memphis 2B - Phoenix 2A - Houston 1B - Riyadh 1A - Miami Annual hrs California climate zones 36

37 Economizer Improvements The benefits of the use of economizers are significant but prior studies have shown actual savings in the field were not being obtained due to problems previously mentioned. So the industry has been working to improve the economizers and their performance Some of the things the industry has implemented are; New drive configurations using gears New digital economizer with electronic feedback Low leak dampers on outdoor and return air New sensors with digital signals and error detection New control logic for integrated control Reliability Cycle Testing Factory run testing Outdoor cfm sensors New microprocessor based controllers Integrated displays and error detection 2 speed Economizers for reduced energy use Integration with energy recovery 37

38 Economizer Improvements New Configurations Blade Seals Leakage Testing Gear Drive Economizers Life Testing 38

39 19:27:32 19:28:50 19:30:08 19:31:26 19:32:45 19:34:03 19:35:21 19:36:39 19:37:56 19:39:13 19:40:30 19:41:48 19:43:05 19:44:23 19:45:40 19:46:57 19:48:15 19:49:32 19:50:50 19:52:06 19:53:24 19:54:41 19:55:59 19:57:17 19:58:35 19:59:53 20:01:11 20:02:28 20:03:46 20:05:04 20:06:22 20:07:40 20:08:57 20:10:15 20:11:33 20:12:50 20:14:07 20:15:25 20:16:42 20:17:59 20:19:17 20:20:34 20:21:51 20:23:08 Economizer Improvements Advanced controllers With integrated diagnostics New digital sensors Many new smart economizer controllers : 57 ambient, free cooling, Y1 then Y2, B stayed off due to SAT Low Cool SAT Setpoint = 60 High Cool SAT Setpoint = 50 SAT Min High = 55 SAT Min Low = ECONOCMD ECONOPOS OA_TEMP SAT_DISP COMP_A COMP_B Y1 Y New high limit control concepts New integrated control logic to eliminate damper cycling 39

40 Title 24 Economizer Commissioning California has also added new requirements for inspection and commissioning of economizers. There are two options; Field commissioning using a defined procedure Factory certification with some field setup commissioning 40

41 Title 24 Economizer Diagnostics In addition Title 24 has also added requirement for economizer diagnostics in 2014 Economizer Fault Detection and Diagnostics is a mandatory requirement for all newly installed air-cooled unitary direct-expansion units, with mechanical cooling capacity at AHRI conditions of greater than or equal to 54,000 Btu/hr, and equipped with an economizer. Where required, the Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) system shall meet the requirements of 120.2(i)2 through 120.2(i)9, as described below. Air-cooled unitary direct expansion units include packaged, split-systems, heat pumps, and variable refrigerant flow (VRF), where the VRF capacity is defined by that of the condensing unit. The following temperature sensors shall be permanently installed to monitor system operation: outside air, supply air, and return air Temperature sensors shall have an accuracy of ±2 F over the range of 40 F to 80 F The controller shall have the capability of displaying the value of each sensor The controller shall provide system status by indicating the following conditions: Air temperature sensor failure/fault. Not economizing when it should. Economizing when it should not. Damper not modulating. Excess outdoor air. Controller shall have a manual operating mode. Fault detection reporting shall be available to service personnel 41

42 Industry Efficiency Options to Consider Over the past 10 years the industry has also adopted a tiered efficiency approach with ASHRAE 90.1 and Title 24 being the minimum, but then there are tier II and III option standards like EnergyStar, CEE, and FEMP which should be considered in school upgrades. The following is an example of the Carrier rooftop Tiered Product Line 42

43 Future Efficiency Improvement Options Historical Approach (Business as usual) - Full Load Improvements We are approaching Max-Tech on many products and significant improvements in base product full load efficiencies will be limited and often not cost effective We also face issues with the phase down of the HFC refrigerants that are used today, and will have to evolve to new lower GWP refrigerants that may not be as efficient, could be semi-flammable and could be more expensive to apply Alternate Approaches to Consider 1. Switch to new part load or annualized metrics like IPLV for chillers and IEER for rooftops, splits, and VRF 2. Hybrid system with rating approaches like AHRI guideline V 3. Subsystems approaches (focus of discussion today) 4. Whole Building System approaches (ASHRAE Building Energy Quotient) 5. Defined commissioning requirements to make sure equipment runs correctly 6. Integrated Fault Detection (FDD) 43

44 Hybrid Systems The concept for a hybrid system approach is to take two or more technologies and combine them together utilizing some type of combined rating. During the annual operation each hybrid technology is used where it delivers the most benefit Some examples are; Airside economizer Hydronic economizer Free Cooling refrigerant cycles Integrated Heat Recovery Integrated Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Dual fuel heat pumps Thermal Storage Energy storage Desiccant systems Evaporative pre-cooling condensers Evaporative outdoor air coolers, direct and indirect Desuperheaters and integrated hot water heaters Solar assisted units 44

45 AAHX Example Combined Efficiency Exhaust Blower Return Air Plenum Balance of Unitary Air Conditioner ERV Unitary Air Conditioner ERV Recovered Energy Efficiency Ratio RTU Energy Efficiency Ratio RER Net conditioningrecovered by ERV Total electricalpower consumedby ERV RER Net conditioningcapacity of RTU Office Code Document Code 0 EER Total electric power by RTU EER CEF = Combined Efficiency Factor Example: Rooftop + ERV = System CEF (30 ton system) EER & RER = CEF 12.0 & = System EER for a 30 ton total system 45

46 EER or CEF Efficiency Comparison (ERV Example) Example shows how over the operating range a hybrid unit like an ERV/Rooftop can have further improvements at non standard rating conditions. This is also true for hybrid options like evaporative cooling Base Rooftop Unit EnergyX Model: Rooftop ERV Location: Tampa, FL Tampa, FL Altitude (ft) 0.0 ft 0.0 ft CFM Ext static press: 0.75" 0.75" Ventilation Air: 50% or less (economizer) 50% OA (1750 cfm) CEF vs Application EER Combined Rating Improvement Base Unit Application EER EnergyX System CEF Full load Rating Point Outdoor Air Temp (deg F) 46

47 Regulated Buidling Energy Use vs ASHRAE Average ASHRAE Requirements Possible Future Roadmap - Systems Commercial HVAC Efficiency Requirements 110% 100% 90% ASHRAE 90.1 Building Target 80% 70% MaxTech Limit Full Load Efficiency 60% 50% 40% Equipment Level Limit 30% 20% 10% Possible Path to nearly Net Zero Buildings Systems Approach & Renewable Energy 0% Year Chart is an estimate of possible future regulations to achieve Near Net Zero by 2034 based on studies done by Carrier on technical limits of HVAC equipment 47

48 Chilled Water System Example (Current) Current ASHRAE 90.1 Regulations (Prescriptive Approach) HP/GPM Full Load & IPLV Component Efficiency Requirements No Requirements Prescriptive Requirements HP/GPM Full Load & IPLV Maximum Fan Power CO2 Chart prepared by Richard Lord 48

49 Chilled Water System Example (Proposed) Proposed Systems Approach System Level Climate Zone Efficiency Requirements Annualized HVAC System Efficiency (annualized) Overall Efficiency Minimum Set by climate zone and building type and then component efficiencies can be traded off to meet the overall targets Maximum Fan Power CO2 Chart prepared by Richard Lord 49

50 HVAC Systems Concept The HVAC systems concept would involve the following; User would select from one of the 15 ASHRAE 90.1 Benchmark buildings closest to the proposed building (may need more building types). ASHRAE 90.1 committee would define the baseline system using industry reasonable best practices and this then would be the baseline HVAC System efficiency. This would include HVAC efficiencies as well as all components in the system (i.e.. Cooling towers, pumps, economizer, etc.) User would then run proposed system using the system computer tool (hourly) using the selected benchmark building, and weather data from one of ASHRAE climate zones benchmark cities. If the proposed HVAC system uses less power then the benchmark system then the system could be used. Key to the approach is that all annualized power of the complete system is considered User would be allowed to trade off all aspects of the system as long as the annualized energy use was equal to or less. (i.e.. Chiller efficiency, cooling tower approach, pumping power, economizers, energy recovery, fan power, etc) Goal is to start off with equal performance to the prescriptive approach 50

51 Questions 51

Air Side Economizers and Energy Recovery - Improvements and New Regulations. Richard Lord 09-20-2012

Air Side Economizers and Energy Recovery - Improvements and New Regulations. Richard Lord 09-20-2012 Air Side Economizers and Energy Recovery - Improvements and New Regulations Richard Lord 09-20-2012 Introduction For commercial buildings the use of outside air for cooling and ventilation is an important

More information

HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation. Richard Lord Carrier Fellow

HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation. Richard Lord Carrier Fellow HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation Richard Lord Carrier Fellow HVAC Industry Challenges and Issues Ozone Deletion Global Warming

More information

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks Presentation Outline Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks Plant Level Building Blocks Description / Application Data Green opportunities Selection Criteria Air Distribution Building Blocks same

More information

Heat Pump Applications

Heat Pump Applications Heat Pump Applications For Rebel Commercial Rooftop Systems Rebel Advantages Rebel Is Much Better Than Competitive Heat Pumps Optional variable volume cooling Excellent energy savings Why install a unit

More information

ASHRAE STANDARD 90.1, HVAC System Requirements for Reducing Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings

ASHRAE STANDARD 90.1, HVAC System Requirements for Reducing Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings ASHRAE STANDARD 90.1, 2013 HVAC System Requirements for Reducing Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings ASHRAE Past President s Luncheon, December 3, 2014 SEAN BEILMAN, P.E., HBDP, LEED AP BD+C 12

More information

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment FinAnswer Express Utah Incentive Catalog Effective as of May 19, 2012 Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment Rocky Mountain Power provides incentives for many types of energy-efficient technologies.

More information

Heating & Cooling Efficiency

Heating & Cooling Efficiency Heating & Cooling Efficiency Advantages of Geothermal HVAC Efficiency Keith Swilley Gulf Power Company Why Gulf Power Promotes Energy Efficiency? Customer Satisfaction Education Help Customers Make Smart

More information

Achieving ENERGY EFFICIENCY with Standard Air-Conditioning Units. Mike West, PhD, PE Advantek Consulting, Inc

Achieving ENERGY EFFICIENCY with Standard Air-Conditioning Units. Mike West, PhD, PE Advantek Consulting, Inc Achieving ENERGY EFFICIENCY with Standard Air-Conditioning Units Mike West, PhD, PE Advantek Consulting, Inc Standard Air Conditioning Unit Packaged Unit Split System DX (not chilled water) Air-cooled

More information

2013 Energy Code Changes That Effect the HVAC Industry

2013 Energy Code Changes That Effect the HVAC Industry 2013 Energy Code Changes That Effect the HVAC Industry Tav Commins Mechanical Engineer California Energy Commission HVAC Mandatory Measures For All Newly Installed Residential HVAC Systems (New Ducts &

More information

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment FinAnswer Express Wyoming Incentive Catalog Effective as of October 1, 2011 Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment Rocky Mountain Power provides incentives for many types of energy efficient

More information

Creating Efficient HVAC Systems

Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Heating and Cooling Fundamentals for Commercial Buildings Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for nearly half of the energy used in a typical

More information

SECTION 140.4 PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

SECTION 140.4 PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEMS 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards Page 162 SECTION 140.4 PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A building complies with this section by being designed with and having constructed

More information

HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity

HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity Btu/hour, btu/h, b/h, btuh. btu?? 1 MBH = 1000 btu/hour 1 KBH = 1000 btu/hour 1 ton of cooling= 12,000 btu/hour 1 watt = 3.414 btu/hour 1 kilowatt = 1000 watts = 3,414

More information

Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN. Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures

Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN. Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures Project Overview Data Realty is a data center service provider for middle

More information

HVAC Simplified Approach Option

HVAC Simplified Approach Option HVAC Simplified Approach Option Part I Project Address: City: HVAC System Designer of Record: Date: Zip: Qualification The building is 2 stories or less in height and has a gross floor area is less than

More information

VRF Technology: The future of HVAC

VRF Technology: The future of HVAC Wednesday, September 21 VRF Technology: The future of HVAC Kartik Singla, Principal, DXS Ontario The VRF Solution Refrigerant distribution system vs water Multiple DX indoor units with electronic expansion

More information

HVAC Systems: Overview

HVAC Systems: Overview HVAC Systems: Overview Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D, P.E. University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA Overview System Description Secondary HVAC Systems Air distribution Room diffusers and air terminals Duct

More information

Energy Efficiency Analysis for a Multi-Story Commercial Office Building. (LG Multi V Water II Heat Recovery VRF System)

Energy Efficiency Analysis for a Multi-Story Commercial Office Building. (LG Multi V Water II Heat Recovery VRF System) Energy Efficiency Analysis for a Multi-Story Commercial Office Building (LG Multi V Water II Heat VRF System) Commercial Air-Conditioning Engineering Study VRF-ES-BL-001-US 011M05 Executive Summary Contents

More information

HVACPowDen.xls An Easy-to-Use Tool for Recognizing Energy Efficient Buildings and HVAC Systems

HVACPowDen.xls An Easy-to-Use Tool for Recognizing Energy Efficient Buildings and HVAC Systems HVACPowDen.xls An Easy-to-Use Tool for Recognizing Energy Efficient Buildings and HVAC Systems Fundamental Principles of Environmentally Responsible, Energy Efficient Buildings 1. Energy efficiency is

More information

Maximize energy savings Increase life of cooling equipment More reliable for extreme cold weather conditions There are disadvantages

Maximize energy savings Increase life of cooling equipment More reliable for extreme cold weather conditions There are disadvantages Objectives Increase awareness of the types of economizers currently used for data centers Provide designers/owners with an overview of the benefits and challenges associated with each type Outline some

More information

Advanced Energy Design Guide LEED Strategies for Schools. and High Performance Buildings

Advanced Energy Design Guide LEED Strategies for Schools. and High Performance Buildings Advanced Energy Design Guide LEED Strategies for Schools and High Performance Buildings Today s Presenters Stephen Koontz, LEED AP Energy Services Leader Tampa Bay Trane Allen Irvine General Sales Manager

More information

1. What percent of a commercial business s energy usage comes from their HVAC system? A. 13% B. 23% C. 33% D. 43% E. 53%

1. What percent of a commercial business s energy usage comes from their HVAC system? A. 13% B. 23% C. 33% D. 43% E. 53% 1 1. What percent of a commercial business s energy usage comes from their HVAC system? A. 13% B. 23% C. 33% D. 43% E. 53% 2. How much money do commercial facilities spend per square foot on energy costs

More information

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Air Change: Unlike re-circulated air, this is the total air required to completely replace the air in a room or building. Air Conditioner: Equipment

More information

SmartAirflow System. smartairflow supply and Ventilation Airflow measurement

SmartAirflow System. smartairflow supply and Ventilation Airflow measurement SmartAirflow System White Paper smartairflow supply and Airflow measurement White Paper contents Summary p. 2 How Does the SmartAirflow Supply Airflow Measurement Work p. 3 Benefits Commissioning p. 4

More information

5.6 Technical Specification: Premium Efficiency Electric Air Conditioning Equipment

5.6 Technical Specification: Premium Efficiency Electric Air Conditioning Equipment 5.6 Technical Specification: Premium Efficiency Electric Conditioning Equipment Small Premium Project Type: For Premium Conditioning Retrofit Projects: Projects that voluntarily replace existing unitary

More information

Introduction To VRF: System Overview, Applications, & Savings Opportunities

Introduction To VRF: System Overview, Applications, & Savings Opportunities Introduction To VRF: System Overview, Applications, & Savings Opportunities System Overview What is VRF? Zoning System Two-Pipe / Three Pipe System Packaged DDC Control Operates as a Heat Pump Simultaneous

More information

The ASHRAE HQ Building Can the energy efficiency of the different mechanical systems really be compared? RESIDENTIAL LIGHT COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL

The ASHRAE HQ Building Can the energy efficiency of the different mechanical systems really be compared? RESIDENTIAL LIGHT COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL The ASHRAE HQ Building Can the energy efficiency of the different mechanical systems really be compared? RESIDENTIAL LIGHT COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL Technical Article April 2013 The ASHRAE HQ Building Can

More information

EnergyPro Building Energy Analysis. Assisted Living Building

EnergyPro Building Energy Analysis. Assisted Living Building EnergyPro Building Energy Analysis Assisted Living Building EnergyPro Building Energy Analysis for an assisted living building Project Scope The purpose of the EnergyPro energy model was to evaluate the

More information

HVAC Simplified Approach Option

HVAC Simplified Approach Option HVAC Simplified Approach Option Part I Project Address: City: HVAC System Designer of Record: Date: Zip: Qualification The building is 2 stories or less in height and has a gross floor area is less than

More information

Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems

Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) constitutes up to 35 percent of energy used in manufacturing facilities. This fact sheet is geared towards

More information

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce energy consumption

More information

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce

More information

Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision. Air Conditioning

Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision. Air Conditioning Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision Air Conditioning Today s technology rooms require precise, stable environments in order for sensitive electronics to operate optimally. Standard comfort air

More information

AND SIMPLE HVAC SYSTEMS

AND SIMPLE HVAC SYSTEMS The City of New York Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg NYC Buildings Robert D. LiMandri, Commissioner BUILDING HVAC (1) REQUIREMENTS MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS AND SIMPLE HVAC SYSTEMS CHAPTER 5 COMMERCIAL ENERGY

More information

Energy Efficiency Analysis for a Multi-Story Commercial Office Building. (LG Multi V III Heat Recovery VRF System)

Energy Efficiency Analysis for a Multi-Story Commercial Office Building. (LG Multi V III Heat Recovery VRF System) Energy Efficiency Analysis for a Multi-Story Commercial Office Building (LG Multi V III Heat Recovery VRF System) Commercial Air-Conditioning Engineering Study VRF-ES-BK-011-US 011L18 Executive Summary

More information

3/29/2012 INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS

3/29/2012 INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS AND HVAC SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT SECTION O HVAC systems or Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning systems control the environment for people and equipment in our facilities.

More information

2015 C&I HVAC RETROFIT APPLICATION FOR PRESCRIPTIVE REBATES

2015 C&I HVAC RETROFIT APPLICATION FOR PRESCRIPTIVE REBATES 2015 C&I HVAC RETROFIT APPLICATION FOR PRESCRIPTIVE REBATES WELCOME TO THE POWER MOVES C&I HVAC RETROFIT PROGRAM. We look forward to working with you. If you have questions after reading this application,

More information

Data Center Design Guide featuring Water-Side Economizer Solutions. with Dynamic Economizer Cooling

Data Center Design Guide featuring Water-Side Economizer Solutions. with Dynamic Economizer Cooling Data Center Design Guide featuring Water-Side Economizer Solutions with Dynamic Economizer Cooling Presenter: Jason Koo, P.Eng Sr. Field Applications Engineer STULZ Air Technology Systems jkoo@stulz ats.com

More information

HVAC Efficiency Definitions

HVAC Efficiency Definitions HVAC Efficiency Definitions Term page EER - 2 SEER - 3 COP - 4 HSPF - 5 IPLV - 6 John Mix May 2006 Carrier Corporation 1 Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) The energy efficiency ratio is used to evaluate the

More information

SIMULATION OF RADIANT COOLING PERFORMANCE WITH

SIMULATION OF RADIANT COOLING PERFORMANCE WITH SUMMARY REPORT MAY 2008 SIMULATION OF RADIANT COOLING PERFORMANCE WITH EVAPORATIVE COOLING SOURCES Timothy Moore Center for the Built Environment (CBE) University of California, Berkeley May 2008 EXECUTIVE

More information

Florida Power & Light Company. Business Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning ( HVAC ) Program Standards. Effective: November 9, 2015

Florida Power & Light Company. Business Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning ( HVAC ) Program Standards. Effective: November 9, 2015 Florida Power & Light Company Business Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning ( HVAC ) Program Standards Effective: November 9, 2015 Table of Contents Eligibility Requirements - Chiller... 2 Rebate Amount

More information

Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6)

Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6) Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6) A. General Information Climate Zone: Building Type: Conditioned Area (sf): Reviewer's Name: Reviewer's Agency: Note: Design Review for each system/subsystem

More information

APPLICATION GUIDE. Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application

APPLICATION GUIDE. Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application APPLICATION GUIDE Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application Section Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Introduction Most commercial HVAC systems

More information

HIGH EFFICIENCY RTU. www.reznorhvac.com HIGH EFFICIENCY, PACKAGED SPACE CONDITIONING. DX System IEER> 13.2 Gas Heat Efficiency > 92% Capacities Tons

HIGH EFFICIENCY RTU. www.reznorhvac.com HIGH EFFICIENCY, PACKAGED SPACE CONDITIONING. DX System IEER> 13.2 Gas Heat Efficiency > 92% Capacities Tons Capacities 10-25 Tons 100-400 MBH HIGH EFFICIENCY, PACKAGED SPACE CONDITIONING DX System IEER> 13.2 Gas Heat Efficiency > 92% HIGH EFFICIENCY RTU 30-120 kw 3,000-11,550 CFM Comfort Comfort is determined

More information

Modeling and Simulation of HVAC Faulty Operations and Performance Degradation due to Maintenance Issues

Modeling and Simulation of HVAC Faulty Operations and Performance Degradation due to Maintenance Issues LBNL-6129E ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Modeling and Simulation of HVAC Faulty Operations and Performance Degradation due to Maintenance Issues Liping Wang, Tianzhen Hong Environmental

More information

for Plans Examiners and Building Inspectors

for Plans Examiners and Building Inspectors Building Technologies Program HVAC Controls Guide for Plans Examiners and Building Inspectors September 2011 Authors: Eric Makela, PNNL James Russell, PECI Sarah Fujita, PECI Cindy Strecker, PECI Prepared

More information

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program By Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

More information

HVAC for Schools. A Comprehensive Look at Products for a Clean, Comfortable Learning Environment

HVAC for Schools. A Comprehensive Look at Products for a Clean, Comfortable Learning Environment HVAC for Schools A Comprehensive Look at Products for a Clean, Comfortable Learning Environment Why Schools Choose Lennox Even as resources for schools continue to be constrained, education leaders and

More information

SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP

SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP research journal 2013 / VOL 05.01 www.perkinswill.com SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING OF SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS Current Trends in Low-Energy HVAC Design

More information

DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER

DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER DATA CENTERS 2009 IT Emissions = Aviation Industry Emissions Nations Largest Commercial Consumers of Electric Power Greenpeace estimates

More information

Commercial Energy Efficiency Program. Save money, reduce energy use and earn incentives. Save money, reduce energy use and qualify for incentives

Commercial Energy Efficiency Program. Save money, reduce energy use and earn incentives. Save money, reduce energy use and qualify for incentives Save money, reduce energy use and earn incentives by improving the energy efficiency of your business. Georgia Power s Commercial Energy Efficiency Program makes incorporating energy-efficient improvements

More information

Data Centers WHAT S ONTHEHORIZON FOR NR HVAC IN TITLE 24 2013? SLIDE 1

Data Centers WHAT S ONTHEHORIZON FOR NR HVAC IN TITLE 24 2013? SLIDE 1 WHAT S ONTHEHORIZON FOR NR HVAC IN TITLE 24 2013? SLIDE 1 Data Center CASE Scope Existing Title 24 2008 Scope Current scope ( 100 T24-2008) exempts process space from many of the requirements, however

More information

Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida

Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida Optimizing 100% Outside Air Systems with Heat Pipes Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida Introduction To meet increasingly rigorous building codes

More information

Fan Efficiency Codes & Standards AND High Performance Air Systems

Fan Efficiency Codes & Standards AND High Performance Air Systems Fan Efficiency Codes & Standards AND High Performance Air Systems Presented by: Wade Smith, Executive Director & Michael Ivanovich, Director of Strategic Energy Initiatives About AMCA Fan efficiency codes

More information

A TRUE. Heat Recovery Water Source Heat Pump System

A TRUE. Heat Recovery Water Source Heat Pump System A TRUE Heat Recovery Water Source Heat Pump System Water Source Heat Pump (WSHP) systems are considered energy efficient since they can move heat from one location within a building to another location.

More information

Applying Demand- Controlled Ventilation

Applying Demand- Controlled Ventilation This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, January 216. Copyright 216 ASHRAE. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not be copied and/or distributed electronically or in paper form without permission

More information

4. Building HVAC Requirements

4. Building HVAC Requirements Table of Contents Page i Table of Contents 4. Building HVAC Requirements... 1 4.1 Overview... 1 4.1.1 Introduction and Organization... 1 4.1.2 What s New for the 2013 Standards... 2 4.1.3 Common System

More information

J O U R N A L. Energy Performance for. Proper Specification of Air Terminal Units Future Climate Impacts on Building Design

J O U R N A L. Energy Performance for. Proper Specification of Air Terminal Units Future Climate Impacts on Building Design Copyright 24, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating & Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 79 Tullie Circle NE, Atlanta, GA. 3329. Reprinted by permission from the September 24 Issue of ASHRAE Journal

More information

1 Project Information. 2 Building Type. 3 Trade Ally/Contractor Information. Appalachian Power Commercial Program HVAC and VFD Rebate Worksheet

1 Project Information. 2 Building Type. 3 Trade Ally/Contractor Information. Appalachian Power Commercial Program HVAC and VFD Rebate Worksheet Appalachian Power Commercial Program HVAC and VFD Rebate Worksheet Before you start Instructions: Complete all relevant information for your project. Include with complete application package. The HVAC

More information

FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER Creating Energy Independence Since 1975 Impact of Energy-Efficiency Parameters on Home Humidity Rob Vieira Florida Solar Energy Center A Research Institute of the University

More information

Solving Problems using Variable Refrigerant Flow

Solving Problems using Variable Refrigerant Flow Solving Problems using Variable Refrigerant Flow 1 Today s Agenda New Construction Challenges Renovation Challenges Other Discussion points Your friendly tour guide John Brantley, PE LEED AP, CEM Mitsubishi

More information

SASO XXXX:2016. (Including the modifications approved in Saudi Council Board No. XXX/2016) LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS

SASO XXXX:2016. (Including the modifications approved in Saudi Council Board No. XXX/2016) LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS SASO XXXX:2016 (Including the modifications approved in Saudi Council Board No. XXX/2016) LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS OF TESTING 1 LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS

More information

Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Center Infrastructure: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions 6-28-10. Sponsored by:

Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Center Infrastructure: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions 6-28-10. Sponsored by: Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Center Infrastructure: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions 6-28-10 Sponsored by: Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government.

More information

FTQ. Daikin Inverter Ducted Heat Pump

FTQ. Daikin Inverter Ducted Heat Pump FTQ Daikin Inverter Ducted Heat Pump A TRADITIONAL CENTRAL AIR SYSTEM MADE BETTER WITH DAIKIN CONSTANT COMFORT INVERTER TECHNOLOGY. The Daikin Inverter Ducted Heat Pump line is a cost effective alternative

More information

Life Cycle Costing Analysis of Water-cooled Chillers. Chillventa Nuremburg, Germany

Life Cycle Costing Analysis of Water-cooled Chillers. Chillventa Nuremburg, Germany Life Cycle Costing Analysis of Water-cooled Chillers Chillventa Nuremburg, Germany Spring 2012 Description Life Cycle Cost Analysis is a method of determining and comparing the total costs of investment

More information

HEAT RECOVERY FROM CHILLED WATER SYSTEMS. Applications for Heat Reclaim Chillers

HEAT RECOVERY FROM CHILLED WATER SYSTEMS. Applications for Heat Reclaim Chillers HEAT RECOVERY FROM CHILLED WATER SYSTEMS Applications for Heat Reclaim Chillers April 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 WASTE HEAT SOURCES... 3,4 Capturing Sufficient Heat for Useful Purposes...

More information

SECTION 23 81 03 - PACKAGED ROOFTOP AIR CONDITIONING UNITS NON-CUSTOM

SECTION 23 81 03 - PACKAGED ROOFTOP AIR CONDITIONING UNITS NON-CUSTOM SECTION 23 81 03 - PACKAGED ROOFTOP AIR CONDITIONING UNITS NON-CUSTOM PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section Includes: 1. Packaged rooftop air conditioning unit (5 tons and smaller). 2. Roof curb. 1.2

More information

AIR COOLED CHILLER CHILLED WATER PUMP CONTROL: The chilled water pump with the lowest runtime will automatically start when the outside air temperature rises above the system enable setpoint. When the

More information

Todd M. Rossi, Ph.D. President

Todd M. Rossi, Ph.D. President Residential Air Conditioning Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) and Protocols to Support Efficient Operation DOE - Building America Program Residential Buildings Integration Meeting - July 20-22, 2010

More information

geothermal india cooling india from the ground up about geothermal cooling

geothermal india cooling india from the ground up about geothermal cooling about geothermal cooling geothermal india about geothermal cooling Geothermal India is India s leading exponents of distributing, installing and servicing Geothermal Air-conditioning solutions in India.

More information

Glossary of HVAC Terms

Glossary of HVAC Terms Glossary of HVAC Terms Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major sub- discipline of mechanical engineering. The goal of HVAC design is to balance indoor environmental comfort with other

More information

Tim Sisson - Trane HVAC OVERVIEW

Tim Sisson - Trane HVAC OVERVIEW Tim Sisson - Trane HVAC OVERVIEW HVAC Systems System Types Acoustics Controls Modernization more than one Down to the Studs Opportunity for new System Type Renovation Possible opportunity for new System

More information

Ventilation Retrofit Opportunities for Packaged HVAC

Ventilation Retrofit Opportunities for Packaged HVAC Ventilation Retrofit Opportunities for Packaged HVAC Reid Hart, PE National Energy Efficiency Technology Summit September 2012 PNNL-SA-90782 Acknowledgements Bonneville Power Administration City of Eugene

More information

HVAC Systems. Alfred Woody, PE. Ventilation/Energy Applications, PLLC Norton Shores, Michigan

HVAC Systems. Alfred Woody, PE. Ventilation/Energy Applications, PLLC Norton Shores, Michigan HVAC Systems Alfred Woody, PE Ventilation/Energy Applications, PLLC Norton Shores, Michigan 231 798 3536 HVAC System Functions Control space temperature Heating Cooling Control space humidity Control airborne

More information

HOW TO CONDUCT ENERGY SAVINGS ANALYSIS IN A FACILITY VALUE ENGINEERING STUDY

HOW TO CONDUCT ENERGY SAVINGS ANALYSIS IN A FACILITY VALUE ENGINEERING STUDY HOW TO CONDUCT ENERGY SAVINGS ANALYSIS IN A FACILITY VALUE ENGINEERING STUDY Benson Kwong, CVS, PE, CEM, LEED AP, CCE envergie consulting, LLC Biography Benson Kwong is an independent consultant providing

More information

Air Conditioning. The opportunity for energy efficiency. Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now

Air Conditioning. The opportunity for energy efficiency. Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now Fact Sheet #6 Air Conditioning In this fact sheet you will discover: The opportunity for energy efficiency How air conditioning works Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now Investments to reduce costs

More information

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution -

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - * Some of the images used in these slides are taken from the internet for instructional purposes only Building Energy Systems - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - Bryan Eisenhower Associate Director Center

More information

Efficient Space Humidity Control With Active Chilled Beam Systems

Efficient Space Humidity Control With Active Chilled Beam Systems This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, January 2012. Copyright 2012 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not

More information

Keys to Efficient Dehumidification

Keys to Efficient Dehumidification Keys to Efficient Dehumidification Jeff Ihnen for Engineered Systems Magazine, May 2009 p 608.785.1900 400 Main Street, Suite 200 La Crosse, WI 54601 Contents Keys to efficient dehumidification... 1 Relative

More information

KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM

KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM AIR HANDLING UNITS... 1 CHILLERS... 2 COOLING TOWERS... 2 CLOSED LOOP COOLERS... 2 MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLY FANS...

More information

APPLICATION GUIDE. Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems

APPLICATION GUIDE. Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems APPLICATION GUIDE Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems Contents Introduction 3 WBCS Concept 3 Condensation 4 Moisture Sources in the Space 4 Impact of a High Moisture Load 5 Designing to Manage

More information

COMMERCIAL HEATING VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC)

COMMERCIAL HEATING VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC) COMMERCIAL HEATING VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC) REBATE FORM Valid July 1 - December 31, 2015 Steps to Getting Your Rebate: 1. Confirm that equipment is eligible. 2. Purchase and install new eligible

More information

Appendix C. Minimum Equipment Efficiency Standards

Appendix C. Minimum Equipment Efficiency Standards Appendix C Minimum Equipment Efficiency Standards Appendix C: Minimum Equipment Efficiency Standards This Appendix is an overview of building and equipment standards in the State of California that have

More information

Get the FACTS about SEER and Deliver Better Customer Value

Get the FACTS about SEER and Deliver Better Customer Value What is SEER? SEER stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio. It s a number that describes how well air-conditioning equipment works. A higher SEER means better efficiency and lower energy bills. SEER

More information

Lower Energy Costs with Rooftop Air-Conditioning Package Units

Lower Energy Costs with Rooftop Air-Conditioning Package Units Lower Energy Costs with Rooftop Air-Conditioning Package Units Sponsored by Mike West, PhD, PE Advantek Consulting, Inc Package Unit Efficiency Factors Sensible and latent performance ratings Unit efficiency

More information

LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS IN EXISTING LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS IN EXISTING LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS SUBCHAPTER 9 LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS IN EXISTING LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS SECTION 150.2 ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS IN EXISTING BUILDINGS

More information

Impacts of Refrigerant Charge on Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Performance

Impacts of Refrigerant Charge on Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Performance Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2010 Impacts of Refrigerant Charge on Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Performance

More information

SECTION 23 81 43 HEAT PUMPS

SECTION 23 81 43 HEAT PUMPS SECTION 23 81 43 HEAT PUMPS PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section Includes: 1. Packaged rooftop heat pumps. 1.2 REFERENCES A. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers:

More information

METHODOLOGY FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS THERMAL LOADS PREDICTIVE MODELS BASED ON SIMULATION PERFORMANCE

METHODOLOGY FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS THERMAL LOADS PREDICTIVE MODELS BASED ON SIMULATION PERFORMANCE METHODOLOGY FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS THERMAL LOADS PREDICTIVE MODELS BASED ON SIMULATION PERFORMANCE Dimitrios-Stavros Kapetanakis 1,2, Eleni Mangina 3 and Donal Finn 1,2 1 School of Mechanical & Materials

More information

QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN REPLACING YOUR HVAC TOGETHERWESAVE.COM

QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN REPLACING YOUR HVAC TOGETHERWESAVE.COM QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN REPLACING YOUR HVAC TOGETHERWESAVE.COM TOGETHERWESAVE.COM IS IT TIME TO REPLACE YOUR HVAC SYSTEM? If your heating and cooling system is 15 to 20 years old and is experiencing problems,

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 23 0000 - Heating Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) March 2015.01

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 23 0000 - Heating Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) March 2015.01 GENERAL: This section provides general standards for overall sizing and design of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Other sections contain specific standards for each system per

More information

Trade Professional Alliance. 2015 EE Programs Training. Napa, CA January 20, 2015 Mark Salavitch Trade Professional Manager, Bay Region

Trade Professional Alliance. 2015 EE Programs Training. Napa, CA January 20, 2015 Mark Salavitch Trade Professional Manager, Bay Region Trade Professional Alliance 2015 EE Programs Training Napa, CA January 20, 2015 Mark Salavitch Trade Professional Manager, Bay Region Welcome to North Bay Division Area: 1,345 square miles Cities: Marin

More information

HVAC. Kitchen Exhaust. rooftop equipment! let s drop on a few exhaust fans! it doesn t get easier!

HVAC. Kitchen Exhaust. rooftop equipment! let s drop on a few exhaust fans! it doesn t get easier! HVAC & Kitchen Exhaust The Heart of Restaurant HVAC rooftop equipment! let s drop on a few exhaust fans! it doesn t get easier! 1 CKV Design: Just not that easy! There is no piece of equipment in the commercial

More information

Air-Conditioning Buying Guide

Air-Conditioning Buying Guide Air-Conditioning Buying Guide Buying a new air-conditioning system is a big decision. This Air-Conditioning Buying Guide can help you make the right choice, save energy and money. Shop with confidence

More information

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Title: Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems Author:

More information

ASHRAE Boston Chapter Meeting Designing AC Refrigeration Systems Lessons Learned February 11, 2014

ASHRAE Boston Chapter Meeting Designing AC Refrigeration Systems Lessons Learned February 11, 2014 ASHRAE Boston Chapter Meeting Designing AC Refrigeration Systems Lessons Learned February 11, 2014 Explanation of the refrigeration cycle. Compressors. Benefits and operating characteristics. -Reciprocating

More information

Variable Air Volume - VAV

Variable Air Volume - VAV Mode Enable Sensor Options Variable Air Volume - VAV The temperature of this sensor will determine if the unit is in heating, cooling or vent mode during occupied operation. The following options are available:

More information

Role of Economizers in Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems

Role of Economizers in Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems Introduction: Role of Economizers in Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems A question that frequently arises when a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) (Mumma, 2001) is discussed, particularly when the parallel

More information

7 Best Practices for Increasing Efficiency, Availability and Capacity. XXXX XXXXXXXX Liebert North America

7 Best Practices for Increasing Efficiency, Availability and Capacity. XXXX XXXXXXXX Liebert North America 7 Best Practices for Increasing Efficiency, Availability and Capacity XXXX XXXXXXXX Liebert North America Emerson Network Power: The global leader in enabling Business-Critical Continuity Automatic Transfer

More information

85 F 80 F 50% 75 F 70 F 73.0/61.8 45 F 10% Figure 1

85 F 80 F 50% 75 F 70 F 73.0/61.8 45 F 10% Figure 1 Feb. 07 INTRODUCTION: Wrap around heat pipes are air-to-air heat exchangers that are installed in the airstream upstream and downstream of a cooling coil to deliberately reduce the Sensible Heat Ratio

More information