Lecture 2 (08/31, 09/02, 09/09): Hadoop. Decisions, Operations & Information Technologies Robert H. Smith School of Business Fall, 2015

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1 Lecture 2 (08/31, 09/02, 09/09): Hadoop Decisions, Operations & Information Technologies Robert H. Smith School of Business Fall, 2015 K. Zhang BUDT 758

2 What we ll cover Overview Architecture o Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) Hands-on o Installation and configuration o Running Hadoop jobs 9/2/15 BUDT 758 2

3 Apache Hadoop January 2006: Subproject of Lucene January 2008: Top-level Apache project Stable version: Reliable, Performant Distributed file system MapReduce Programming framework Ecosystem: HBase, Hive, Pig, Howl, Oozie, Zookeeper, Chukwa, Mahout, Cascading, Scribe, Cassandra, Hypertable, Voldemort, Azkaban, Sqoop, Flume, Avro 9/2/15 BUDT 758 3

4 Who uses Hadoop? 9/2/15 BUDT 758 4

5 Bandwidth to data Scan 100TB Datasets on 1000 node cluster o Remote 10MB/s = 165 mins o Local MB/s = 33-8 mins Moving computation is more efficient than moving data o Need visibility into data placement Need fault tolerant store with reasonable availability guarantees o Handle hardware faults transparently 9/2/15 BUDT 758 5

6 Hadoop goals Scalable: Petabytes (10 15 Bytes) of data on thousands on nodes Economical: Commodity components only Reliable: fault tolerance 9/2/15 BUDT 758 6

7 High-level architecture of hadoop 9/2/15 BUDT 758 7

8 6 Hadoop big picture Hadoop: Big Picture High-level languages Execution engine Distributed light-weight DB Centralized tool for coordination Distributed File system HDFS + MapReduce are enough to have things working 9/2/15 BUDT 758 8

9 Hadoop architecture 9/2/15 BUDT 758 9

10 HDFS Master-Worker Architecture Single NameNode Many (Thousands) DataNodes Files are split into fixed sized blocks and stored on data nodes (default: 128MB) Data blocks are replicated for fault tolerance and fast access (default: 3) 9/2/15 BUDT

11 HDFS Master (NameNode) Manages filesystem namespace File metadata Mapping file to list of blocks Authorization & Authentication Mapping of datanode to list of blocks Monitor datanode health Replicate missing blocks Keeps ALL namespace in memory 9/2/15 BUDT

12 HDFS Slave (DataNode) Handle block storage on multiple volumes & block integrity Clients access the blocks directly from data nodes Periodically send heartbeats and block reports to NameNode Blocks are stored as underlying OS s files 9/2/15 BUDT

13 Data replication 9/2/15 BUDT

14 Data replication o Frist copy is written to the local node (write affinity). o Second copy is written to a DataNode within a remote rack. o Third copy is written to a DataNode in the same remote rack. o Additional replicas are randomly placed. Objectives: load balancing, fast access, fault tolerance. 9/2/15 BUDT

15 MapReduce: Hadoop execution layer JobTracker knows everything about submitted jobs Divides jobs into tasks and decides where to run each task Continuously communicating with TaskTracker TaskTracker execute task (multiple tasks per node) Monitors the execution of each task Continuously sending feedback to JobTracker 9/2/15 BUDT

16 HDFS filesystem commands 1. List the contents of a directory o $hadoop fs -ls 2. Create a directory in HDFS at given path(s) o $hadoop fs -mkdir <directory name> 3. Upload and download a file in HDFS o o Upload: $hadoop fs -put <local file> <remote path> Download: $hadoop fs -get <file in HDFS> <local path> 4. See contents of a file o $hadoop fs -cat <filename> 5. Delete a file/directory in HDFS o $hadoop fs -rm/rmr <file or directory> 9/2/15 BUDT

17 HDFS filesystem commands 6. Move file from source to destination o $hadoop fs -mv <src> <dst> 7. Report the amount of space used and availability o $hadoop fs -df hdfs:/ 8. How much space a directory occupies o $hadoop fs -du -s -h <dir name> 9. Change permission of files o $sudo hadoop fs -chmod 600 <file> 10. Change owner and group of files o $sudo hadoop fs -chown root:root <file> 9/2/15 BUDT

18 HDFS admin commands DFSAdmin command o -report: reports basic statistics of HDFS o o o -safemode: though usually not required, an administrator can manually enter or leave safemode enter, leave, get, wait -refreshnodes: updates the set of hosts allowed to connect to namenode Usage: hadoop dfsadmin [-report] [-safemode enter leave get wait] [- refreshnodes] [-finalizeupgrade] [-upgradeprogress status details force] [-metasave filename] [-setquota <quota> <dirname>...<dirname>] [-clrquota <dirname>...<dirname>] [-help [cmd]] 9/2/15 BUDT

19 Installation and configuration Use the stable version, e.g., Local (standalone) mode Fully-distributed mode Pseudo-distributed mode 9/2/15 BUDT

20 Fully distributed mode Assume we have three machines with following configurations OS Machine name IP address Ubuntu Master.Hadoop Ubuntu 9.11 Slave1.Hadoop Fedora 17 Slave2.Hadoop Create a hadoop user account on for each machine 9/2/15 BUDT

21 Modify machine names For different OS o Ubuntu OS o Fedora OS o Mac OS o $ sudo scutil --set HostName Master.Hadoop 9/2/15 BUDT

22 Configure DNS Modify /etc/hosts under the master machine 9/2/15 BUDT

23 Required software 1. JDK Download: e.g., jdk-7u25-linux-i586.tar.gz 2. Hadoop Download: e.g., hadoop tar.gz 3. SSH o $ sudo apt-get install openssh-server (for ubuntu OS) o $ yum install openssh-server (for Fedora OS) 9/2/15 BUDT

24 Passwordless login for SSH (1) $ ssh-kegen t rsa P (no spaces between single quotes; P is uppercase) $ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys $ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys 9/2/15 BUDT

25 Passwordless login for SSH (2) $ sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_confid Make sure the following lines are uncommented Restart ssh service o $ sudo service ssh restart 9/2/15 BUDT

26 Passwordless login for SSH (3) Do the ssh-add if ssh is still not working 9/2/15 BUDT

27 Passwordless login for SSH (4) Copy the generated public key to all slave machines in order passwordless access from the master to slaves Input slave1.hadoop s passwd 9/2/15 BUDT

28 Passwordless login for SSH (5) Test if it is successful to access slave machines without password 9/2/15 BUDT

29 Passwordless login for SSH (6) To make passwordless access from slave machines to the master machine, we need to add public keys of slave machines into authorized_keys on the master machine under the folder of.ssh using the following command $ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub ssh 'cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys It is equal to two commands: o $ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub o $ cat ~/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys 9/2/15 BUDT

30 9/2/15 BUDT

31 Set Java environment variables Edit /etc/profile (Ubuntu) or ~/.bashrc_profile (Mac) Make it work through o $ source /etc/profile or. /etc/profile 9/2/15 BUDT

32 Install Hadoop Modify /etc/profile to add some environment variables 9/2/15 BUDT

33 Configure Hadoop (1) Edit /usr/hadoop/conf/hadoop-env.sh 9/2/15 BUDT

34 Configure Hadoop (2) Edit /usr/hadoop/conf/core-site.xml 9/2/15 BUDT

35 Configure Hadoop (3) Edit /usr/hadoop/conf/hdfs-site.xml 9/2/15 BUDT

36 Configure Hadoop (4) Edit /usr/hadoop/conf/mapred-site.xml 9/2/15 BUDT

37 Configure Hadoop (5) Edit masters file Configure slaves file (only needed on the master machine) 9/2/15 BUDT

38 Start Hadoop (1) 9/2/15 BUDT

39 Start Hadoop (2) 9/2/15 BUDT

40 Check Hadoop status 9/2/15 BUDT

41 9/2/15 BUDT

42 Web access Hadoop 9/2/15 BUDT

43 Web access Hadoop 9/2/15 BUDT

44 Installation and configuration Local (standalone) mode Fully-distributed mode Pseudo-distributed mode Please also refer to PDF file Hadoop_installation_and_configuration.pdf 9/2/15 BUDT

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