Hadoop Architecture. Part 1

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1 Hadoop Architecture Part 1

2 Node, Rack and Cluster: A node is simply a computer, typically non-enterprise, commodity hardware for nodes that contain data. Consider we have Node 1.Then we can add more nodes, such as Node 2, Node 3 and so on. This would be called a rack. A rack is a collection of 30 or 40 nodes that are physically stored close together and are all connected to the same network switch. Network bandwidth between any two nodes in rack is greater than bandwidth between two nodes on different racks. A Hadoop Cluster (or just cluster from now on) is a collection of racks. Hadoop has two major components: Hadoop Distributed File System MapReduce Engine HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) HDFS is a distributed file system designed to run on commodity hardware. HDFS runs on top of the existing file systems on each node in a Hadoop cluster. It has many similarities with existing distributed file systems. However, the differences from other distributed file systems are significant. HDFS is highly fault-tolerant and is designed to be deployed on low-cost hardware. HDFS provides high throughput access to application data and is suitable for applications that have large data sets. Seek Operation The larger the file, the less time Hadoop spends seeking for the next data location on disk and the more time Hadoop runs at the limit of the bandwidth of your disks. Seeks are generally expensive operations that are useful when you only need to analyse a small

3 subset of your dataset. Since Hadoop is designed to run over your entire dataset, it is best to minimize seeks by using large files. Sequential Access Hadoop is designed for streaming or sequential data access rather than random access. Sequential data access means fewer seeks, since Hadoop only seeks to the beginning of each block and begins reading sequentially from there. Hadoop uses blocks to store a file or parts of a file. Portability across Heterogeneous Hardware and Software Platforms HDFS has been designed to be easily portable from one platform to another. This facilitates widespread adoption of HDFS as a platform of choice for a large set of applications. HDFS Blocks: Blocks are large in HDFS. They default to 64 megabytes each and most systems run with block sizes of 128 megabytes or larger. File Blocks 64 MB (Default), 128 MB (recommended) Compare to 4KB in UNIX. A Hadoop block is a file on the underlying file system. Since the underlying file system stores files as blocks, one Hadoop block may consist of many blocks in the underlying file system. Blocks have several advantages: They are fixed in size. This makes it easy to calculate how many can fit on a disk. File being made up of blocks that can be spread over multiple nodes, a file can be larger than any single disk in the cluster. HDFS blocks also don't waste space. If a file or chunk of the file is smaller than the block size, only needed space is used.

4 Example: 420 MB file is split as But the fourth block does not consume a full 128 MB. Blocks fit well with replication, which allows HDFS to be fault tolerant and available on commodity hardware. Each block is replicated to multiple nodes. For example, block 1 is stored on node 1 and node 2.This allows for node failure without data loss. If node 1 crashes, node 2 still runs and has block 1's data. In this example, we are only replicating data across two nodes, but you can set replication to be across many more nodes by changing Hadoop's configuration or even setting the replication factor for each individual file. MapReduce Engine Hadoop's MapReduce is inspired by a paper Google published on the MapReduce technology. A MapReduce program consists of two types of transformations that can be applied to data any number of times - a map function and a reduce function. Also function called as transformation. A MapReduce job is an executing MapReduce program that is divided into map tasks that run in parallel with each other and reduce tasks that run in parallel with each other. Types of Nodes HDFS Nodes NameNode DataNode MapReduce Nodes JobTracker TaskTracker

5 They are classified as HDFS or MapReduce nodes. For HDFS nodes we have the NameNode, and the DataNodes. For MapReduce nodes we have the JobTracker and the TaskTracker nodes. There are other HDFS nodes such as the Secondary NameNode, Checkpoint node, and Backup node. We will discuss this later. This diagram shows some of the communication paths between the different types of nodes on the system. A client is shown as communicating with a JobTracker. It can also communicate with the NameNode and with any DataNode. NameNode There is only one NameNode in the cluster. While the data that makes up a file is stored in blocks at the data nodes, the metadata for a file is stored at the NameNode. The NameNode is also responsible for the file system namespace. Since there is only one NameNode, one should configure the NameNode to write a copy of its state information to multiple locations, such as a local disk and an NFS mount. If there is one node in the cluster to spend money on the best enterprise hardware for maximum reliability it is the NameNode. The NameNode should also have as much RAM as possible because it keeps the entire file system metadata in memory. Note: Don t use inexpensive commodity hardware for NameNode and large memory required.

6 DataNodes A typical HDFS cluster has many DataNodes. They store the blocks of data. When a client requests a file, it finds out from the NameNode which DataNodes store the blocks that make up that file and the client directly reads the blocks from the individual DataNodes. Each DataNode also reports to the NameNode periodically with the list of blocks it stores. DataNodes do not require expensive enterprise hardware or replication at the hardware layer. The DataNodes are designed to run on commodity hardware and replication is provided at the software layer. JobTracker Node A JobTracker node manages MapReduce jobs. There is only one of these on the cluster. It receives jobs submitted by clients. It schedules the Map tasks and Reduce tasks on the appropriate TaskTrackers in a rackaware manner and monitors for any failing tasks that need to be rescheduled on a different TaskTracker. To achieve the parallelism for your map and reduce tasks, there are many TaskTrackers in a Hadoop cluster. Each TaskTracker seed Java Virtual Machines to run your map or reduce task.

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