2 As the Army School of Command and Leadership, the Saint-Cyr Military Academy trains prospective officers whom the French Army will need in its operational commitments. It provides demanding and unique multidisciplinary teaching which includes military, human and academic training. The cadets are actively involved in their training and gradually acquire the technical, tactical and social skills that will constitute the foundation for the analysis and decision-making abilities required in complex and critical circumstances. In this modern and progressive institution, military expertise is at the core of the training, whose vocation is to produce military leaders with great tactical skills, and able to defeat the adversary. For that purpose, the training is largely based on the lessons learnt from the French Army s current operational commitments. While focusing on the military profession, the academic courses are supplemented by scholarly research. It provides prospective officers with the keys to awareness of the complex situations they will have to deal with. It also contributes to their intellectual development, essential for future decision-makers who will have to imagine the solutions to tomorrow s challenges, in peacetime and at war. As a school open to the world, the Academy has secured diverse partnership agreements with military institutions worldwide. Each year, it trains more than 200 foreign cadets (short-duration and long-duration courses). The school develops innovating courses and offers two specifically tailored semesters in which classes are delivered exclusively in English. Thanks to the contribution of its research centre, the Academy participates in the process of adapting the armed forces to a constantly evolving world and works to anticipate future threats. The research centre focuses on a wide range of fields from ethics, law and robotics to cyber-defense. Today, the Academy is involved in the review process set out by the Ministry of Defense on the development of conflict situations. Crédits photos : Marc CHARUEL - JB.TABONE - ESCC. Conception graphique : ESCC / DIRCOM / Cellule Infographie / Guillaume Roger. Impression : atelier de reprographie de Coëtquidan.
3 As the Army School of Command and Leadership, the mission of the Saint- Cyr Coëtquidan Military Academy is to enable prospective officers to exercise command in challenging circumstances, whatever the combat situation they will have to face. The necessary skills are thus three-fold : to cope with complex situations ; to make decisions regardless of uncertainty ; to take action in a hostile environment. The school s project-based educational programme takes its roots in a twohundred-year-old tradition. The stakes are high : facing the extreme volatility of today s threats. With that aim in mind, the School of Command and Leadership is dedicated to providing cadets not only with basic technical and tactical knowledge, but also with behavioral qualities and intellectual skills that will enable young officers to become decision-makers and face tomorrow s challenges. Thus, the Saint-Cyr Academy offers a multidisciplinary curriculum which adequately combines human, military and academic training.
4 Founded by Bonaparte (then a Consul) on 1 May 1802, the «Ecole Spéciale Militaire» left Fontainebleau on 24 March 1808 for a new site at Saint-Cyr near Paris, which gave it its current name. Activation of the School was part of an extensive project, whose purpose was to provide the State with competent executives trained to ensure safe management and stability of the French society that emerged from a large-scale revolutionary upheaval ; another purpose was to build up a body of officers that had been disrupted by political crises and conflicts since Disbanded in 1815, the School was again activated in 1817, and was adapted to a new political and social context. The recruiting process was modified, based on competitive examinations and recruitment from the La Flèche military school, which at the time was attended by young aristocrats loyal to King Charles X. The monarchy issued from the 1830 revolution was a landmark in the sense that all cadets were from then on recruited through competitive examination. Also, recruitment covered a broader social spectrum, and the Special School thus built its traditions in spite of the diverse political regimes, from the Second Republic to the Second Empire, with occasionally unruly and rebellious students, who nevertheless were submitted to strict, and even very formalist and repetitive teaching methods. The crushing defeat was a decisive turning point concerning the Academy and French forces, who realized they had to reconsider their skills and doctrines. Then with the help of a strictly selected teaching staff, emphasis was laid on scientific subjects, and attention given to theoretical as well as practical aspects, with large-scale exercises organized in the field. The level of examinations improved, and the best students were then selected, so that the École Spéciale became a breeding ground for a body of officers who fought victoriously throughout the First World War in spite of very heavy losses. As it was, Saint-Cyr classes were particularly affected, distinctively the Montmirail class which lost half its former cadets. The general collapse in 1940 made it necessary to initiate radical changes in ideas and principles. The military academy of France Libre cadet officers in England took over, as well as the training centre of cadet aspirants in Cherchell (North Africa). The latter was to become the combined arms school in Deep transformations occurred, because military authorities wanted an army with experienced, seasoned officers with different backgrounds who would be trained together in spite of the differences in the admission rules.
5 That merging concept was implemented through the creation of the Special Combined Arms Academy, which was stationed in Coëtquidan in 1945, and this brought together students originating from operational units, as well as those recruited through a selective examination process. All of them received a thorough training, adapted to modern warfare, and were called to serve in the difficult context of decolonization, and later of the Cold War. In 1961, economic expansion and the drying up of recruiting sources entailed a new reform, which resulted in the activation, on the same site, of the Special Military School on the one hand and the Military Combined Arms School on the other hand. In 1977, a third school was created at Coëtquidan : the Military Technical and Administrative Corps College. The gradual changes in the Special School have been governed for some twenty years by a will to diversify recruitment sources (illustrated by the recruitment of women as of 1983), and to update training so as to prepare officers for missions to be achieved in a rapidly changing world. Designed according to the international references of the Bologna Process, the training includes military, academic and leadership components. Within a remarkably shifting geostrategic context, while the European defense identity is being developed, a new international-oriented posture makes it possible to weave close links with foreign military academies and universities. The French Military Academy is becoming a European reference as regards officers basic training. Through a two-century history, Saint-Cyr Academy has shown that it considers adaptation to current requirements to be a crucial necessity. By combining tradition and modernity, the Academy is at the heart of excellence, providing training that neglects none of an officer s qualities : he must be a man of action who can think before acting, leading men and serving his country and the State. Hosting foreign cadets is a century-old tradition at the French Military Academy. The first foreigner that was hosted at Saint- Cyr in 1847 was Prince Grégoire Bibesco, the Prince of Romania. Until 1871, foreign cadets originated mainly from Central Europe or Latin America. Between 1871 and 1914 came the first Asian and American Cadets. There were two emblematic figures in those years : Prince Kan in, the prospective COS of the Japanese army, and Prince Louis II of Monaco. Between the two world wars came the first cadets originating from the Baltic countries and Luxemburg. Since 1948 the Saint-Cyr Academy has opened its doors to many cadets originating from African countries, and has generalized its partnerships with European countries. Today the Academy hosts trainees from all continents. The first female foreign cadet arrived in 2000, from Luxemburg. The basic training of French officers has always been enriched by the attendance of foreign cadets, capitalizing on the differences in language and culture.
6 Indeed, it stands as the breeding ground for all officers, whatever their way of entry (direct recruiting or late-entry commissions), their career plans (short-term or long-term), their status (active duty or reserve force), or their prospective specialist branch (command, support, service support). Furthermore, the mission of the Academy extends beyond the Army per se, insofar as officers from other corps Gendarmerie Nationale, POL Service, or Medical Corps as well as students from other higher education establishments (Polytechnique, HEC, IEP...) - also receive training here. A group of military colleges Saint-Cyr Special Military Academy : Master s degree and Engineer s degree. The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (Saint-Cyr College), which is a graduate school, provides basic training for combat arms officers, after direct recruitment. It trains officers whose vocation is to lead army operational units, then to hold responsibilities of increasing importance in units and staffs on Army, Defense and multinational levels. It provides multidisciplinary Master s degree-level teaching, which includes human, military and academic training, to be supplemented by specialized training in branch schools, thus enabling young officers to hold their first responsibilities in Army units. The Combined Arms College : Bachelor s degree. The Combined Arms Military College ( École militaire interarmes : EMIA) provides basic training for combat arms officers recruited from enlisted personnel (NCOs and other ranks). It trains officers whose vocation is to lead army operational units, then to hold responsibilities of increasing importance in units and staffs at the Army, Defense and multinational levels. Upon graduation, the officers belong to the combat arms officers corps. The EMIA provides multidisciplinary training of Bachelor s degree level ; this, after final specialized training in branch schools, will enable young officers to have command responsibilities. 4 th Battalion : short training courses Military College. The 4 th Battalion, the school for short training courses, integrates each year approximately 1,000 trainees from different backgrounds, for specifically tailored 1-week to 5-month training periods, providing essentially military and leadership training. Their military culture will afterwards be enhanced during their future assignments.
7 The French Military Academy (Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan) is authorized to deliver Master s degrees and engineer s degrees at the closing stage of the Saint-Cyr College Ecole Spéciale Militaire curriculum as well as bachelor s degrees after completion of the Ecole Militaire Interarmes (the Combined Arms Military College) curriculum. Military and human-science trainings, beyond the technical skills, develop leadership expertise and team management capabilities ; those skills fully fall within the scope required by the engineer s degree accreditation board. Purposefully focused on Defense issues and officer s skills, academic teaching and research are part of the excellence of the training delivered by the French Military Academy (Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan). The rationale of the academic teaching is to enhance intellectual capacities and communication skills necessary for sound situational awareness. It provides the students with the cultural capital expected from officers, a capacity for sound reasoning, and working methods providing them with the maturity necessary for any first-rate intellectual production. Quality of training is ensured through the task organization of teaching and research (French Military Academy Research Center), the opening-up to universities and graduate schools, and through the presence of renowned teacher-researchers working at the Academy. The academic teaching also contributes to making cadets aware of the real issues of today s world through a mandatory training period abroad (for a whole semester for the Saint-Cyr cadets and one month for the Combined- Arms College cadets). Since officers are bound to operate in international environments throughout their professional life, the teaching of foreign languages is emphasized during the whole course of studies. Project-based teaching is included within the Saint-Cyr curriculum and enables cadets to enhance their initiative spirit and sense of responsibility by learning how to manage research work activities.
8 In February 2014, the French Military Academy (Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan) was granted renewal of its accreditation for delivering Master s degrees and Bachelor s degrees for maximum authorized duration by the French Minister of Higher Education and Research, after a unanimous vote of all agencies. The Accreditation Board for the delivery of engineer s degrees renewed 6-year authorization for the Academy to deliver engineer s degrees. Thus the French Military Academy has obtained the capacity for being granted the European accreditation for engineering EUR-ACE label, which corroborates the European vocation of the Academy. Those three accreditation renewals highlight the quality of the training delivered by the French Military Academy in its academic, military and human scopes
9 Located in the heart of Brittany (in Morbihan), the Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan Military Academy has a unique environment. It has developed a fullblown military campus enabling officer cadets and cadet officers of the Colleges to train in the best conditions. In the heart of the Forest of Brocéliande A unique environment in France Over 200 hectares of built-up area ; Training areas over more than 5,000 hectares ; 90 kms of roadway. The facilities of a higher education establishment. 365 buildings ; 700 student rooms with internet access. Specific facilities devoted to military education and training. 1 educational internet network ; 4 gymnasiums or specific indoor sports facilities ; 1 Olympic-size swimming-pool ; 1 confidence obstacle course ; 2 assault obstacle courses ; 22 shooting range facilities ; 2 explosive ordnance firing ranges ; 1 parachute jumping area ; 1 training area for fighting in built-up areas. The human capital at the Academy 500 military personnel 150 civilians 76 full-time and 110 temporary teachers Basic training : 1,400 cadets in all-level basic training, 730 of whom on long-duration training In-service training : 2,000 students, key personnel, military personnel and corporate world civilians 200 foreign cadets each year, 100 of whom attending full-time training.
10 The yearly Academy foreign cadet intake amounts to about 100, originating from 26 different countries for full-scale training. Among those, the French-German cadet exchange, which was initiated in 2006, is the most accomplished model. Two thirds of them obtain the Saint-Cyr degree, the equivalent of a Master s degree and of an engineer s degree for the science curriculum. Another third attend courses at the Combined-Arms College which delivers a bachelor s degree. Moreover, 152 foreign cadets attend a part of the training curriculum at the French Military Academy (Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan). Here are a few examples : 28% attend a total-immersion course for a few weeks. They originate from 12 different countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Columbia, Denmark, United States, Hungary, Japan, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Ukraine), 54% of them from European countries ; 42% attend a military training period. They originate from 12 different countries (Germany, Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Chile, Denmark, the United States, Georgia, Mexico, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Thailand). 35 of them (55%) come from European countries ; 3% perform research work in the French Military Academy research center. They originate from 6 different countries (Ireland, Portugal, Sweden, and Tunisia). 4 of them (66%) come from European countries ; 27% attend an international training semester, in English or French. For the first time Austrian cadets have been included into these two types of training. Half of them attend the semester training in English. They come from 9 different countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, United States, Hungary, Japan, Lithuania, and Poland). 17 of them (73%) come from European countries. The other half attend the training in French. They come from 6 different countries (Austria, Canada, Columbia, the US, the Czech Republic, and Ukraine). 6 of them (31%) come from European countries.
11 Saint-Cyr s military academy has developed an international course in order to meet the growing challenges of the internationalization of the officer s work. French and foreign cadets are gathered in small classes in order to develop a new approach on peace and war. Benefiting from the expertise of an international team of Professors coming from France, Switzerland, Austria, Israel, the United States, and the United Kingdom, this course develops innovative methods in order to make the cadets aware of tomorrow s challenges. Alongside lectures and seminars, the cadets acquire further autonomy and responsibility thanks to individual talks with the professors, oral presentations, readings and war games. The academic training emphasizes the importance of the political and cultural factor in order to understand today s changing international environment. As all lectures are given in English, the cadets must be fluent in this language. Since they were launched three years ago, classes in English have fed personal research among students originating from the whole of Europe : Austria, Germany, the UK, Hungary, Poland or Lithuania. Two semesters are organized each year, one of which including a module that is more specifically dedicated to European security policies. Foreign students are integrated in a battalion of Saint-Cyr, in which they are provided physical and military training. The military curriculum includes the following exercices. Abstract : Historical and tactical exercices ; The identity of Europe ; War games ; Geopolitics of crises ; Intelligence studies ; Atlas of the world at war ; Negotiation studies ; Strategic management ; Economy and violence ; Comparative law ; Ethical challenges ; Practical ethical issues ; French language ; French civilisation.
12 What about your methods? What is the aim of the international course? There are two main goals. The first one is to learn how to work in common with foreign cadets. The second aim consists in developing the curiosity of the cadets. Despite the constraints due to the operational preparation of his men, a young platoon leader should acquire the habit of opening a book before going to war. What are the main subject matters taught? They are quite varied, from economics to ethics. However, we emphasize the cultural and the political dimensions. Actually, an officer is far more than a mere technician of war, he plays a political role on the battlefield, and if he fails to invest on cultures, he may jeopardize the lives of his men. What are the common points between these subject matters? War. The lectures are never disconnected from the main objective of a military school : being able to train officers able to wage war in all circumstances. The result is that the international semester is a great success among the French and foreign cadets. We very clearly encourage young cadets autonomy and initiative spirit. They seek knowledge, which is not imposed on them. We try to develop their thirst for understanding and making connections. This is why we have discarded formal lectures in favor of discussions, war games, readings, workshops Thanks to this pedagogy of autonomy, the students develop their creativity. They even participate in the publication of books on current crises. Does that mean that you have developed your own academic model? This is one of the characteristics of french military schools which have always been in the lead ; innovations have regularly enriched other schools or universities. One of the characteristics of our training is to permanently maintain close links between theory and practice. The idea is to mix professors and officers so as to offer complementary views on a subject. Another characteristic is the reintroduction of arts in the training of the officer. In effect sensibility plays a major role in the building of an officer. This is why a module of rhetoric has been set up. Could you give us a first assessment for this course? Thanks to the international course, Saint-Cyr has built a real network of young officers across Europe. They have compared their different views of the world and are now aware of their complementarities. This is very important because they will have to work in common in the future. But the international semester owes a lot to the European partners of Saint-Cyr. For example, the module on the European Security and Defense Policy, is organized by two Austrian officers from the Theresian Academy. Contact : 0033 (0)
13 European Commission European Union military staff During the international course, students will take part in an enhancement training seminar in Brussels. It will be an opportunity to meet different actors who foster the common security and defense policies. To make it profitable to students, preliminary work will be carried out in Saint-Cyr College. It will involve acquiring thorough knowledge of the European institutions with a particular focus on the European Union military staff attached to the Secretary-General/ High Representative. The students will understand how the decision are made through the intergovernmental committees. It will be an opportunity for an exchange of views with various diplomats and military leaders in policy and capability areas. European council European Parliament
14 In order to supplement the current opportunities, the French Military Academy staff has decided to organize additional training courses intended for European cadets. These are seminars based on 20-hour training modules for which 2 ECTS credits are awarded. The first two seminars will be organized in the spring of Training opportunities for 2014/2015 will be available later on the Academy website : The agendas of the seminars are the following : Social and political science-oriented seminar : After 50 years of independence, ethnic and religious tensions are challenging the existence of young nations that have artificial and porous borders. The governments have lost all credibility as a sequel of coups and the corruption of their rulers who proved unable to find solutions for the numerous crises. Resorting to religion is becoming the only hope for a young and poor population, as demonstrated by the rise of a transnational type of Islam, Arab-inspired and challenging century-old religious traditions, with local support for jihadist terrorist groups. The French military interventions which aim to disarm, disband or annihilate the various armed groups should now be supplemented by political initiatives that would make it possible to unite all the communities inside these countries for the reconstruction of states based on rule of law, effectiveness and justice. Engineering-oriented seminar : The robotics : practical views seminar will be organized as follows : Social and political science-oriented seminar Engineering-oriented seminar 20 to 22 May to 27 June 2014 «Military operations in Mali and the Central African Republic : a new model of intervention and stabilization for Francophone Africa in the 21 st Century» «Robotics : practical views» Initiation course to robotics ; Briefing on military robots in French and US armies ; A practical approach to robotics through the use of a hexapod robot, a two-wheeled robot and 3D imagery ; Substantial exchange of views on that topic between trainees and trainers. Contact : 0033 (0)
15 Écoles de Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan GUER Cedex Tél. :
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