User s Guide. Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. Permission is granted to reproduce this page for classroom use. Columbus, OH

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1 User s Guide Columbus, OH

2 Photo credit: TAOLMOR/Shutterstock Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. Presenting the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library A welcome addition to any preschool, elementary, or English learner classroom, the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library with its Photo Cards and User s Guide provides a wealth of motivating photographs and activity suggestions for vocabulary and oral-language development. extending, enriching, or supporting units of cross-curricular study. teaching students who are learning English as a second language. Photo Card Features The Front 252 Image is focused, simple, and familiar. The Back Simple label for the image Translations and pronunciations of the label in Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong, Cantonese, Korean, Haitian Creole, Arabic, Russian, Tagalog, and Khmer tiger Vietnamese tigre cọp (t gr ) ( kôp) Hmong tsov txaij (chô ts ) Cantonese (l fü) Korean (h räng ) Haitian Creole tig Arabic (t g) Russian тигр (ni mûr) Tagalog tigre (t gûrr) Khmer (t grr ) (kla) A tiger is a large mammal in the cat family. Tigers are found in the wild in Asia and also in zoos throughout the world. Tigers are carnivores that hunt deer, pigs, baby elephants, and baby rhinos. Tigers use their strong, sharp claws to capture prey. They also have teeth that are adapted to their carnivorous diet, with long sharp teeth to tear meat from bones. The striped pattern on tigers fur camouflages them as they hunt for food. This pattern helps them blend in with the tall grasses and forests in which they live. The pattern of stripes on each individual tiger is unique. 252 Photo Card Number Informative paragraph to use for discussion and oral language practice Presenting the Photo Library

3 Using the Photo Library Components PHOTO CARDS Each Photo Card has a simple image on the front for easy identification. Use the information on the back of the Photo Card to discuss general information about the image. Use the translations to communicate with students who speak Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong, Cantonese, Korean, Haitian Creole, Arabic, Russian, Tagalog, or Khmer. Suggested activities for using the Photo Cards in your classroom appear in the User s Guide. USER S GUIDE In addition to general information about the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library, teaching suggestions in the User s Guide are organized into three different sections: English Learner Useful strategies for helping students who are learning English to identify pictures and learn common English vocabulary Oral Language Ideas for helping nonreaders and readers build vocabulary and develop oral-language skills Across the Curriculum Specific ideas for using the Photo Cards to enrich or supplement lessons in math, science, social studies, language arts, and health English Learner American schools are faced with the enormous task of accommodating and teaching students who speak a variety of languages. The SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library is designed to facilitate English-language learning. Each photo label is translated into ten of the languages spoken by large numbers of new Americans: Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong, Cantonese, Korean, Haitian Creole, Arabic, Russian, Tagalog, and Khmer. The translations, accompanied by English pronunciations, help teachers smooth the transition from one language to another, but the Photo Cards can be used with speakers of any language. Photos provide a substantial visual reference on which to build an English vocabulary. Descriptions on the backs of the Photo Cards provide information that is helpful when engaging students in listening and speaking activities. Teachers of English learners often instruct a variety of students in a variety of contexts. Classes frequently have students with mixed language backgrounds, mixed English learner proficiency, mixed ages, and mixed academic subject familiarity. The SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library can be used to meet these various needs. The Photo Cards can be used for smallgroup work, individual study, or whole-class lessons. The materials can be organized to provide more or less support, depending on each student and his or her academic needs. Using the Photo Library Components

4 STUDENTS ACQUIRING ENGLISH The SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library enables you to accomplish some of the key tasks for helping any student who is learning English. These students often respond to comprehensible, meaningful, culturally relevant classroom instruction as they acquire the ability to communicate in English. Oral-language teaching strategies work well with English learners. Below are ideas for utilizing the resources of the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library tailored specifically to English learners. In general, for students with little or no English, use the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library to introduce pronunciations of common nouns. As students gain confidence with pronunciations, begin to use the words in short sentences. Then have students use the words in their own sentences and concentrate more on meaning and syntax. Begin vocabulary lessons with Photo Cards that represent items or concepts that are familiar to students. Speak slowly. Ask students to pronounce a pictured word. Encourage students to repeat a pictured word several times. As students gain confidence, have them repeat key concepts and phrases. Encourage participation from students who speak little or no English by asking yes/no or one-word-answer questions about the Photo Cards. Model using the pictured word in short sentences, and then have students use the word in context. Limit sentence length and complexity. Use gestures and facial expressions to help convey ideas and concepts. Ask students to define pictured words. Ask students to clarify, restate, or elaborate on what has been said. Elaborate on what a student has said about a Photo Card. Draw on students backgrounds and languages to find common references in the Photo Cards and the culture of the local community. Use natural language, and focus on real-life situations. Check for understanding to confirm what you think a student has said. Show or write the Photo Card labels to help students make the connection between oral and written English. Summarize material frequently. 26 English Learner

5 GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS Use graphic organizers to help build a structure around which students can fill in the linguistic components that are appropriate for their literacy level. The following are sorting strategies that can be used with graphic organizers to help students visualize the connections between words and ideas. Have students classify Photo Cards according to linguistic features. Use physical features of the images on the Photo Cards to help students sort them by content. Have students classify items in reference to another item. Examples include Faster than a Car/Slower than a Car, Bigger than a Desk/Smaller than a Desk, and Heavier than an Apple/Lighter than an Apple. Have students chart features that items have in common as they are sorted. Create graphic organizers to use, such as question mats that focus on who, what, where, and when. Have students use a T-chart to give examples that illustrate a concept and examples that do not. Being able to tell what is NOT an animal can help build confidence in communicating what IS an animal. Oral Language The SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library provides opportunities for young students to develop oral language. The User s Guide provides activity suggestions that help build vocabulary and encourage communication. When using the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library with your students, remember that learning a language is an interactive process. It is important to take advantage of every opportunity to facilitate communication. Activity suggestions are presented in a developmental sequence to help you choose appropriate activities for your students. These suggestions include labeling and naming objects, matching items, comparing objects, describing an object s appearance, categorizing items, identifying an object s use, and asking questions. Activities can be done with the whole class, in small groups, or one-on-one. Adapt the suggestions to meet the individual needs of your students. DEVELOPING VOCABULARY The following are strategies for using the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library for building students vocabulary. The activities are arranged from earlier-developing to later-developing skills. Choose from the strategies to provide experiences with English sounds and meanings. Remember that the words we use to name objects and concepts may vary from region to region. Always consider that people have different names for the same things, and the familiar name to some students may not be the one chosen as the Photo Card label. Discussion of the different names for pictured items will expand students vocabularies and extend their appreciation of regional and cultural differences. Oral Language

6 Ideas for Student Activities Labeling Objects Spread two to five Photo Cards in front of the students. Name an object pictured on one of the cards, and have a student find the card that shows the object. Labeling Objects Use the Photo Cards as flash cards. Show a card, and have students identify the pictured item. Model a sentence for students to use when responding, for example, What does this picture show? The picture shows a. Encourage students to use a sentence when answering. Determining Correct Labels Display a Photo Card of an object with which students are familiar. Then ask, Is this a truck? either calling it by the correct name or deliberately calling it by the wrong name. If the student thinks the label is correct, he or she should respond, Yes, that is a truck. If incorrect, the response should be, No, that is not a truck. That is a bus. Memory and Building Ideas Let each student select a Photo Card. Choose one student to make up a sentence using the label on the card. Have another student repeat the sentence and add a phrase or sentence using the label on the card he or she chose. Expand on this activity by having students use their Photo Cards to add sentences that make up a story. For example, I took a ride. I took a boat ride. I took my dog on the boat, and so forth. Using Context Clues Tell a fill-in-the-blank story, and use the items on the Photo Cards to fill in the blanks. Choose five or six cards. Hold up a card for the students to name when you come to a blank in the story. For example, I was (boating) down the (river) one day when I saw a (fox). It was wearing a (swimsuit) and (diving) off a (water lily). Encourage students to choose different Photo Cards and make up their own stories to share. Labeling Objects Quickly Show students a series of Photo Cards, and have them name the pictured objects as quickly as possible. Encourage students to quicken their response times by using a timer or stopwatch to record the time taken to name each object. Labeling Objects Choose a target sound such as /t/. Select eight to ten Photo Cards whose labels begin with this sound (for example, tent, tiger, toad, train, turtle) and at least five more cards that do not begin with this sound. Present the cards one at a time. Have students name the object pictured on each card and tell whether it begins with the target sound. 106 Oral Language

7 ENCOURAGING COMMUNICATION AND EXPRESSION The following strategies for using the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library are designed to develop language skills that help students communicate. The activities are arranged from earlierdeveloping to later-developing skills. Choose from the strategies to provide experiences that are appropriate for your students. Ideas for Student Activities Following Directions Gather a box, a small table, and a rock. Display several Photo Cards, and ask students to identify the items pictured. Give the students directions using the words in, on, and under. For example, Juanita, put the train on the table. Miguel, put the book under the rock. Comparing Objects Choose two Photo Cards. One card should picture an item that is easily recognizable as larger than the other (for example, ant and mountain or beetle and airplane). Prompt students to tell you which is larger or smaller: Which is larger, an ant or a mountain? Which is smaller, a beetle or an airplane? Matching Items Play a game of One of These Things Is Not Like the Others. Prepare groups of three Photo Cards each. Two of the cards should match in some way, and the third card should be different. You can use size, color, function, beginning sound, and so forth as your discriminatory factor. Have students tell which two cards in each group go together and which card does not belong. Have them explain their answers. Asking Questions Present a Photo Card to students (for example, banker), and then ask, What can you tell me about this photo? Have each student tell you one thing. Prompt students by asking questions, such as Where does this person work? What does this person do all day? Describing Pictures Have a student select a Photo Card, and, without showing it or naming it for the rest of the class, ask the student to describe the picture. Clues can describe an object s color, size, shape, or function. Other students should identify the item by asking Is it a? Have the student continue describing the picture until the item is identified. Identifying Missing Items Place two or more Photo Cards faceup on a table. Moving from left to right, a student should point to and identify each photo. Have the student cover his or her eyes while you take away one Photo Card. Upon opening his or her eyes, the student should try to identify which picture is missing. After the correct guess, have the student place the card in its original position. If a student does not guess correctly, show the student the missing card, and ask the student to name the item. 149 Oral Language

8 Across the Curriculum Beyond oral language and vocabulary development, the SRA Imagine It! English Learner Photo Library is an appropriate supplement to all curricular areas. HEALTH Use the Photo Cards when you discuss senses, for word meanings and synonym practice, or to develop vocabulary and speaking and listening skills. The following suggestions offer ideas to reinforce how important safety, nutrition, caring for the body, and exercise are to good health. As they reinforce health concepts, these strategies are intended to encourage oral-language development. Ideas for Student Activities Look for cards that show people involved in an activity. Tell what the people are doing to stay safe. Randomly select a Photo Card. Design a safety brochure related to it. Create a poster for National Health Awareness Week that incorporates several Photo Cards. Find ten cards that are related to healthful eating habits. Write a letter to a friend about the items on those cards. Write a warning label for an item pictured on a Photo Card. Imagine telling a toddler how to use something on one of the Photo Cards safely. Write or illustrate the instructions. 154 Across the Curriculum

9 LANGUAGE ARTS Use the Photo Cards as writing prompts; for vocabulary development; or for practice with word meanings, synonyms, and speaking and listening skills. The following suggestions offer ideas to reinforce and practice language arts skills. Suggestions for sequencing reinforce comprehension skills; identifying synonyms and antonyms reinforces vocabulary skills; observing and describing activities provide practice with language study skills; and writing opportunities reinforce composition skills. As they reinforce language arts concepts, these strategies encourage oral-language development. Ideas for Student Activities Brainstorm words associated with the objects on the Photo Cards. 18 Combine items from several Photo Cards to write, tell, or dramatize a story. Categorize Photo Cards by one, two, or three syllables. Look for compound words on the Photo Cards, such as baseball, basketball, bedroom, blueberries, firefighter, and notebook. Randomly select ten Photo Cards, and have students put them in alphabetical order. MATH Use the Photo Cards to sort; classify; graph; identify and develop patterns; or compare dimensions, colors, and shapes. The following suggestions offer ideas to reinforce and practice mathematical skills. Activities that involve comparing size, length, and temperature reinforce measurement skills, estimating and counting activities provide practice with numeration; identifying and describing shapes reinforces geometry skills; and activities that involve collecting data and creating charts reinforce graphing skills. As they reinforce math concepts, these strategies encourage oral-language development. Ideas for Student Activities Estimate and measure the quantity, length, width, and weight of items on the Photo Cards. Use nonstandard units of measure to determine the length or width of items. Identify patterns of colors, shapes, and sizes. Identify attributes of color, shape, and size. Compare size, length, weight, shape, temperature, and texture of items. Categorize similar objects. Select ten Photo Cards. Place them in rank order of length, speed, weight, and so on. Sort and classify by comparing attributes of groups of Photo Cards. Make graphs and compare the groups. Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. Permission is granted Across the Curriculum

10 SCIENCE Use the Photo Cards to identify plants, animals, or weather phenomena; demonstrate relationships among living things; or identify Earth processes and landforms. The following suggestions offer ideas to reinforce and practice the science skills of classifying, identifying cause and effect, observing, predicting, and describing attributes. As they reinforce science concepts, these strategies encourage oral-language development. 255 Ideas for Student Activities Look for ecological relationships between items on Photo Cards. Categorize and classify Photo Cards (for example, Living/Nonliving,). Examine cause-and-effect relationships in items on the Photo Cards. Select several animal Photo Cards (such as ant, bear, bat, grasshopper, and owl), and sort them based on how they move. Design models of items shown on the Photo Cards. Talk about the three forms water can take (liquid, solid, gas). Look for Photo Cards that show those forms. Select several food Photo Cards (such as bananas, beans, corn, fish, and tomato), and relate them to the five senses. SOCIAL STUDIES Use the Photo Cards to reinforce mapping and location skills, develop time lines, discuss transportation and occupations, or identify geographical features. The following suggestions offer ideas to reinforce and practice social studies skills. Ideas such as locating specific sites on a map or globe reinforce map and globe skills; locating specific information in a newspaper reinforces study and research skills; creating time lines supports time-related skills; and identifying the roles, rights, and responsibilities of individuals and groups within society strengthens citizenship. As they reinforce social studies concepts, these strategies encourage oral-language development. Ideas for Student Activities Categorize and classify the Photo Cards in a variety of ways, and explain the classification system. Create time lines of Photo Card items based on their dates of discovery or invention. Use as many Photo Cards as possible to write about or show a sequence of events for a typical day in a student s life. Randomly select a Photo Card. Connect it to a geographical location. Describe the position of the object on a Photo Card using words such as over, under, top, bottom, middle, left, right, and between. Select several animal Photo Cards (such as ant, bear, bat, grasshopper, and owl), and locate the geographic habitats of them. Locate and describe pictures in newspapers or magazines of Photo Card items. Research the history of a Photo Card item. Select several transportation Photo Cards (such as airplane, bicycle, bus, train, and sailboat), and classify them as land, air, or water modes of transportation. Across the Curriculum

11 PRONUNCIATION KEY This English-based pronunciation key is used for the pronunciations on the Photo Cards. It is intended to help English-speaking people attempt to approximate or understand the pronunciations of Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong, Cantonese, Korean, Haitian Creole, Arabic, Russian, Tagalog, and Khmer words. Each of these languages, however, has its own characteristic sounds and tones that cannot be represented by an English pronunciation key. For further assistance, the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) symbols have been included below where applicable. SYMBOL EXPLANATION IPA EQUIVALENTS a at, bad æ ā ape, pain, day, break e (eɪ) ä father, car, heart a (ɑ) âr care, pair, bear, their, where eɹ (ɛɹ) e end, pet, said, heaven, friend ɛ ē equal, me, feet, team, piece, key i (iː) i it, big, English, hymn ɪ ī ice, fine, lie, my aɪ îr ear, deer, here, pierce iɹ (ɪɹ) o odd, hot, watch a (ɑ) ō old, oat, toe, low o (oʊ) ô coffee, all, taught, law, fought ɔ ôr order, fork, horse, story, pour ɔɹ oi oil, toy ɔɪ ou out, now aʊ u up, mud, love, double ʌ ū use, mule, cue, feud, few ju ü rule, true, food u (uː) uu put, wood, should ʊ ûr burn, hurry, term, bird, word, courage ɹ (ɚ) (әɹ) ә about, taken, pencil, lemon, circus ә b bat, above, job b ch chin, such, match tʃ d dear, soda, had d f five, defend, leaf, off, cough, elephant f g game, ago, fog, egg g h hat, ahead h hw white, whether, which ʍ Pronunciation Key 10

12 SYMBOL EXPLANATION IPA EQUIVALENTS j joke, enjoy, gem, page, edge dʒ k kite, bakery, seek, tack, cat k l lid, sailor, feel, ball, allow l m man, family, dream m n not, final, pan, knife n ng long, singer, pink ŋ p pail, repair, soap, happy p r ride, parent, wear, more, marry ɹ s sit, aside, pets, cent, pass s sh shoe, washer, fish, mission, nation ʃ t tag, pretend, fat, button, dressed t th thin, panther, both θ ᵺ this, mother, smooth ð v very, favor, wave v w wet, weather, reward w y yes, onion j z zoo, lazy, jazz, rose, dogs, houses z zh vision, treasure, siezure ʒ Additional Symbols for Spanish Pronunciations rr indicates a rolled /r/ sound r Additional Symbols for Cantonese Pronunciations ` indicates sound pronounced with a puff of air (aspirated) ʰ ts indicates sound represented by rapid tongue movement from /t/ to /s/ pronunciation ts t`s indicates sound represented by pronouncing /ts/ with a puff of air (aspirated) tʰs z`h indicates sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue on the ridge behind the teeth (retroflex) ʐ z^h` indicates /z`h/ pronounced with a puff of air (aspirated) ʐʰ ^s indicates /s/ pronounced with the tip of the tongue on the ridge behind the teeth (retroflex) ʂ Additional Symbols for Arabic Pronunciations indicates glottal stop or guttural stop (before or after a letter) Ɂ aa indicates /a/ pronounced emphatically dd indicates /d/ pronounced emphatically hh indicates /h/ pronounced emphatically ss indicates /s/ pronounced emphatically tt indicates /t/ pronounced emphatically Pronunciation Key 11

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