WHO global estimates on prevalence of hearing loss. Mortality and Burden of Diseases and Prevention of Blindness and Deafness WHO, 2012

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1 WHO global estimates on prevalence of hearing loss Mortality and Burden of Diseases and Prevention of Blindness and Deafness WHO, 2012

2 In 2012, WHO released new estimates on the magnitude of disabling hearing loss. The estimates are based on 42 population-based studies. Estimates are as follows: There are 360 million persons in the world with disabling hearing loss (5.3% of the world s population). 328 million (91%)of these are adults (183 million males, 145 million females) 32 (9%) million of these are children. The prevalence of disabling hearing loss in children is greatest in South Asia, Asia Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately one-third of persons over 65 years are affected by disabling hearing loss. The prevalence of disabling hearing loss in adults over 65 years is highest in South Asia, Asia Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa. Regions, are as identified by the Institute of Health Matrix and Evaluation s 2010 GBD estimates study.

3 Definition of disabling hearing loss Disabling hearing loss refers to hearing loss greater than 40 db in the better hearing ear in adults (15 years or older) and greater than 30 db in the better hearing ear in children (0 to 14 years).

4 Subregion East Asia Southeast Asia Oceania South Asia Central Asia Central Europe Eastern Europe North Africa and Middle East Central Africa East Africa Southern Africa West Africa Andean Latin America Central Latin America Southern Latin America Tropical Latin America Caribbean Asia-Pacific Australasia North America Western Europe Details of Selected Regions Countries East Asia region China, Hong Kong SAR (China), Macau SAR (China), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Taiwan. Asia Pacific region Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam. Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Tuvalu and Niue. South Asia region Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan Central / Eastern Europe and Central Asia region Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of). Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Ukraine. Middle East and North Africa region Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. Sub-Saharan Africa region Angola, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon. Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia. Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d'ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, São Tomé and Príncipe, Togo. Latin America and Caribbean region Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru. Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela (Bolivarian Rep. of). Argentina, Chile, Uruguay. Brazil, Paraguay. Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago. High-income region Brunei Darussalam, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore. Australia, New Zealand. Canada, United States of America. Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Monaco and San Marino.

5 Data sources Indicator Source Hearing Loss Estimates MBD: All degrees of hearing loss for adults and children Population 2008 Estimates WHO, 2012 Hearing Loss estimates *UNDP 2010 World Population Prospects GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US $ Dollars) **Worldbank Database 2008 Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above) **Worldbank Database 2009 *UNDP WPP available at: **Worldbank database available at:

6 Prevalence of hearing loss: WHO global estimates *Children: 32m 9% Males: 183m. 56% *Adults: 328 m. 91% *MBD, WHO, 2012 DHL estimates; DHL adults (15+ years) threshold is 41 db and children threshold is 31 db. Females: 145m. 44%

7 Disabling hearing loss is unequally distributed across the world Latin America & Caribbean 9% East Asia 22% High-income 11% Central/East Europe and Central Asia 9% Sub-Saharan Africa 9% Asia Pacific 10% South Asia 27% Middle East and North Africa 3% MBD, WHO, 2012 DHL estimates; DHL adult threshold is 41 db, adults of 15 years or older.

8 DHL in children DHL in adults Selected Regions Both sexes Males Females prevalence prevalence prevalence millions (%) millions (%) millions (%) High-income Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia Asia Pacific Latin America and Caribbean East Asia World MBD, WHO, 2012 DHL estimates Prevalence of disabling hearing loss in some regions is nearly double that of the high income region.

9 Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for adults Prevalence of disabling hearing loss for adults by region: 10% 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for adults 15+ years old Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for males 15+ years old Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for females 15+ years old *MBD, WHO, 2012, DHL estimates, where DHL adult threshold is 41 db HL

10 Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss Prevalence of disabling hearing loss in children: 3% 2% 1% 0% *MBD, WHO, 2012 DHL estimates, where DHL children threshold is 31 db The prevalence for disabling hearing loss in children is highest in the south Asia region followed by Sub- Saharan Africa. There is a marked difference in the prevalence rates in high income parts of the world.

11 Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for adults (15 years or older) Prevalence of hearing loss for adults by degree of hearing loss: Approximately 15% of the world's adult population has some degree of hearing loss. About one third of those who are affected, have disabling hearing loss. 18.0% 16.0% 14.0% 12.0% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% Slight impairment (26-40dB) Moderate impairment (41-60dB) Severe impairment (61-80dB) Profound impairment (>80dB) * MBD, WHO, 2011 DHL estimates, where DHL adult threshold is 41 db.

12 Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss Prevalence of disabling hearing loss for children, adults: 15 years or older, and 65 years or older: 50% 45% The prevalence increases with age, i.e. prevalence in children is 1.7%, in adults aged 15 years or more, it is around 7%, rapidly increasing to almost one in three in adults older than 65 years. 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Prevalence of DHL for children until 14 years old (per 100 children) Prevalence of DHL for adults 15 years or older (per 100 populuation) Prevalence of DHL for adults 65 years or older (per 100 population) *MBD, WHO, 2012 DHL estimates, where DHL adult threshold is 41 db and children threshold is 31 db (children 0 until 14 years old).

13 Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for children Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for children versus average GNI per capita:* 4% In children, prevalence decreases exponentially as GNI increases. 3% 3% 2% 2% South Asia: 2.4% Asia Pacific: 2% S-Sahara Africa: 1.9% Latin America and Caribbean: 1.6% Cent/East Europe and Cent Asia1.6% East Asia: 1.3% 1% 1% Middle East and North Africa: 0.92% y = x High Income: 0.5% *GNI per capita: gross national income per capita 0% Average GNI per capita (thousands US Dollars) Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for children until 14 years old *MBD, WHO, 2012 DHL estimates,

14 Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss (adults 65+) Prevalence of disabling hearing loss for adults (65 years or older) versus average GNI per capita:* 60% In adults of 65 years and older prevalence decreases exponentially as income increases. 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% South Asia: 48% S-Sahara Africa: 44% Asia Pacific: 43.5% Latin America and Caribbean: 39% Cent/East Europe and Cent Asia 36% Middle East and North Africa: 26% East Asia: 34% High Income: 18% y = x *GNI per capita: gross national income per capita Average GNI per capita (thousands US Dollars) Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for adults over 65 years old Power (Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for adults over 65 years old) *MBD, WHO, 2012 DHL estimates.

15 Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for children Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for children versus average parent's literacy rate: 30% In most regions, prevalence in children decreases linearly as parent's literacy rate increases. 25% 20% 15% South Asia: 2.47% S-Sahara Africa: 2% y = x Latin America and Caribbean: 1.7% Asia Pacific: 2.10% Cent/East Europe and Cent Asia1.6% East Asia 10% 5% Middle East and North Africa: 0.95% 0% Average Parent's Literacy rate (% of population of 15 or more years old) Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for children until 14 years old Linear (Prevalence of Disabling Hearing Loss for children until 14 years old) *MBD, WHO, 2012 DHL estimates, where DHL children threshold is 31 db.

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