Apache Hadoop. Alexandru Costan

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1 1 Apache Hadoop Alexandru Costan

2 Big Data Landscape No one-size-fits-all solution: SQL, NoSQL, MapReduce, No standard, except Hadoop 2

3 Outline What is Hadoop? Who uses it? Architecture HDFS MapReduce Open Issues Examples 3

4 4 4

5 What is Hadoop? Hadoop is a top-level Apache project Open source implementation of MapReduce Developed in Java Platform for data storage and processing Scalable Fault tolerant Distributed Any type of complex data 5

6 Why? 6

7 What for? Advocated by industry s premier Web players (Google, Yahoo!, Microsoft, Facebook) as the engine to power the cloud. Used for: Batch data processing, not real-time / user facing: web search Log processing Document analysis and indexing Web graphs and crawling Highly parallel data intensive distributed applications 7

8 Who uses Hadoop? 8 8

9 Components: the Hadoop stack 9

10 HDFS Distributed storage system Files are divided into large blocks (128 MB) Blocks are distributed across the cluster Blocks are replicated to help against hardware failure Data placement is exposed so that computation can be migrated to data Master / Slave architecture Notable differences from mainstream DFS work Single storage + compute cluster vs. separate clusters Simple I/O centric API 10

11 HDFS Architecture HDFS Master: NameNode Manages all file system metadata in memory: List of files For each file name: a set of blocks For each block: a set of DataNodes File attributes (creation time, replication factor) Controls read/write access to files Manages block replication Transaction log: register file creation, deletion, etc. 11

12 HDFS Architecture HDFS Slaves: DataNodes A DataNode is a block server Stores data in the local file system (e.g. ext3) Stores meta-data of a block (e.g. CRC) Serves data and meta-data to Clients Block report Periodically sends a report of all existing blocks to the NameNode Pipelining of data Forwards data to other specified DataNodes Perform replication tasks upon instruction by NameNode Rack-aware 12

13 HDFS Architecture 13

14 Fault tolerance in HDFS NameNode uses heartbeats to detect DataNode failures: Once every 3 seconds Chooses new DataNodes for new replicas Balances disk usage Balances communication traffic to DataNodes Multiple copies of a block are stored: Default replication: 3 Copy #1 on another node on the same rack Copy #2 on another node on a different rack 14

15 Data Correctness Use checksums to validate data CRC32 File creation Client computes checksum per 512 byte DataNode stores the checksum File access Client retrieves the data and checksum from DataNode If validation fails, client tries other replicas 15

16 NameNode failures 16 A single point of failure Transaction Log stored in multiple directories A directory on the local file system A directory on a remote file system (NFS/ CIFS) The Secondary NameNode holds a backup of the NameNode data On the same machine L Need to develop a really highly available solution!

17 Data pipelining Client retrieves a list of DataNodes on which to place replicas of a block Client writes block to the first DataNode The first DataNode forwards the data to the second The second DataNode forwards the data to the third DataNode in the pipeline When all replicas are written, the client moves on to write the next block in file 17

18 User interface Commands for HDFS User: hadoop dfs -mkdir /foodir hadoop dfs -cat /foodir/myfile.txt hadoop dfs -rm /foodir myfile.txt Commands for HDFS Administrator hadoop dfsadmin -report hadoop dfsadmin -decommission datanodename Web Interface 18

19 Hadoop MapReduce Parallel processing for large datasets Relies on HDFS Master-Slave architecture: Job Tracker Task Trackers 19

20 Hadoop MapReduce Architecture Map-Reduce Master: JobTracker Accepts MapReduce jobs submitted by users Assigns Map and Reduce tasks to TaskTrackers Monitors task and TaskTracker status Re-executes tasks upon failure 20

21 Hadoop MapReduce Architecture Map-Reduce Slaves: TaskTrackers Run Map and Reduce tasks upon instruction from the JobTracker Manage storage and transmission of intermediate output Generic Reusable Framework supporting pluggable user code (file system, I/O format) 21

22 Putting everything together: HDFS and MapReduce deployment 22

23 Hadoop MapReduce Client Define Mapper and Reducer classes and a launching program Language support Java C++ Python Special case: Maps only 23

24 Zoom on the Map phase 24

25 Zoom on the Reduce Phase 25

26 Data locality Data locality is exposed in the map task scheduling put tasks where data is Data are replicated: Fault tolerance Performance: divide the work among nodes JobTracker schedules map tasks considering: Node-aware Rack-aware Non-local map tasks 26

27 Fault tolerance TaskTrackers send heartbeats to the JobTracker Once every 3 seconds Node is labled as failed if no heartbeat is recieved for a defined expiry time (default: 10 minutes) Re-execute all the ongoing and completed tasks Need to develop a more efficient policy to prevent re-executing completed tasks (storing this data in HDFS)! 27

28 Speculation in Hadoop Slow nodes (stragglers) à run backup tasks Node 1 Node 2 28

29 Life cycle of Map/Reduce tasks 29 29

30 Open Issues - 1 All the metadata are handled through one single Master in HDFS (Name Node) Performs bad when: Handling many files Heavy concurrency 30

31 Open Issues - 2 Data locality is crucial for Hadoop s performance How can we expose data-locality of Hadoop in the Cloud efficiently? Hadoop in the Cloud: Unaware of network topology Node-aware or non-local map tasks 31

32 Open Issues Data locality in the Cloud Node Empty node Node Node Node Empty node Node5 Node Empty node The simplicity of map tasks scheduling leads to non-local maps execution (25%)

33 Open Issues - 3 Data Skew The current Hadoop hash partitioning works well when the keys are equally frequent and uniformly stored in the data nodes In the presence of partitioning skew: Variation in Intermediate Keys frequencies Variation in Intermediate Keys distribution among different Data Nodes Native blindly hash-partitioning is inadequate and will lead to: Network congestion Unfairness in reducers inputs -> Reduce computation skew Performance degradation 33

34 Open Issues - 3 Data Node1 34 Data Node1 Data Node1 K1 K1 K1 K2 K2 K2 K1 K1 K1 K1 K1 K1 K1 K1 K1 K1 K2 K2 K2 K2 K3 K3 K3 K3 K1 K1 K1 K2 K4 K4 K2 K4 K4 K4 K4 K4 K4 K4 K4 K4 K5 K6 K4 K5 K5 K6 K6 K6 K4 K5 K5 K5 K5 K5 Hash code: (Intermediate-key) Modulo ReduceID K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 Data Node1 Data Node2 Data Node3 Total Out Data Transfer Reduce Input Total 44/54

35 Job scheduling in Hadoop Considerations Job priority: deadline Capacity: cluster resources available, resources needed for job FIFO The first job to arrive at a JobTracker is processed first Capacity Scheduling Organizes jobs into queues Queue shares as % s of cluster Fair Scheduler Group jobs into pools Divide excess capacity evenly between pools Delay scheduler to expose data locality 35

36 Hadoop at work! Cluster of machines running Hadoop at Yahoo! (credit: Yahoo!) 36

37 Running Hadoop Multiple options: On your local machine (standalone or pseudo distributed) Local with a Virtual Machine On the cloud (i.e. Amazon EC2) In your own datacenter (e.g. Grid5000) 37

38 Word Count Example In Hadoop 38

39 Useful links HDFS Design: Hadoop API: 39

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