Child Adoption: Trends and Policies

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Child Adoption: Trends and Policies"

Transcription

1 Child Adoption: Trends and Policies

2 [blank page]

3 ST/ESA/SER.A/292 Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Child Adoption: Trends and Policies United Nations New York, 2009

4 DESA The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies in the economic, social and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas: (i) it compiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which States Members of the United Nations draw to review common problems and take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates the negotiations of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint courses of action to address ongoing or emerging global challenges; and (iii) it advises interested Governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed in United Nations conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities. Note The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The designations developed and developing countries and more developed and less developed regions are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process. The term country as used in the text of this publication also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas. This publication has been issued without formal editing. ST/ESA/SER.A/292 UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION Sales No. E.10.XIII.4 ISBN ISBN Copyright United Nations, 2009 All rights reserved

5 PREFACE The Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is in charge of monitoring population policies in all countries of the world. Since the United Nations convened its first intergovernmental conference on population in 1974, the Population Division has been responsible for reviewing and appraising the implementation of the plans or programmes of action adopted by the United Nations international conferences on population. As part of its work, the Population Division produces in-depth studies on specific issues related to population policy. This report, focusing on policies on child adoption and the resulting trends in 195 countries, aims to provide Governments with the evidence necessary to assess their policies in this area. One of its major conclusions is that available data on child adoptions have a number of limitations that prevent a thorough assessment of the determinants of the process and its consequences for the parties involved. The systematic collection and publication of more detailed data on adoption would provide useful insights about how the process of adoption functions and would validate measures that the authorities in charge could use to ensure the welfare of adopted children. The World Population Plan of Action adopted in 1974 at the World Population Conference called for facilitating child adoption so that involuntarily sterile and sub-fecund couples could achieve their desired family size. Implicit in this recommendation was the idea that adoption is a means to approximate biological parenthood for couples who would otherwise be unable to have children. More than three decades later, the general view is that, in societies where marriage is being increasingly delayed, childbearing is postponed and levels of biological childlessness are on the rise, increasing numbers of persons are resorting to alternative means of experiencing parenthood, including through adoption. This report analyses adoption trends in light of changes in nuptiality and childbearing in order to assess the extent to which the generalized view presented above holds true. This study, the first of its kind undertaken by the Population Division, presents comparable information for 195 countries. The information presented relates to: adoption policies and legislation; multilateral, regional and bilateral treaties on intercountry adoption; levels and trends of total, domestic and intercountry adoptions, and data on selected demographic characteristics of the individuals involved in an adoption, namely, the adopted person, the adoptive parents and the birth parents. The report surveys recent trends and policies on child adoption while providing the cultural and historical background necessary to understand differences in country practices. Acknowledgement is due to Dr. Peter Selman, who contributed background material for several of the chapters of this study, and to Dr. Robert Gardner, who assisted in editing the publication. Responsibility for the design, execution and content of this study lies entirely with the Population Division. This publication, as well as other population information, may be accessed on the Population Division s website, at For further information about this publication, please contact the office of Ms. Hania Zlotnik, Director, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, N.Y ; tel: (212) ; fax (212) iii

6

7 CONTENTS PREFACE... EXPLANATORY NOTES... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... INTRODUCTION... 1 Chapter I. HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF MODERN ADOPTION LAWS... 5 A. Adoption laws in antiquity... 5 B. Adoption laws from the Middle Ages to the Modern Era... 9 C. Modern adoption laws D. Adoption laws: present and future challenges E. Summary II. ADOPTION IN RELIGIOUS LAW AND IN TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES A. Adoption and religious law B. De facto adoption and fostering in traditional societies C. Summary III. KEY FEATURES OF MODERN ADOPTION LAWS A. Legal procedures B. Legal requirements for prospective adoptive parents and adopted persons C. Effects of adoption D. Summary IV. INTERNATIONAL, REGIONAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS ON INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION A. International agreements B. Regional agreements C. Bilateral agreements D. Recent initiatives and future challenges related to intercountry adoptions E. Summary V. LEVELS AND TRENDS IN CHILD ADOPTIONS A. Levels and trends in the total number of adoptions B. Levels and trends in domestic adoption C. Levels and trends in intercountry adoption D. Data limitations and steps to harmonize the collection of data on child adoptions E. Summary VI. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOPTIVE CHILDREN, ADOPTIVE PARENTS AND BIRTH PARENTS A. Selected characteristics of adopted children B. Selected characteristics of adoptive parents C. Selected characteristics of the birth mother D. Summary VII. THE DEMAND FOR AND AVAILABILITY OF ADOPTABLE CHILDREN A. The demand for adoption from the perspective of adoptive parents B. The demographic factors associated with the demand for adoption C. The availability of adoptable children D. Summary Page iii xiii xv v

8 Page VIII. A FRAMEWORK FOR FURTHERING THE STUDY OF ADOPTION A. Framework for the generation and collection of statistics on domestic adoption B. Framework for the collection of statistics on intercountry adoption C. Conclusion GLOSSARY REFERENCES COUNTRY PROFILES Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus vi

9 Page Czech Republic Democratic People s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya vii

10 Page Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal viii

11 Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Republic of Tanzania United States of America Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Page ANNEXES NO. I. DERIVATION OF GLOBAL ESTIMATES OF TOTAL, DOMESTIC AND INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTIONS II. REFERENCES FOR COUNTRY PROFILES III. ANNEX TABLES ix

12 No. TEXT TABLES I.1. Year of promulgation or enactment of selected adoption laws, III.1. Number of countries requiring the prospective adoptive parent to be of a certain age by type of age requirement III.2. Number of countries requiring the prospective adoptive parents to be of a certain age, by age group of prospective adoptive parents III.3. Number of countries permitting single persons to adopt by sex of those persons and major area. 39 III.4. Number of countries that require or allow the child to express consent to adoption by the age above which the child s consent is sought IV.1. Countries that have ratified the European Convention on the Adoption of Children, IV.2. Countries that have ratified the Inter-American Convention on Conflict of Laws Concerning the Adoption of Minors, V.1. Countries with the largest total number of adoptions and different adoption rates V.2. Countries with the largest number of domestic adoptions V.3. Countries of destination with the largest number of intercountry adoptions and main country of origin V.4. Countries of origin with the largest number of intercountry adoptions and main country of destination V.5. Number of intercountry adoptions by main country of origin, and V.6. Countries publishing data on adoption by type of adoption and by major area VI.1. Mean age of children at the time of adoption by type of adoption VI.2. Sex ratio and percentage of boys among adopted children at the time of adoption by type of VI.3. adoption Overall number of intercountry adoptions by country of origin and sex of the child for Denmark, Ireland and Norway combined, VI.4. Age of parents at the time of adoption, various indicators VI.5. Number and percentage of adoptions by single parents VI.6. Number and percentage of adoptions by step-parents and other relatives VI.7. Adoptions by age and marital status of the birth mother, Australia, VII.1. Number of adoption applications and approvals VII.2. Average desired number of children and distribution of persons by number of children desired for selected countries of destination of intercountry adoptions VII.3. Number of adoptions by persons with and without children at the time of adoption VII.4. Number of children in care and adoptions of children from care VII.5. Sex ratio of children in care and of those adopted from care VII.6. Mean ages of children in care and adopted children at the time of adoption from care VII.7. Domestic rate of under-five adoptions by step-parents and selected indicators of marital dissolution Page ANNEX TABLES A.III.1. Status of adoption, national legislation and institutional arrangements concerning adoptions by major area and country A.III.2. Selected requirements for prospective adoptive parents and adopted children by major area and country A.IV.1. Countries that have ratified various conventions relevant to intercountry adoptions A.V.1. Selected adoption rates by major area and country A.V.2. Selected adoption indicators by major area and country A.V.3. Main countries of destination of intercountry adoptions for selected countries of origin A.V.4. Main countries of origin of intercountry adoptions for selected countries of destination A.VI.1. Total number of adoptions and percentage distribution of adoptions by age of the child at the time of adoption x

13 No. A.VI.2. Number of domestic adoptions and percentage distribution of domestic adoptions by age of the child at the time of adoption A.VI.3. Number of intercountry adoptions and percentage distribution of intercountry adoptions by age of the child at the time of adoption A.VI.4. Sex ratio of adopted children and percentage distribution by sex A.VI.5. Sex ratio of children adopted domestically and percentage distribution by sex A.VI.6. Sex ratio of children adopted through an intercountry procedure and percentage distribution by sex A.VII.1. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and selected indicators of the desired family size in countries that are not major destinations for intercountry adoptions A.VII.2. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and selected indicators of the desire for more children in countries that are not major destinations of intercountry adoptions A.VII.3. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and selected indicators of fertility in countries that are major destinations of intercountry adoptions A.VII.4. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and selected indicators of fertility in countries that are not major destinations of intercountry adoptions A.VII.5. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and percentage of extramarital births in countries that are major destinations of intercountry adoptions A.VII.6. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and percentage of extramarital births in countries that are not major destinations of intercountry adoptions A.VII.7. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and selected indicators of abortion and contraceptive use in countries that are major destinations of intercountry adoptions A.VII.8. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and selected indicators of abortion and contraceptive use in countries that are not major destinations of intercountry adoptions A.VII.9. Total, domestic and intercountry under-five adoption rates and selected indicators of orphanhood in countries that are not major destinations of intercountry adoptions Page TEXT FIGURES V.1. Number of domestic adoptions in Ireland and New Zealand, V.2. Number of domestic adoptions and adoptions by step-parents and other relatives, Australia, V.3. Number of intercountry adoptions in Northern America and in West European countries as a group, by region of origin, V.4. Number of intercountry adoptions in Northern America and in West European countries as a group, by country of origin, V.5. Number of intercountry adoptions in the United States, V.6. Number of intercountry adoptions in France and Sweden, V.7. Number of domestic and intercountry adoptions in Romania, V.8. Number of intercountry adoptions received by the United States from the four main countries of origin, VI.1. Age distribution of children adopted domestically and through an intercountry procedure, Norway, VI.2. Age distribution of children adopted by step-parents and by non-related adoptive parents, Germany, VI.3. Adoptions by step-parents and adoptions of children aged 10 or over, Switzerland, VI.4. Number of domestic and intercountry adoptions by sex of the adoptive child, Singapore, VI.5. Number of adoptions by age and sex of the adoptive parent, Australia, xi

14 No. VII.1. Applications for intercountry adoption according to the number of persons that prospective parents were seeking to adopt, Italy, VII.2. Applications for intercountry adoption by number of biological and adopted children, Finland, VII.3. Domestic under-five adoption rate and total fertility per woman in countries that are not major destinations of intercountry adoptions VII.4. Domestic under-five adoption rate versus the mean age at first birth in countries that are not major destinations of intercountry adoptions VII.5. Out-of-wedlock births and adoptions in Ireland, VII.6. Adoptions by step-parents and marriages involving at least one partner who was previously married, Norway, Page BOXES I.1. Selected articles of law related to adoption in the Code of Hammurabi, eighteenth century B.C. 6 I.2. Selected articles of law related to adoption in the Institutes of Justinian, 533 A.D... 8 I.3. Selected articles of law related to adoption in the French Civil Code, I.4. The Massachusetts Adoption of Children Act, II.1. Countries that do not recognize the institution of adoption III.1. Countries that require prospective adoptive parents to be married III.2. Countries that impose restrictions based on the citizenship or place of habitual residence of the adoptive parent III.3. Countries that restrict adoption of children of a certain sex based on the sex and marital status of the adoptive parent IV.1. Baby selling and human trafficking for the purpose of adoption IV.2. Countries that have raised concerns about the sale of or traffic in children in relation to intercountry adoption V.1. Countries with the highest percentage of domestic adoptions V.2. Government efforts to promote domestic adoptions in Latvia V.3. Countries with the highest percentage of intercountry adoptions VI.1 The adoption of adults VIII.1. Recommended tabulations on domestic adoption VIII.2. Recommended tabulations on intercountry adoption xii

15 Explanatory notes Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. The tables presented in this publication make use of the following symbols: Two dots (..) indicates that the item is not applicable. Three dots ( ) indicate that data are not available or are not separately reported. An em-dash ( ) indicates that the amount is nil or negligible. A minus sign (-) before a figure indicates a decrease. A full stop (.) is used to indicate decimals. Use of a hyphen (-) between years, for example , signifies the full period involved. Percentages in tables and figures do not necessarily add to totals because of rounding. xiii

16

17 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Adoption is one of the oldest social institutions. Nevertheless, adoption still raises highly emotive issues because of its fundamental implications for the meaning of familial ties. Questions on whether adoption serves the best interests of children, who should be allowed to adopt and the role of Governments in regulating such decisions are frequent subjects of debate. Yet, despite the heightened attention to these issues, much of the information on adoption remains anecdotal. Data on the number of children adopted domestically are rarely available and when they are, they tend to be out-of-date. Similarly, comparable information on trends in intercountry adoptions that is, adoptions that involve a change of country of residence for the adopted person is often lacking or is available for just a few countries. is the first study focusing on adoption prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. The study provides a solid foundation for furthering research on child adoption and, more specifically, on the demographic factors that shape the demand for and the availability of adoptable children. The focus of this report is on the nexus between adoption policies and trends at the national and global levels. Understanding adoption policies and their origins is all the more important today because, as adoption has become global, inconsistencies among the legal principles and traditions regarding adoption in different countries are increasingly coming to the fore. The major findings of this study are summarized below. Key findings 1. There are over a quarter of a million adoptions every year. The United Nations Population Division estimates that some 260,000 children are adopted each year. This estimate implies that fewer than 12 children are adopted for every 100,000 persons under age 18 (figure I). Adoption remains, therefore, a relatively rare event. 2. A few countries account for most adoptions (figure II). The United States of America, with over 127,000 adoptions in 2001, accounts for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide. Large numbers of adoptions also take place in China (almost 46,000 in 2001) and in the Russian Federation (more than 23,000 in 2001). 3. The purpose of adoption has evolved over time. Historically, adoption occurred primarily to preserve and transmit family lines or inheritance, to gain political power or to forge alliances between families. Adopted persons were usually adolescents or adults who could guarantee the continuation of the family line. The notion that adoption was a means for promoting children s welfare did not take hold until the mid-nineteenth century. Today, the principle of ensuring that the best interests of the child are served by adoption is the paramount consideration enshrined in most adoption laws. 4. Over 160 countries recognize the legal institution of adoption but 20 countries do not have legal provisions allowing child adoption. In most of the countries where adoption is not possible, alternative procedures, such as guardianship or the placement of children under the care of relatives are permitted. Religion often plays a key role in determining the conditions under which such alternative practices may be pursued. 5. In some countries, informal adoption and fostering are perceived as preferable to formal adoption. Informal or de facto adoption and fostering are practices that allow parents to put children in the care of others (usually relatives) without having to cut all ties with their children. These practices contrast markedly with the secrecy and finality that have come to characterize adoption in the western context. xv

18 Executive summary Figure I. Number of adoptions of children under 18 per 100,000 children under 18, most recent data available, Sources: For a complete list of country references, see annex II. NOTES: The under-18 adoption rate is calculated by dividing the total number of adoptions of persons under age 18 by the number of persons under age 18. It is assumed that all persons adopted are under age 18 at the time of adoption. The boundaries shown on the present map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. 6. The consequences of an adoption for the rights of adopted children differ considerably among countries. In some countries, adopted children acquire the same rights as birth children, including the right to inheritance, and adopted children sever all legal ties with their birth parents. In other countries, the termination of natural ties between birth parents and children is viewed as culturally unacceptable. 7. Requirements for prospective adoptive parents vary considerably among countries. In 81 countries, adoption laws establish a minimum age for prospective adoptive parents and in 15 countries, adoption laws also stipulate a maximum age. Single persons are allowed to adopt in 100 countries but in 15, only married couples can adopt. In many countries, laws have been amended to allow older persons or single persons to adopt. However, in some cases, the criteria that potential adoptive parents must meet have become more stringent. Adoption by step-parents, for instance, is currently discouraged in several countries because of the potentially detrimental effects that such adoptions are deemed to have on the child s relationship to his or her non-custodial biological parent. The requirements for intercountry adoptions have also been tightened in several countries of origin. 8. Domestic adoptions far outnumber intercountry adoptions. Almost 85 per cent of all adoptions involve citizens or residents of the same country. Domestic adoptions represent at least half of all adoptions in 57 of the 96 countries with data. Whereas the number of domestic adoptions has been declining in many developed countries, several developing countries have experienced an increase in the number of domestic adoptions, partly because of the implementation of policies to encourage local residents to adopt. xvi

19 Executive summary Figure II. Countries with the largest number of adoptions, most recent available data, United States China Russian Federation Ukraine United Kingdom Germany Spain France Brazil Canada Republic of Korea Guatemala Kazakhstan Italy India Viet Nam Uzbekistan Poland Bulgaria South Africa 0 30,000 60,000 90, ,000 Source: For a complete list of country references, see annex II. NOTES: Data for Canada and the Russian Federation are estimates. Data for Brazil refer to the state of São Paulo only. Data for Poland refer to adoption rulings by the courts. 9. Adoptions by step-parents and other relatives account for more than half of all domestic adoptions. Nevertheless, the number of adoptions by step-parents and other relatives has been declining in recent years. In some countries, the introduction of legislation discouraging adoptions by step-parents accounts partly for this trend. Declining re-marriage rates and an increasing prevalence of informal parenting arrangements are also contributing to that decline. 10. The number of intercountry adoptions has been increasing. Both the number of intercountry adoptions and their share among all adoptions have been increasing. In many European countries, intercountry adoptions now account for more than half of all adoptions. 11. The United States, France and Spain, in order of importance, are the major countries of destination of children adopted internationally. Other countries that experience large inflows of children adopted from abroad are Canada, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. Each of these countries has recorded over 1,000 foreign adoptions annually in recent years. 12. Asian and East European countries are the major sources of children adopted through an intercountry procedure. Relatively few children adopted internationally originate in Africa or Latin America and the Caribbean. The countries of origin accounting for most international adoptions are China, Guatemala, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. More than half of the children adopted abroad originate in those five countries. xvii

20 Executive summary 13. The dwindling supply of children available for domestic adoption may partially explain the increase in the number of intercountry adoptions. In developed countries, the widespread availability of reliable, safe and inexpensive contraception has meant that there are fewer children available for adoption. In addition, wider societal acceptance of single parenthood and the greater availability of welfare support have meant that fewer single mothers give up their children for adoption. 14. The characteristics of children available for domestic adoption has also contributed to the increase in the number of intercountry adoptions. Adoptable children within countries are often older than those desired by adoptive parents. The desire for younger children has probably prompted some parents to adopt children abroad. Intercountry adoptions are also favoured in contexts where adoption procedures are less demanding and faster for intercountry adoptions than for domestic adoption. 15. Over 60 per cent of adopted children are under age five at the time of adoption. Despite adoptive parents preference for younger children, relatively few adoptions involve children under age one. Adoptions of children older than five years also tend to be rare and, when they occur, they frequently involve step-children. 16. In countries of destination, children adopted domestically tend to be older than children adopted through an intercountry procedure. This outcome results, at least in part, from the fact that domestic adoptions comprise a larger proportion of step-child adoptions, which usually involve older children. The preference of prospective adoptive parents for adopting younger children may also be a factor. In countries of origin, children adopted domestically tend to be younger than those adopted by foreign parents through an intercountry procedure. The principle of subsidiarity, whereby intercountry adoption is considered only after all other options have been exhausted, may be the reason for this difference. 17. More girls are adopted than boys. In both domestic and intercountry adoptions, the number of girls adopted exceeds that of boys. In some countries, this pattern is associated with imbalances in the sex distribution of children available for adoption. In other countries, the perception that girls are easier to raise or that female children are more likely to provide assistance with housework or care-giving activities may explain in part the higher percentage of adoptions involving girls. 18. Most adoptive parents are in the age group. Adoptions by parents who are younger than 30 or older than 44 are less frequent, partly because of the maximum and minimum age limits imposed by the legislation of most countries. Female adoptive parents are generally younger, partly because they are less likely to adopt as step-parents. 19. The numbers of male adoptive parents is roughly the same as that of female adoptive parents. However, in countries with large numbers of adoptions by step-parents or where adoption by single persons is permitted, differences by sex are noticeable. Among adopting step-parents, men outnumber women, but women outnumber men among single persons who adopt. 20. People who are unable to achieve their desired family size through childbearing often resort to adoption. Country-level surveys and ethnographic studies indicate that persons who are involuntarily childless as a result of sterility, subfecundity or other factors often seek to adopt. 21. Adoption is not simply a demographic response to achieve a desired family size for those suffering from involuntary sterility and sub-fecundity. Whereas involuntary childlessness is often associated with adoption, in several countries a large percentage of persons seeking to adopt already have children of their own. xviii

Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016. International UN Volunteers (12 months)

Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016. International UN Volunteers (12 months) Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016 Country Of Assignment International UN Volunteers (12 months) International UN Youth Volunteers (12 months) University Volunteers

More information

OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP

OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Republic of Albania People s Democratic Republic of Algeria Principality of Andorra Republic of Angola Antigua and Barbuda

More information

Action required The Committee is requested to take note of the position of 2010 11 income and expenditure as of 30 September 2010.

Action required The Committee is requested to take note of the position of 2010 11 income and expenditure as of 30 September 2010. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE Governing Body 309th Session, Geneva, November 2010 Programme, Financial and Administrative Committee GB.309/PFA/1 PFA FOR INFORMATION FIRST ITEM ON THE AGENDA Programme and

More information

Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals

Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals No. All fees in US $ 1. Afghanistan 5.00 5.00 10.00 2. Albania 2.00 2.00 3.00 3. Algeria 1.00 1.00 2.00 4. Angola 11.00 11.00 22.00 5. Argentina 21.00 21.00 42.00

More information

States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol

States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Date of entry into force: 22 April 1954 (Convention) 4 October 1967 (Protocol) As of 1 October 2008 Total

More information

UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Belgium 22 Jul 1953 r 08 Apr 1969 a Belize 27 Jun 1990 a 27 Jun 1990 a Benin 04 Apr 1962 s 06 Jul 1970 a Bolivia 09 Feb 1982 a 09 Feb 1982 a Bosnia and Herzegovina 01 Sep 1993 s 01 Sep 1993 s Botswana

More information

LIST OF RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT ITS SIXTY-EIGHTH SESSION ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE

LIST OF RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT ITS SIXTY-EIGHTH SESSION ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE LIST OF AT THE LEVEL OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE ITEM 27: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ITEM 27 (a) Implementation of the outcome of the World Summit for Social Development and of the twenty-fourth special session of

More information

מדינת ישראל. Tourist Visa Table

מדינת ישראל. Tourist Visa Table Updated 22/06/2016 מדינת ישראל Tourist Visa Table Tourist visa exemption is applied to national and official passports only, and not to other travel documents. Exe = exempted Req = required Press the first

More information

AFR EUR MENA NAC SACA SEA WP

AFR EUR MENA NAC SACA SEA WP 250000 200000 Millions (USD) 150000 100000 50000 0 AFR EUR MENA NAC SACA SEA WP India China USA Russian Federation Brazil Germany Pakistan Japan Indonesia Mexico Bangladesh Egypt France Italy Turkey Thailand

More information

FDI performance and potential rankings. Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD

FDI performance and potential rankings. Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD FDI performance and potential rankings Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD FDI perfomance index The Inward FDI Performance Index ranks countries by the FDI they receive relative

More information

Countries Ranked by Per Capita Income A. IBRD Only 1 Category iv (over $7,185)

Countries Ranked by Per Capita Income A. IBRD Only 1 Category iv (over $7,185) Page 1 of 5 Note: This OP 3.10, Annex C replaces the version dated September 2013. The revised terms are effective for all loans that are approved on or after July 1, 2014. Countries Ranked by Per Capita

More information

United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs

United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation (DLHWC) Defense Base Act

More information

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION Notes: R = Ratification At = Acceptance Ap = Approval Ac = Accession 1. ALBANIA ----- 01/04/05 (Ac) 30/06/05 2. ALGERIA ---- 16/02/05 (Ac) 17/05/05 3. ANGOLA ----

More information

Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on July 08, 2014)

Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on July 08, 2014) Ministry of External Relations Immigration Division Padip Holders of diplomatic passports Pasof Holders of official or service passports Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on July 08, 2014) Caption Vitem

More information

INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT RESULTS 2015

INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT RESULTS 2015 INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT RESULTS 2015 INFORM 2015 INFORM MEASURES THE RISK OF HUMANITARIAN CRISES AND DISASTERS IN 191 COUNTRIES COUNTRY RISK 3 YR TREND Afghanistan 7.88 æ Albania 2.61 à Algeria 4.64

More information

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION Notes: R = Ratification At = Acceptance Ap = Approval Ac = Accession 1. ALBANIA ----- 01/04/05 (Ac) 30/06/05 2. ALGERIA ---- 16/02/05 (Ac) 17/05/05 3. ANTIGUA AND

More information

INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944

INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 State INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 Entry into force: The Agreement entered into force on 30 January 1945. Status: 130 Parties. This list is based on

More information

Visa Information. New Document

Visa Information. New Document Visa Information New Document To request for an invitation letter for visa application, please email your name, company/affiliation, country, and registration number to registration@apricot2009.net Visa-Exempt

More information

Citizens of the following nationalities are exempted from holding a visa when crossing the external borders of the SCHENGEN area:

Citizens of the following nationalities are exempted from holding a visa when crossing the external borders of the SCHENGEN area: WEB SUMMIT BULLETIN VISA The VISA requirement to cross the external borders of the SCHENGEN area it is one of the most important procedural steps for all those participants in the next Web Summit that

More information

Eligibility List 2015

Eligibility List 2015 The Global Fund adopted an allocation-based approach for funding programs against HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria in 2013. The Global Fund policy states that countries can receive allocation only if their components

More information

Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details

Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details White Paper Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details What You Will Learn The Cisco Global Cloud Index is an ongoing effort to forecast the growth of global data center and

More information

Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts

Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts An Additional Help document for ADS Chapter 302 New Reference: 06/14/2007 Responsible Office: OAA/P File Name: 302sap_061407_cd48 BACKGROUND:

More information

What Can I Do With the Data?

What Can I Do With the Data? Profile of GMAT Testing: Report Five-Year Summary, TY2011 TY2015 November 2015 Globally, nearly 1.3 million Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT ) exams have been taken over the past five years by

More information

CONVENTION FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL SEIZURE OF AIRCRAFT SIGNED AT THE HAGUE ON 16 DECEMBER 1970

CONVENTION FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL SEIZURE OF AIRCRAFT SIGNED AT THE HAGUE ON 16 DECEMBER 1970 CONVENTION FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL SEIZURE OF AIRCRAFT SIGNED AT THE HAGUE ON 16 DECEMBER 1970 Entry into force: The Convention entered into force on 14 October 1971. Status: 185 Parties. This

More information

Migration and Remittances: Top Countries

Migration and Remittances: Top Countries Migration and Remittances: Top Countries Top Immigration Countries a, 010 number of immigrants, millions United States b Russian Federation b Germany b Saudi Arabia b Canada b United Kingdom b Spain b

More information

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 State CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 Entry into force: The Convention entered into force on 4 April 1947. Status: 191 parties. This list is based on information

More information

Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on November, 24, 2015)

Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on November, 24, 2015) Ministry of External Relations Immigration Division Padip Holders of diplomatic passports Pasof Holders of official or service passports Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on November, 24, 2015) Caption

More information

Senate Committee: Education and Employment. QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016

Senate Committee: Education and Employment. QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Senate Committee: Education and Employment QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Outcome: Higher Education Research and International Department of Education and Training Question No. SQ15-000549

More information

Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter calling number, enter 800-544-6666 American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199

Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter calling number, enter 800-544-6666 American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199 National Financial Services International Calling Instructions Albania 00-800-0010 Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199 Dial

More information

New Technologies and services - Cable Television

New Technologies and services - Cable Television New Technologies and services - Cable Television WORLD: AFRICA provide service Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi applications. Cameroon The relevant licence must be obtained. Cape Verde Central

More information

Time Warner Cable Date: 03/03/2014. Phone Product Management. BCP Standard International Rates

Time Warner Cable Date: 03/03/2014. Phone Product Management. BCP Standard International Rates Afghanistan $1.070 $1.100 Afghanistan Albania $1.040 $1.230 Albania Algeria $0.490 $0.560 Algeria Andorra $0.460 $0.750 Andorra Angola $1.440 $1.520 Angola Anguilla $0.570 $0.690 Anguilla Antarctica $3.010

More information

INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT

INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT RESULTS 2016 WELCOME Welcome to the INFORM (Index for Risk Management) 2016 global results report. INFORM is a way to understand and measure the risk of humanitarian crises and

More information

Lebara Unlimited Plan

Lebara Unlimited Plan AFGHANISTAN $0.05 $0.19 ALBANIA $0.35 $0.43 ALGERIA $0.28 $0.38 AMERICAN SAMOA $0.15 $0.15 ANDORRA $0.07 $0.44 ANGOLA $0.25 $0.35 ANGUILLA $0.33 $0.33 ANTARCTICA $1.39 $0.00 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA $0.25 $0.25

More information

Outsource International Ltd

Outsource International Ltd Providing global technology solutions for: Carriers Systems Integrators Resellers Outsource Manufacturers International Ltd Government agencies Financial sector Global Technology Solutions Providing global

More information

Global Online Business Intelligence Masterfile

Global Online Business Intelligence Masterfile Size of Universe Cost Source Min Order Quantity 5,000 Update Frequency 6,074,363 Names USD 150.00 /M Addresses (Business Addresses Only) USD 175.00 /M Addresses (Named Executives) USD 150.00 /M Addresses

More information

Per Minute Rate Unlimited North America

Per Minute Rate Unlimited North America AT&T U-verse Calling Calling Rates Rates do not include taxes, fees, surcharges. Call destinations and rates are subject to change. An additional per minute rate for international calls terminating on

More information

JAMAICAN IMMIGRATION DEPARTMENT VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR JAMAICANS TRAVELLING OVERSEAS AND FOREIGNERS COMING TO JAMAICA

JAMAICAN IMMIGRATION DEPARTMENT VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR JAMAICANS TRAVELLING OVERSEAS AND FOREIGNERS COMING TO JAMAICA JAMAICAN IMMIGRATION DEPARTMENT VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR JAMAICANS TRAVELLING OVERSEAS AND FOREIGNERS COMING TO JAMAICA COUNTRY ENTRY VISA Foreigners coming to Jamaica AFGHANISTAN Prior to arrival (pta) ALBANIA

More information

ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international

ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international The ISO Survey 2005 ISO and The ISO Survey ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international standards for business, government and society. Its portfolio at the beginning of June 2006 comprised

More information

EMERGENCIES 911 ABROAD

EMERGENCIES 911 ABROAD EMERGENCIES 911 ABROAD If you re in an emergency situation abroad, you ll need to know how to contact the police, an ambulance, or even the fire department. Not every county uses 911 as its emergency contact

More information

Expression of Interest in Research Grant Applications

Expression of Interest in Research Grant Applications INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION ICGEB-TWAS-UNESCO/IBSP Joint

More information

Mineral Industry Surveys

Mineral Industry Surveys 4 Mineral Industry Surveys For information contact: Robert L. Virta, Asbestos Commodity Specialist U.S. Geological Survey 989 National Center Reston, VA 20192 Telephone: 703-648-7726, Fax: (703) 648-7757

More information

Consolidated International Banking Statistics in Japan

Consolidated International Banking Statistics in Japan Total (Transfer Consolidated cross-border claims in all currencies and local claims in non-local currencies Up to and including one year Maturities Over one year up to two years Over two years Public Sector

More information

LOCAL: INTRALATA RATES: COLLECT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.75; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $.07 DEBIT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.60; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $.

LOCAL: INTRALATA RATES: COLLECT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.75; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $.07 DEBIT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.60; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $. RATE INFORMATION SHEET LOCAL: (COLLECT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.75; CALL RATE $.25 unlimited (~otal $1.00) DEBIT: $.80 INTRALATA RATES: COLLECT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.75; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $.07

More information

VoIP Phone Calling Rates

VoIP Phone Calling Rates Afghanistan Default $0.52 Albania Default $0.24 Albania Mobile $0.71 Algeria Default $0.17 Algeria Mobile $0.86 Andorra Default $0.09 Andorra Mobile $0.48 Angola Default $0.21 Angola Mobile $0.24 Anguilla

More information

TWC Phone Service International Rate Table Comparison

TWC Phone Service International Rate Table Comparison Afghanistan $0.35 $0.35 Included* Included* $1.07 $1.10 Albania $0.15 $0.24 $1.04 $1.23 $1.04 $1.23 Algeria $0.17 $0.36 $0.49 $0.56 $0.49 $0.56 Andorra $0.05 $0.22 $0.46 $0.75 $0.46 $0.75 Angola $0.18

More information

Ensure that the HRTWS is included in the Declaration of the Post-2015 Development Agenda

Ensure that the HRTWS is included in the Declaration of the Post-2015 Development Agenda Ensure that the HRTWS is included in the Declaration of the Post-2015 Development Agenda SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGY SHEET Join us for a weeklong Twitter campaign (Monday 27 April- Friday 1 May) Campaign background:

More information

World Health organization/ International Society of Hypertension (WH0/ISH) risk prediction charts

World Health organization/ International Society of Hypertension (WH0/ISH) risk prediction charts World Health organization/ International Society of Hypertension (WH0/ISH) risk prediction charts (charts in colour) 2 1. Introduction 2. Instructions on how to use WHO/ISH (World Health Organization/International

More information

International Talk & Text

International Talk & Text International Talk & Text Use your voice plan minutes to call landlines in over 50 countries, including Mexico, Canada and the Dominican Republic Unlimited text messaging to any cell phone in over 200

More information

GLOBAL. 2014 Country Well-Being Rankings. D Social (% thriving) E Financial (% thriving) F Community (% thriving) G Physical (% thriving)

GLOBAL. 2014 Country Well-Being Rankings. D Social (% thriving) E Financial (% thriving) F Community (% thriving) G Physical (% thriving) 0 0 GLOBAL 0 Country Rankings 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : >0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.0% A Country s global rank B in three or more elements of well-being C (% thriving) D (% thriving) E

More information

Requirements For Entry Into Jamaica

Requirements For Entry Into Jamaica Requirements For Entry Into Jamaica Visitors are required to be in possession of a national passport or other acceptable travel document establishing nationality and identity, and bearing a photograph.

More information

Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment

Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Prepared by The Office of International Affairs Nova Southeastern University Nova Southeastern University International Student Statistics Fall 2015 International

More information

Appendix A. Crisis Indicators and Infrastructure Lending

Appendix A. Crisis Indicators and Infrastructure Lending Appendix A. Crisis Indicators and Infrastructure Lending APPENDIX A Table A.1. Crisis Indicators (Case Study Countries) Country % as Share of GDP Share of in Bank Crisis Severity Score (principal factor

More information

(b) the details of those who have been given asylum of other country, country-wise during the last three years

(b) the details of those who have been given asylum of other country, country-wise during the last three years Annexure Table indicating country-wise data on asylum seekers (LS Starred Q No. 232 for answer on 5.8.2015 on Political Asylum ) S.No. Name of Country (a) the total number of Indians who have sought political

More information

SCALES OF ASSESSMENTS AND CURRENCY OF MEMBER STATES CONTRIBUTIONS FOR 2016-2017 OUTLINE

SCALES OF ASSESSMENTS AND CURRENCY OF MEMBER STATES CONTRIBUTIONS FOR 2016-2017 OUTLINE 38th Session, Paris, 2015 38 C 38 C/37 26 August 2015 Original: English Item 9.3 of the provisional agenda SCALES OF ASSESSMENTS AND CURRENCY OF MEMBER STATES CONTRIBUTIONS FOR 2016-2017 OUTLINE Source:

More information

World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of tuberculosis incidence by country, 2014

World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of tuberculosis incidence by country, 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of tuberculosis incidence by country, 2014 Definition of high incidence With reference to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations

More information

The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective

The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2389480/ The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective Description: This report

More information

Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries

Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries Fiscal Affairs Department Effects of Good Government, by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Siena, Italy, 1338-39 Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries Martine

More information

30/06/2016. Sir/Madam,

30/06/2016. Sir/Madam, 30/06/2016 Ref.: CL/4161 Subject: Director (D-1) UNESCO Multisectoral Regional Office in Abuja and UNESCO Representative to Nigeria, Benin, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Togo 6NGFSC0001RP Sir/Madam,

More information

Poorest Countries of the World: Projections upto 2018

Poorest Countries of the World: Projections upto 2018 Poorest Countries of the World: Projections upto 2018 By Dunya News http://www.dunyanews.tv Author: Anis uddin Shiekh (anis.shiekh@dunyatv.tv) December 2013 Copyright Dunya News 1 Introduction Poverty

More information

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE USAID/TDA DEFENSE BASE ACT (DBA) APPLICATION

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE USAID/TDA DEFENSE BASE ACT (DBA) APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE USAID/TDA DEFENSE BASE ACT (DBA) APPLICATION Full Name of Insured or Company and Complete Mailing Address: This is whoever has the contract with USAID. Generally, it is

More information

LIST OF PAYMENT FOR VISA AND SECURITY BOND PAYMENT FOR VISA ( RM )

LIST OF PAYMENT FOR VISA AND SECURITY BOND PAYMENT FOR VISA ( RM ) LIST OF AND COUNTRY FOR Afghanistan 20 2000 Albania 20 2000 Algeria 20 2000 Angola 20 1500 Antigua and Bermuda - 2000 Argentina 20 2700 Armenia 20 2000 Australia - 1500 Austria ( Vienna ) 20 1500 Azerbaijan*

More information

New Zealand =============================== Standard Courier NZD$5.00 Rural Delivery Courier NZD $5.00 + $4.50 = $9.50. Australia (Zona A)

New Zealand =============================== Standard Courier NZD$5.00 Rural Delivery Courier NZD $5.00 + $4.50 = $9.50. Australia (Zona A) New Zealand =============================== Standard Courier NZD$5.00 Rural Delivery Courier NZD $5.00 + $4.50 = $9.50 Australia (Zona A) Option 1: Airmail economy - 2-6 working days, no tracking NZD $11.50

More information

Adobe Creative Cloud Availability

Adobe Creative Cloud Availability Adobe Availability Countries/Regions for teams for teams United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas

More information

Withholding Tax Rates 2015*

Withholding Tax Rates 2015* Withholding Tax Rates 2015* International Tax Updated March 2015 Jurisdiction Dividends Interest Royalties Notes Afghanistan 20% 20% 20% Albania 15% 15% 15% Rates on dividends, interest and royalties increased

More information

See International Termination Points for Business Communications Services for additional termination points for some countries.

See International Termination Points for Business Communications Services for additional termination points for some countries. Sprint Real Solutions VPN Toll Free with International Termination Switched Access from 1 The rates below apply to toll free calls which originate in the U.S. Mainland, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S.

More information

Gäller från 2015-06-01

Gäller från 2015-06-01 Alla priser är i kronor per minut inklusive moms. Vissa specialnummer/nät i en del destinationer har annat pris än standardpriserna nedan. Var i världen man ringer från har ingen betydelse på priset, bara

More information

CONTENTS THE UNITED NATIONS' HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR)

CONTENTS THE UNITED NATIONS' HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) CONTENTS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) 1. INTRODUCTION...2 2. UNHCR HANDBOOK...2 3. CONTACT WITH UNHCR...2 4. UNHCR DATABASE...3 5. UNHCR HEADQUARTERS...3 ANNEX A. LIST OF STATES PARTY TO THE

More information

World directory of medical schools

World directory of medical schools World directory of medical schools Important note The World Health Organization has no authority to grant any form of recognition or accreditation to schools for the training of health personnel. Such

More information

These are our call rates from your home phone line to:

These are our call rates from your home phone line to: Call rates These are our call rates from your home phone line to: International calls Information Services Operator Services Satellite calls You can find local, national and directory services call rates

More information

UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE STATUS OF RATIFICATION

UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE STATUS OF RATIFICATION Last modified on: 22 August 2007 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE STATUS OF RATIFICATION 1. AFGHANISTAN 12/06/92 19/09/02 (R) 18/12/02 2. ALBANIA ---- 03/10/94 (Ac) 01/01/95 3. ALGERIA

More information

JAMAICA IMMIGRATION UNIT

JAMAICA IMMIGRATION UNIT AFGHANISTAN pta ALBANIA poe ALGERIA - pta ANDORRA poe ANGOLA pta ANTIGUA & BARBUDA ARGENTINA 30 days 30 days ARMENIA - poe pta AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA 90 days pta (Schengen AZERBAIJAN - poe pta BAHAMAS BAHRAIN

More information

CONVENTION ON OFFENCES AND CERTAIN OTHER ACTS COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT SIGNED AT TOKYO ON 14 SEPTEMBER 1963

CONVENTION ON OFFENCES AND CERTAIN OTHER ACTS COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT SIGNED AT TOKYO ON 14 SEPTEMBER 1963 CONVENTION ON OFFENCES AND CERTAIN OTHER ACTS COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT SIGNED AT TOKYO ON 14 SEPTEMBER 1963 Entry into force: Convention entered into force on 4 December 1969. Status: 186 Parties. State

More information

1.1 LIST OF DAILY MAXIMUM AMOUNT PER COUNTRY WHICH IS DEEMED TO BEEN EXPENDED

1.1 LIST OF DAILY MAXIMUM AMOUNT PER COUNTRY WHICH IS DEEMED TO BEEN EXPENDED 1 SUBSISTENCE ALLOWANCE FOREIGN TRAVEL 1.1 LIST OF DAILY MAXIMUM AMOUNT PER COUNTRY WHICH IS DEEMED TO BEEN EXPENDED Albania Euro 97 Algeria Euro 112 Angola US $ 322 Antigua and Barbuda US $ 220 Argentina

More information

VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL COUNTRIES

VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL COUNTRIES COUNTRY VISA REQUIRED REMARKS Afghanistan Islamic State of Afghanistan Albania Republic of Albania Business/Vacation Yes Visa not required for visits of up to thirty (30) days. Algeria Democratic and Popular

More information

List of Agreements on Mutual Visa Exemption. Between the People s Republic of China and Foreign Countries

List of Agreements on Mutual Visa Exemption. Between the People s Republic of China and Foreign Countries List of Agreements on Mutual Visa Exemption Between the People s Republic of China and Foreign Countries (In alphabetical order of foreign countries) Last Update: May 9, 2015 No. Foreign Country Passport

More information

Subject: Director (D-1) UNESCO Liaison Office in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and UNESCO Representative to Ethiopia 6ETAFR0001RP

Subject: Director (D-1) UNESCO Liaison Office in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and UNESCO Representative to Ethiopia 6ETAFR0001RP 05/10/2015 Ref.: CL/4132 Subject: Director (D-1) UNESCO Liaison Office in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and UNESCO Representative to Ethiopia 6ETAFR0001RP Sir/Madam, I wish to inform you that I have decided to

More information

Standard Toll Free Rates

Standard Toll Free Rates Standard Toll Free Rates Standard per minute Toll Free Pricing by State Intra State Inter State alabama 0.0395 0.02 arizona 0.079 0.02 california 0.043 0.02 delaware 0.048 0.02 florida 0.058 0.02 georgia

More information

MCI Business Complete Unlimited

MCI Business Complete Unlimited MCI Business Complete Unlimited Only available in areas where MCI offers Local Service and customers must be enrolled in corresponding MCI Business Complete Local Product to receive benefits of this plan.

More information

Withholding Tax Rates 2016*

Withholding Tax Rates 2016* Withholding Tax Rates 2016* International Tax Updated March 2016 Jurisdiction Dividends Interest Royalties Notes Albania 15% 15% 15% Algeria 15% 10% 24% Andorra 0% 0% 5% Angola 10% 15% 10% Anguilla 0%

More information

CONVENTION FOR THE UNIFICATION OF CERTAIN RULES FOR INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE BY AIR DONE AT MONTREAL ON 28 MAY 1999

CONVENTION FOR THE UNIFICATION OF CERTAIN RULES FOR INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE BY AIR DONE AT MONTREAL ON 28 MAY 1999 State CONVENTION FOR THE UNIFICATION OF CERTAIN RULES FOR INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE BY AIR DONE AT MONTREAL ON 28 MAY 1999 Entry into force: The Convention entered into force on 4 November 2003*. Status:

More information

SPRINT CALL HOME PREPAID CALLING CARD

SPRINT CALL HOME PREPAID CALLING CARD Domestic Dial-1 Calling Dollar Increments Price Per Unit $10 and $20 $0.59 The same per minute rates apply when the card is refreshed. International Calling The cost per call is based on a $0.59 cost per

More information

Standard Virgin Mobile Rates

Standard Virgin Mobile Rates Standard Virgin Mobile National Out of Bundle * National Landlines National Mobiles National Texts Data per MB Calls to UPC Customer Care (1908) Voicemail 10c per text 1c per MB International ** UK Landlines

More information

FACT SHEET. Gini Coefficient

FACT SHEET. Gini Coefficient FACT SHEET 1. Overview 1.1 Developed by an Italian statistician Corrado in the 1910s, is commonly used to indicate income inequality in a society. is a number which has a value between zero and one. As

More information

CORRELATES OF CORRUPTION

CORRELATES OF CORRUPTION CORRELATES OF CORRUPTION BO ROTHSTEIN SÖREN HOLMBERG WORKING PAPER SERIES 2011:12 QOG THE QUALITY OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTE Department of Political Science University of Gothenburg Box 711, SE 405 30 GÖTEBORG

More information

Part II. Global health indicators

Part II. Global health indicators 2015 Part II Global health indicators 40 2015 General notes The following summary tables represent the best estimates of WHO for a broad range of key public health indicators based on evidence available

More information

Total merchandise trade

Total merchandise trade Total merchandise trade October 214 213 213-13 212 213 Total exports f.o.b. 18 3 64 1 1 8 2 Total imports c.i.f. 18 49 1 1 7 1 an Union (28) 6 76 41 4 33 - extra-eu (28) exports 2 31 16 13 13 7 7 China

More information

On-Net to On-Net Per. * Billed in 60 second increments. 1 Formerly found in Section 30.7.4

On-Net to On-Net Per. * Billed in 60 second increments. 1 Formerly found in Section 30.7.4 1 The international usage rates below apply to Dial-1 calls from the U.S. Mainland, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. FONCARD international service is available from the U.S. Mainland,

More information

WHO global estimates on prevalence of hearing loss. Mortality and Burden of Diseases and Prevention of Blindness and Deafness WHO, 2012

WHO global estimates on prevalence of hearing loss. Mortality and Burden of Diseases and Prevention of Blindness and Deafness WHO, 2012 WHO global estimates on prevalence of hearing loss Mortality and Burden of Diseases and Prevention of Blindness and Deafness WHO, 2012 In 2012, WHO released new estimates on the magnitude of disabling

More information

International calls Standard rates without a calling plan

International calls Standard rates without a calling plan If you don t select or already have a call plan, the standard call charges from UK landlines to international landlines across the world are shown below. To save money on international calls as well as

More information

HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40

HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40 BLOOMBERG RANKINGS THE WORLD'S HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40 1 Singapore 89.45% 92.52% 3.07% 2 Italy 89.07 94.61 5.54 3 Australia 88.33 93.19 4.86 4 Switzerland 88.29 93.47 5.17 5 Japan

More information

PAY MONTHLY ADDITIONAL SERVICES TERMS AND CONDITIONS

PAY MONTHLY ADDITIONAL SERVICES TERMS AND CONDITIONS 4GEE PHONE PLANS ADDITIONAL SERVICES (ALL STANDARD 12 & 24 MONTH PLANS INCLUDING SIM ONLY PLANS) The following add-ons are available on your plan. We reserve the right to change the add-ons available to

More information

The International Call Rates for the following retired plans can be found in this document:

The International Call Rates for the following retired plans can be found in this document: Retired International Call Charges The International Call s for the following retired plans can be found in this document: 1. Small Business Classic Standard International Call s 2. Small Business Classic

More information

MC/INF/310. Original: English 27 September 2013 103RD SESSION REPORT ON HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

MC/INF/310. Original: English 27 September 2013 103RD SESSION REPORT ON HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Original: English 27 September 2013 INFORMATION INFORMACIÓN 103RD SESSION REPORT ON HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. Page 1 REPORT ON HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Introduction 1. This report provides an overview

More information

Company Overview. Global Recovery Alliance AG specializes in international credit management & medical debt collection.

Company Overview. Global Recovery Alliance AG specializes in international credit management & medical debt collection. Company Overview Global Recovery Alliance AG specializes in international credit management & medical debt collection. Global Recovery Alliance provides a single point of contact for American, Canadian

More information

Only available to Business Complete customers who disconnect their Local service with MCI.

Only available to Business Complete customers who disconnect their Local service with MCI. Long Distance Complete for Business International Calling Plan Only available to Business Complete customers who disconnect their Local service with MCI. Discounted rates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week

More information

LESOTHO VISAS CAN BE ACQUIRED AT THE FOLLOWING PLACES IN SOUTH AFRICA IF REQUIRED:

LESOTHO VISAS CAN BE ACQUIRED AT THE FOLLOWING PLACES IN SOUTH AFRICA IF REQUIRED: LIST OF COUNTRIES WHOSE CITIZENS REQUIRE/DO T REQUIRE VISAS TO ENTER THE KINGDOM OF LESOTHO 1. The ENTRY against a country s name means its citizens always require a Visa to enter Lesotho 2. The ENTRY

More information

Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd

Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd Important Staff Richard Kelly Managing Director Richard joined CTIS in 2006 having previously managed the Pharmaceutical wholesale division at Heath Lambert

More information

This list indicates EURAMET s understanding of the status of countries at the date of issue.

This list indicates EURAMET s understanding of the status of countries at the date of issue. List 1b: Information This list indicates s understanding of the status of countries at the date of issue. A tick in one of the first four columns indicates that legal entities from the country are eligible

More information

Population below the poverty line Rural % Population below $1 a day % Urban % Urban % Survey year. National %

Population below the poverty line Rural % Population below $1 a day % Urban % Urban % Survey year. National % 2.7 International the the Afghanistan.................... Albania 2002 29.6 19.8 25.4...... 2002 a

More information

Global Dialing Comment. Telephone Type. AT&T Direct Number. Access Type. Dial-In Number. Country. Albania Toll-Free 00-800-0010 888-426-6840

Global Dialing Comment. Telephone Type. AT&T Direct Number. Access Type. Dial-In Number. Country. Albania Toll-Free 00-800-0010 888-426-6840 Below is a list of Global Access Numbers, in order by country. If a Country has an AT&T Direct Number, the audio conference requires two-stage dialing. First, dial the AT&T Direct Number. Second, dial

More information