Christof Mauch. Carl-von-Carlowitz Series. The Growth of Trees. A Historical Perspective on Sustainability

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Christof Mauch. Carl-von-Carlowitz Series. The Growth of Trees. A Historical Perspective on Sustainability"

Transcription

1 Christof Mauch Carl-von-Carlowitz Series The Growth of Trees A Historical Perspective on Sustainability

2

3

4 2014 oekom verlag, München Gesellschaft für ökologische Kommunikation mbh Waltherstraße 29, München, Germany Cover design: oekom verlag Cover illustration: Giuseppe Porzani/fotolia.com Layout by: Sarah Schneider, oekom verlag Typesetting by: Reihs Satzstudio, Lohmar All rights reserved.

5 Christof Mauch The Growth of Trees A Historical Perspective on Sustainability Translated from German by Katie Ritson Carl-von-Carlowitz Series Volume 3 published by the German Council for Sustainable Development

6 Carl-von-Carlowitz lecture 2013 of the German Council for Sustainable Development in June 2013 in Freiberg (Saxony) in cooperation with Technical University (TU) Bergakademie Freiberg, the Saxon Mining Office and the Saxon Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz society Lecture by Christof Mauch: Excursion through time and space a historical perspective on sustainability For conversations, suggestions and criticism, Christof Mauch wishes to thank his fellows Verena Winiwarter, Donald Worster and Joachim Radkau. The author expresses special thanks to his colleague Pavla Šimková, who proofread this text and took care of image rights.

7 Content Foreword Reflection and Sustainable Development: Looking Backwards to See Forwards Chapter 1 Excursions in Time and Space Chapter 2 Hans Carl von Carlowitz Chapter 3 Europe and the Globe Chapter 4 American Space Dreams without Limits Chapter 5 Pasts and Futures Chapter 6 The Age of Vulnerability Chapter 7 Sustainable Societies? Annotations Image Sources Bibliographical references About the author and the publisher

8

9 Foreword Reflection and Sustainable Development: Looking Backwards to See Forwards An Introduction to the 2013 Carl von Carlowitz Lecture The time and venue of the fourth Carl von Carlowitz lecture in June 2013 could not have been more apt, for it was the third centenary of the publication of Sylvicultura Oeconomica by the superintendent of mines, Carl von Carlowitz. The event was held in Freiberg, not far from his former place of work. The home of the Mining Authority of Prince August the Strong, von Carlowitz s sovereign, is still that of the Free State of Saxony. This is more than a passing reminder of the roots of the concept of sustainability. e writings of von Carlowitz mark a milestone in the history of sustainability. He focuses on the largely thoughtless destruction of nature, and gives us a picture of a sustainable use of nature that nurtures and maintains, is born out of ethical principles and requires a high degree of education and comprehension. Von Carlowitz was concerned with the welfare of his country, no less: for a short historical moment, the welfare of his Saxony was dependent on the natural resource of wood explicitly on trees means of growth, and whether more could be produced within ecological constraints. Reflection and Sustainable Development: Looking Backwards to See Forwards 9

10 Von Carlowitz makes clear that sustainability is a contentious term. Today we tend to forget this, when talk comprises entirely of win-win situations, and, as a result of frequent dilution, the concept lacks the brilliance of its historical and these days political source. Sustainability is not a fluffy idea. e concept derived from the conflict between exploitation and overuse: salt extraction, silver mining, and smelting ore were the drivers of wood scarcity. At the same time, the forestry industry serves as the perfect example of different aspects of sustainability and the inherent principle of common benefit. e long evity of trees and forests is far beyond that of a human lifespan. ese are long production cycles, lasting generations. But other branches of the economy too and ultimately all branches will need to think long-term, analyze bad decisions and manage resources to secure the future of society. Not just natural resources, but social capital as we know from Gro Harlem Brundtland s political concepts and von Carlowitz s ideas on forestry must be managed in such a way that utilization does not become plunder, and use does not become using up to the end that future generations are placed at a permanent disadvantage. Von Carlowitz s ideas are just as current and challenging today as when they were written: each generation is responsible for solving its own problems, and must not allow them to burden those of the future. ere also exists a duty to avoid foreseeable future problems. In the case of renewable resources, use must be kept within the rate of regeneration; the use of non-renewables may not be higher than the amount that can be replaced by renewable production. Dangers and unjustifiable risks for human health must be minimized, and energy and resource use must be decoupled from economic growth. The German Council for Sustainable Development is aware of the need to reflect on the historical and cultural development of sustainability, and to apply this to our current knowledge and action. The relationship between human beings and their environment, and the 10 Foreword

11 decisions they are faced with in this context, are formative for the sustainability of societies and cultures: that much we know from history. The German Council for Sustainable Development is immensely grateful to Professor Christof Mauch for accepting this invitation to give the fourth Carl von Carlowitz lecture and taking this excursion through time and space, through which he will look back at sustainability in history. Professor Mauch continues this lecture series exploring the foundations for, and pathways of, sustainable development. The first Carl von Carlowitz lecture was delivered in 2009 by the ecologist Professor Wolfgang Haber, who focused on the consequences of population dynamics for sustainable development. Climate scientist Professor Carlo C. Jaeger from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research sketched out a twenty-first century history in his 2010 lecture Growth Where Next? In 2011, Professor Gesine Schwan explored how sustainable development can be served by the political establishment, calling for new rigour in the cooperation between politics, business, science, media, and society. At the heart of the lecture printed here is environmental history, which is also the history of humanity. It tells of decisions made by societies to regulate and shape their dependencies on, and relationship with, their environments incorporating the history of the term sustainability and the lessons that can be learnt from it. Professor Mauch uses several examples to vividly express the risks and challenges faced by what we think of as sustainable societies, at a time when the systems of which they were part became too large or complex to handle. He outlines the rise of Europe in terms of the historical situation and peculiarities in the ways in which inhabitants have engaged with their environment, illustrating to a large degree why the world is the way it is today. By this means, he shows us that an understanding of historical change is of far greater importance for Reflection and Sustainable Development: Looking Backwards to See Forwards 11

12 shaping the future than merely observing what is happening around the globe at our moment in time. Professor Mauch is director of the Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society (RCC) in Munich. As a historian his focus has been largely on German and North American history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and on international environmental history. He gained his doctorate in literary history at the University of Tübingen in 1990 and his second doctorate in modern history at the University of Cologne in Christof Mauch has taught at the universities of Tü bingen, Bonn, Cologne and Georgetown University in the USA. From 1999 to 2007 he was director of the German Historical Institute in Washington, D.C. He took up the chair in American Cultural History at Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU) in Munich in 2007, and is currently director of the Lasky Center for Transatlantic Studies. He was President of the European Society for Environmental History (ESEH) Christof Mauch has written and edited numerous scholarly books and articles, and has received numerous accolades for his work. His membership of international boards and committees reflects his engagement in his academic field and his interest in transdisciplinary research. As director of the Rachel Carson Center, his aim is to write environmental history and contribute to the shaping of our world. The goals of the center are to advance the exploration and debate of the interactions between humans and nature; moreover, it tries to strengthen the role of the humanities in current political and scientific discussions on the environment and sustainability. Conceived as an international and interdisciplinary forum, the RCC has thematic foci such as Natural Disasters and Cultures of Risk, Environmental Knowledge and Knowledge Societies, Resource Use and Conservation, and Environmental Ethics, Politics, and Movements. To make its work accessible, the center holds conferences and workshops, manages an online portal of resources on the environment and society, publishes a book series in English and in German, and organizes exhibitions at 12 Foreword

13 the Deutsches Museum and elsewhere. The Rachel Carson Center has thus succeeded in establishing its own take on the world, and in opening and stimulating new perspectives on research into the environment. Berlin 2013, Marlehn Thieme Chair of the Council for Sustainable Development Reflection and Sustainable Development: Looking Backwards to See Forwards 13

14

15 Chapter 1 Excursions in Time and Space A Historical Perspective on Sustainability

16 In the beginning was Venice: City of merchants, of wealthy bourgeoisie, of elegant facades, pompous palaces, scowling sculptures, elegant paintings, of riches put on display: Venice. The Lion City on the Mediterranean with its trading colonies in Flanders and Maghreb and Contantinople and Trebizond. Venice: Towards the end of the thirteenth century it was the wealthiest city in Europe, and a hundred years later it had become the world leader in printing books. And, at the heart of Venice, its arsenal. Here its ships war galleons and large-bellied merchant ships were built and overhauled. One hundred ships per year were made seaworthy by some 16,000 workers. The ships sterns were made of oak, the oars of beech. The Venetians had an insatiable hunger for wood. For without wood there could be no ships. And without ships, no trade, no defence, no power, no wealth. 1 Nothing, we might assume, would have alarmed the Venetians more than the spectre of a wood shortage. Therefore the Great Council made laws in the fourteenth century that were designed to secure the supply of wood for shipbuilding: the arsenal had first pick of oak, price limits were set, and captains paid a fine for every broken or damaged oar. But although the list of laws grew ever longer and the punishments ever stricter, the depletion of the forests in the vicinity of Venice continued to increase, and nothing seemed to stop it. The lawmakers were convinced that the local population, whose cattle grazed in the forest and who used it for firewood, were the cause of the decrease in the available wood stock. Thus, as the fifteenth century drew to a close, they devised a new strategy: large forested areas with the best oaks and beeches were reserved for the arsenal; the state forestry guard (provveditori ai boschi) developed elaborate 16 Chapter 1

17 Figure 1 The Venetian Arsenal The shipyard, erected on two marshy islands, is regarded as Europe s largest production base prior to industrialization. The serial production of ships and galleys took place with great efficiency during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Demand for timber from the forests surrounding Venice was correspondingly high. methods of measuring, counting and mapping the individual species of tree. A report written in 1471 tells us, for example, that a particular section of the forest held enough oak for one hundred excellent galleons. Interestingly, the Venetian forest authorities began to change their thinking in the sixteenth century; they began to observe the forest not just in terms of space, but also in terms of time. The comparison of the inventory at the end of the fifteenth century with documents from half a century later shows that a radical change in the way the forest was understood had taken place: If we fell all the beeches that are contained in this forest, says the 1548 inventory, we can supply the arsenal with oars for thirty years. With good manage- Excursions in Time and Space 17

18 ment, however, we will be able to meet demand for many centuries to come. The Venetians were advocates of sustainability before this term existed. Carl von Carlowitz praised the particular cautiousness of the Most High Republic of The Venetians were advocates of sustainability before this term existed. Venice [ ], that She provides for all other Things and shows herself to be good / in her provinces, not just in planting Shipbuilding Wood / but also in conserving it [ ] and in observing it for the needs of its famous Arsenal. 2 The Venetians seemed to be doing everything right. When they needed one thousand stacks of oak wood for the construction of the devotional church Basilica Santa Maria della Salute, the Senate made sure that the wood was acquired from the Hungarian king, so that Venice s own stocks were reserved for the maintenance of canals and construction of breakwaters. This made no economic sense, but the Senators decision was based on sustainability. The Venetians marked each individual tree to show its future use, beginning when the trees were saplings; some trees were then marked a second time when they had reached three feet in height. But reality did not correspond to the lists and the maps, and the future did not correspond to the prognosis: there were fewer and fewer trees, and nobody in Venice understood why. Today we know that the Venetians were more successful than they realized. The story of what actually happened is too complex to be summarized in a few short sentences. But the fact remains that the stocks of the state forest decreased, whereas the intensively used forests, in particular the forest commons from which the local population took underwood, berries and fruits, and leaf mould as fertilizer, saw a steady increase in wood growth. History offers us numerous examples of cultures that died out because they exhausted their resources. The Mayas, we believe today, are an example of this; but the most remarkable case is probably that of Easter Island, where entire forests were felled in order to transport 18 Chapter 1

19 Figure 2 Moai, the colossal monolithic statues on Easter Island The statues in the South Pacific are up to 9.8 metres high and weigh on average 12 tons. The levering out, transportation and erection of the statues consumed large amounts of wood. Transporting of the stone giants was carried out by means of rolling tree trunks, which often had to be replaced by new ones. colossal stone statues, meaning that there was ultimately a shortage of firewood and wood for boat-building that the local population, which subsisted mainly from fishing, needed to survive. 3 The Venetians with their hierarchies of History offers us numerous examples use and their rules on forest conservation had set better priori- because they exhausted their resources. of cultures that died out ties. e perceived and real scarcity of wood had little to do with the end of Venice s thalassocracy. The Venetians, who had galleons but no ocean-going vessels, lost their lucrative spice trade to the Por- Excursions in Time and Space 19

20 tuguese; and ultimately it was Napoleon who dealt the death blow to the Lion City, not the decline of the forests. If anything, the Venetians had managed their forests in exemplary fashion; far better, in any case, than the English, who exploited their forests systematically and exhausted the wood stock. That Great Britain was able to rise to the position of great power is, in view of its forest politics, a miracle I will discuss later. 20 Chapter 1

21 Chapter 2 Hans Carl von Carlowitz

22 Hans Carl von Carlowitz, with whom we are concerned here, was born during the irty Years War. e town with which his name is linked, Freiberg in Saxony 4, attracted the greedy attention of the advancing Swedish army due to its silver mines, but the Freiberg miners knew how to defend themselves; the Swedish general Lennart Torstensson in his frustration nicknamed the town a nest of rats, because the miners were repeatedly able to drive their enemies from the sha s and tunnels of the mines by diverting water into them. Carlowitz must have been brought up on these stories of pillage and plunder. He was a child of his time, a time in which hunger, disease, and destruction were rife and the knowledge of vanitas, the transience of all earthly things, was one with the desire for rebirth and divine salvation. No one put this into words better than the baroque poet Andreas Gryphius: 5 You see / where er you look / mere earthly vanity What man today has built / will fall upon the morn This place where cities lie / will hence be turned to corn And there a shepherd boy with sheep and cow play free The flow rs that bloom will soon be trod into the clay The flesh which beats and throbs will turn to ash and bone Not one thing shall endure / not precious ore, nor stone Today our fortune smiles / tomorrow comes dismay The glory of fine deeds will like a dream be gone Should then this earthly game / by fragile man be won? Oh! What is earthly life, that we hold dearly yet 22 Chapter 2

23 Figure 3 Gabriel Ehinger: The Mourning Philosopher. Etching around 1660, after a painting by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld The phrase Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas (English: Vanity of vanities, all is vanity. ), is attributed to King Solomon (Ecclesiastes 1:2). It refers to the vanity of everything that is earthly and it characterized the experience and worldview in the seventeenth century, when Hans Carl von Carlowitz grew up. Carlowitz s pleas for conservation and sustainability are an expression of a fundamental tension with regard to the dominant philosophy of his time. Hans Carl von Carlowitz 23

24 If not a futile thing / mere shadow, wind, and dust. A little meadow flow r / found once, forever lost. Upon eternity no eye has e er been set. For Gryphius and his contemporaries, all earthly life was fleeting. Life moved between the poles of carpe diem and memento mori, between pleasure in life and knowledge of death. For Carlowitz too, this man with his baroque wig, the terrors of the earthly vale of tears were little more than an expression of God s plan. On his travels, which took him from Scandinavia and England to Malta, the young nobleman recognized that within few scant years [ ] more wood is used than grown in many lifetimes and he feared the jealous judgement of our great God at the end of the world as prophesied by Philipp Melanchton, in which man would suffer greatly for lack of wood. 6 Against this experience of fleeting and futile human existence, the idea of sustainability, which extends into a far-off future, is especially pronounced. Fear of death can amplify the enjoyment of pleasure, but also the drive to resist fate and invest in the future. Carlowitz conceived his Sylvicultura, his magnum opus on forestry as a domestic message, written out of love for the fostering of the greatest good. 7 e household patriarchs at whom it was aimed were in the main noble landowners and estate managers, 8 but ultimately his work became something of a foundational text for the science of forestry. 9 For cohorts of economists and foresters, the Sylvicultura was required reading and became a canonical text. In 1761, Duchess Anna Amalia of Saxony-Weimar used the Sylvicultura as a model for For cohorts of economists and foresters, her creation of a comprehensive the Sylvicultura was required forestry plan (regulating the taxation and inventory of her forests, reading and became a canonical text. the soils, the animals and plants), which centred around the idea of sustainability and projected the forests growth three centuries into the future, up to the year e principle of sustainability was on 24 Chapter 2

25 Figure 4 Title page of Sylvicultura oeconomica Carlowitz s work was published in 1713 and consists of two volumes, with 30 chapters and 429 pages. The Sylvicultura oeconomica pleads for a prudent consumption of wood as a renewable resource. Carlowitz s book is regarded as the first cohesive German work on forestry. the rise; soon it would become popular in other countries as well. e Prussian Bernhard Fernow ( ), who emigrated to the United States following his studies at the Forestry Academy in Münden, exported the theory of sustainable forest management to the USA, becoming the first forestry director of the US Ministry of Agriculture in 1886; in the spirit of Carlowitz, he harshly criticized the marketoriented tendencies of his elected homeland, which he described as being focused on cash flow 11 and The principle of sustainability was private exploitation. 12 e influence of the botanist and forester in other countries as well.. on the rise; soon it would become popular Dietrich Brandis (later Sir Dietrich Brandis) from Bonn was even greater. Brandis became forestry advisor to the Indian central government in Calcutta in the middle of the nineteenth century, in turn in- Hans Carl von Carlowitz 25

26 fluencing Gifford Pinchot, the first head of the United States Forest Service, who is known in history as the father of tropical forestry. 13 e Sylvicultura provided the Germans with a forestry textbook at an early date; it would play a pioneering role (both direct and indirect) in forestry management across Europe and around the world in the decades and centuries that followed. The history of this work is one reason to remember Carlowitz. Another reason is his thinking, to which we of course cannot do justice by reducing it to the term sustainability and its economic virtues. Carlowitz s concern was to smelt silver ore effectively. Wood was needed in large amounts for the construction of tunnels and mine shafts, and to initiate the chemical processes needed. Just as in Venice a lack of wood would have meant no ships, no trade, and no wealth, in Saxony a dearth of wood and charcoal would have meant no silver mines and no resplendent promenades and palaces. But Carlowitz saw wood as more than just a resource. In his Sylvicultura the mining official reveals himself over and over to be a friend and admirer of nature, and the powers of the natural world. Carlowitz was just as concerned with the growth of trees as with economic growth, and just as interested in humus as in silver. He paid attention to soil, Carlowitz was just as concerned with flora, wind, climate, and the incline of the land, the taste and the growth of trees as with economic growth, and just as interested in humus as in silver. scent of what his contemporaries called an unlovely piece of earth, in which Carlowitz recognized a miraculous, life-nurturing spirit at work. He marvelled at the lifegiving force of the sun and called the natural world a great worldbook to be studied. 14 The value of the trees could not be reduced to the value of the wood. For him, they were unspeakably beautiful. The loveliness of the green colour of the leaves, he once wrote, I cannot put into words. 15 But let us not get carried away. e sustainable economic ideas of Carlowitz and the global idea of sustainable development mapped 26 Chapter 2

27 out in Rio are worlds apart. At least from the moment that the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, we humans have been aware of the enormous destructive power that we are capable of unleashing on the whole planet. 16 For Carlowitz, God was the dominant figure who commanded the earthly sphere, for us today it is Man. Carlowitz wanted to conserve one resource, wood, in order to exploit another, ore, even more effectively. With hindsight, it is evident that Carlowitz distinguished between sustainable and non-sustainable resources, and that his thinking drew a veil over a classic conflict of interests. For him as for his contemporaries, ore as a finite resource was of no immediate importance. Today, we think in terms of systems that take account of many different resources and the whole globe. Carlowitz connected the term sustainable with the forests of Europe, not with the North-South divide and the unequal distribution of natural resources on the planet. Carlowitz s worldview is no longer easy to understand, his prose is contorted and pompous; and the environment and climate summits of the twenty-first century would be incomprehensible to the mines administrator from Saxony. We need to keep this in mind, lest we are tempted to turn him into a sustainability pop-icon in So let us not get carried away. e loyal English patriot John Evelyn (author, architect, and horticulturalist) had already penned a bestseller decades before Carlowitz with his book Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest Trees and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesties Dominions, and in this he laid the foundations for forest management aimed at both nurture and preservation: Men should perpetually be Planting he wrote, so Posterity might have Trees fit for their Service and Felling what we do cut down with great Discretion, and Regard of the Future. 17 Carlowitz was neither the first practitioner nor the inventor of sustainability, and in his monumental work Sylvicultura oeconomica, the word sustainable ( nachhaltend ) appears, famously, only once. 18 Why, then, should we remember Carlowitz? Why do we have this Carlowitz lecture? On the one hand, the Sylvicultura oeconomica has contributed to the genesis of modern forestry science as no other work has. e in- Hans Carl von Carlowitz 27

28 Figure 5 Hans Carl von Carlowitz as an icon of pop culture Carlowitz s deliberations on the protection of forests are worlds away from today s discourse on sustainability. He was moreover not the first to formulate ideas about resource consumption. Is Carlowitz being turned into an icon of pop culture through celebrations of 300 years of sustainability in Germany? sights of Venetian foresters and their methods of observing and conserving forest resources disappeared into registries and archives and were completely forgotten. e teachings of John Evelyn, too, had no long-term bearing on British forests. Admittedly, the Tree-Planting he advocated did become something of a national obsession amongst the English aristocracy, in parks and along avenues, but British forestry practices were largely ignorant of Evelyn s Sylva; ultimately, if all else failed, it was always possible to import wood to Merry Olde A country with few resources notices England from other parts of the more quickly when they start to decline. globe. Colonies encourage avarice. Germany was different. A country with few resources notices more quickly when they start to decline. Richard Grove sees the beginnings of modern environmental consciousness in the colonial world of small 28 Chapter 2

29 tropical islands, for example the Caribbean islands, or Madeira. ere, the Portuguese, Spanish, and English colonists observed early on, in the seventeenth century, that economic growth had limits and could lead to ecological devastation. 19 In history we see time and time again how important knowledge of local changes, which Carlowitz saw and intuited, has been, and how tragic the kind of tunnel vision that did not comprehend local changes and conditions. Venice is one example: then, the forest commons could be managed to achieve greater yield and used more diversely and effectively than the In history we see time and time again mapped state forests. A very different example is provided by the has been, and how tragic the kind how important knowledge of local changes North Sea. During the transition of tunnel vision that did not comprehend from the rural societies of the late local changes and conditions. Middle Ages to the agrarian system of the Early Modern period, profitable landscapes for monocultures were created at the mouths of rivers. But the more orderly this geometrically composed, manipulated nature looked from afar, the more the gradual shifts in the landscape were ignored. The dikes were breached more often, instead of less. The new system proved to be unexpectedly fragile. 20 What could be behind it? A kind of agriculture based purely on profit? America in the early twentieth century gives us an example of just such a process with drastic consequences. The farmers who transformed the prairie into immeasurable, vast, uniform fields of wheat in the 1920s were able to make their land ten times more profitable than the ranchers who had farmed there before by using heavy combine harvesters with enormously wide teeth. They didn t even need to work the land themselves, but could manage the farm from afar, as suitcase farmers. But technological progress and the distance between farmer and furrow exacted a high price, for they failed to notice the gradual changes in the landscape in the soil, for example, that flaked and dried and turned to dust; and after a short period, Hans Carl von Carlowitz 29

30 Figure 6 Dust Bowl in Dallas, South Dakota 1936 Non-sustainable use of agricultural land led to an insidious aridification of soil in the Southern States of the USA. The Dust Bowl disaster was one of the greatest natural catastrophes in North American history. in 1935, a huge expanse that was almost twice as large as Germany, was transformed into a desolate wasteland. The Dust Bowl disaster was one of the greatest disasters in North American history Chapter 2

You re One in Seven Billion!

You re One in Seven Billion! You re One in Seven Billion! We ve all heard the expression, You re one in a million!. With the ever-growing number of people on the planet, it might be more accurate to say, You re one in seven billion!

More information

Fry Instant Word List

Fry Instant Word List First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he

More information

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group

More information

RENEWABLE OR NOT? ADVANCE PREPARATION MATERIALS

RENEWABLE OR NOT? ADVANCE PREPARATION MATERIALS AT A GLANCE RENEWABLE OR NOT? Students learn the difference between renewable and non-renewable resources and discover why sustainable use of natural resources is important. OBJECTIVES Students will: Identify

More information

Chapter 1 Key Themes in Environmental Science

Chapter 1 Key Themes in Environmental Science Key Themes in Environmental Science Case Study: Shrimp, Mangroves, and Pickup Trucks This case study highlights the plight of a small farmer in Thailand in the shrimp farming business. He makes his living

More information

Speech at the High-Level Conference on World Food Security

Speech at the High-Level Conference on World Food Security Speech at the High-Level Conference on World Food Security SUN Zhengcai Minister of Agriculture People s Republic of China Rome, June 2008 Distinguished Chairperson, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,

More information

The 13 American Colonies Part 1: Coming to America

The 13 American Colonies  Part 1: Coming to America The 13 American Colonies Name: http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/13colonies3.htm Part 1: Coming to America The first colonies in North America were along the eastern coast. Settlers

More information

PUBLIC POLICY IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE - Food Security and Government Intervention - Samarendu Mohanty, E. Wesley F. Peterson

PUBLIC POLICY IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE - Food Security and Government Intervention - Samarendu Mohanty, E. Wesley F. Peterson FOOD SECURITY AND GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION Samarendu Mohanty Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA E. Department of Agricultural

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest

Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest About deforestation Forests are cut down for many reasons, but most of them are related to money or to people s need to provide for their families. The

More information

Environmental Science: A Global Perspective. All the flowers of all the tomorrows are in the seeds of today. Chinese Proverb

Environmental Science: A Global Perspective. All the flowers of all the tomorrows are in the seeds of today. Chinese Proverb Environmental Science: A Global Perspective All the flowers of all the tomorrows are in the seeds of today. Chinese Proverb Shout Out Think about 5 major environmental problems that we are facing today

More information

PUSD High Frequency Word List

PUSD High Frequency Word List PUSD High Frequency Word List For Reading and Spelling Grades K-5 High Frequency or instant words are important because: 1. You can t read a sentence or a paragraph without knowing at least the most common.

More information

ACCOUNTING FOR ASIA S NATURAL CAPITAL

ACCOUNTING FOR ASIA S NATURAL CAPITAL ACCOUNTING FOR S NATURAL CAPITAL DRIVING THE TRANSITION TO A RESOURCE-EFFICIENT GREEN ECONOMY Asia s rapid economic growth during recent decades has been accompanied by serious depletion of the region

More information

The 2024 prospects for EU agricultural markets: drivers and uncertainties. Tassos Haniotis

The 2024 prospects for EU agricultural markets: drivers and uncertainties. Tassos Haniotis 1. Introduction The 2024 prospects for EU agricultural markets: drivers and uncertainties Tassos Haniotis Director of Economic Analysis, Perspectives and Evaluations; Communication DG Agriculture and Rural

More information

AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES. Question 4

AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES. Question 4 AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Analyze the effects of the Columbian exchange (the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the New World) on the population

More information

Chapter 13 More Like the TVA?

Chapter 13 More Like the TVA? Page 55 Chapter 13 More Like the TVA? One of the most bitter arguments between liberals and conservatives has been over the government s role in the economy. Liberals say the government should do the things

More information

Deforestation in the Amazon

Deforestation in the Amazon Deforestation in the Amazon By Rhett A Butler Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth's land surface; now they cover a mere 6% and experts estimate that the last remaining rainforests could be consumed

More information

PEO-1: Explain how and why people moved within the Americas (before contact) and to and within the Americas (after contact and colonization).

PEO-1: Explain how and why people moved within the Americas (before contact) and to and within the Americas (after contact and colonization). Key Concept 1.1: Before the arrival of Europeans, native populations in North America developed a wide variety of social, political, and structures based in part on interactions with the environment and

More information

climate change is happening. This April produced the record for the first month in human history

climate change is happening. This April produced the record for the first month in human history Tsering Lama Occidental College 15 Climate Change, Renewable Energy, and the Hong Kong Connection In a literature review, 97% of climate scientists have concluded that anthropogenic climate change is happening.

More information

Wind power in Denmark 1

Wind power in Denmark 1 June 1996 Peter Helby Wind power in Denmark 1 A sketch of history. Wind power always fascinated the Danes. The geography of the country made Denmark a sea going nation with a large merchant fleet and lots

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X The Royal Society for Protection of Nature (RSPN) in collaboration with Department of Curriculum Research & Development (DCRD) of Ministry of Education

More information

Future Workshop by HBS Oct.6 Oct.11 (Turkey, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt)

Future Workshop by HBS Oct.6 Oct.11 (Turkey, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt) Future Workshop by HBS Oct.6 Oct.11 (Turkey, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt) The Future workshop took place in Hasankeyf, Turkey, from October 6,2012 till October 11,2012 where individuals from Turkey, Lebanon,

More information

Chapter 3: European Exploration and Colonization

Chapter 3: European Exploration and Colonization Chapter 3: European Exploration and Colonization Trade Route to Asia in the 1400s European Trade With Asia Traders - people who get wealth by buying items from a group of people at a low price and selling

More information

Facts on biodiversity

Facts on biodiversity Facts on biodiversity What is biodiversity? Biological diversity (biodiversity) comprises diversity of species and habitats as well as the genetic diversity within the individual species of fauna and flora.

More information

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity Lesson Overview 6.3 6.3 Objectives Define biodiversity and explain its value. Identify current threats to biodiversity. Describe how biodiversity can be preserved. THINK ABOUT IT From multicolored coral

More information

Driving Sustainable Development: the role of Science, Technology and Innovation

Driving Sustainable Development: the role of Science, Technology and Innovation G-SCIENCE ACADEMIES STATEMENTS 2013 Driving Sustainable Development: the role of Science, Technology and Innovation 1. Introduction The framework of Millennium Development Goals has led to several in-depth

More information

RESTORATION & REVITALIZATION

RESTORATION & REVITALIZATION RESTORATION & REVITALIZATION Legal preservation has not proved to be sufficient to preserve natural communities. Restoration activities are diverse and includes revitalization of natural communities which

More information

Mirror for Humanity by Kottack Quiz #10 C. Milner-Rose

Mirror for Humanity by Kottack Quiz #10 C. Milner-Rose Mirror for Humanity by Kottack Quiz #10 C. Milner-Rose Chapter 10: The World System and Colonialism Multiple Choice Questions 1. What fueled the European Age of Discovery? A. A desire to save the souls

More information

It s hard to avoid the word green these days.

It s hard to avoid the word green these days. Going green : Environmental jobs for scientists and engineers Alice Ramey Alice Ramey is an economist in the Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, BLS. She is available at (202)

More information

Chapter 10: How Americans Settled the Frontier. The white settlers moving west into land that Native Americans lived : westward expansion.

Chapter 10: How Americans Settled the Frontier. The white settlers moving west into land that Native Americans lived : westward expansion. Chapter 10: How Americans Settled the Frontier Multiple Perspectives and the Idea of a Frontier Frontier : The land west of where most white settlers lived. Native Americans lived on the frontier. The

More information

Environmental Science Curriculum Dual Credit with Morrisville

Environmental Science Curriculum Dual Credit with Morrisville Environmental Science Curriculum Dual Credit with Morrisville 1. Introduction to Environmental Science (5 days) Describe the three categories into which most environmental problems fall Explain how the

More information

Solar Solutions Copyright, The Environmental Center 2013

Solar Solutions Copyright, The Environmental Center 2013 Solar Solutions Copyright, The Environmental Center 2013 Subject: Science Grades: 4-8 Length: 30-60 minutes Focus: Renewable Energy, Solar Energy Rationale: We depend on energy for every aspect of our

More information

Second Quarter Central America & the West Indies, South America, and Europe

Second Quarter Central America & the West Indies, South America, and Europe Comal ISD 6 th Grade College and Career Readiness World Cultures Second Quarter Central America & the West Indies, South America, and Europe The student uses geographic tools to answer geographic questions.

More information

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 HEALTH Kindergarten: Grade 1: Grade 2: Know that litter can spoil the environment. Grade 3: Grade 4:

More information

Easter Island Population Model

Easter Island Population Model Easter Island Population Model Consider a problem that happened on Easter Island. Easter Island is a small island (about 150 square miles) in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles from South America. It

More information

Is China Catching Up with the US?

Is China Catching Up with the US? 12 Is China Catching Up with the US? Kenneth Lieberthal Opinion Kenneth Lieberthal Is China Catching Up with the US? While China has emerged as a key player in global affairs, significant challenges to

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 8 The Qin and Han Dynasties

Unit 4 Lesson 8 The Qin and Han Dynasties Unit 4 Lesson 8 The Qin and Han Dynasties Directions Read the False statements below. Replace each underlined word with one from the word bank that makes each sentence True. Word Bank Ying Zheng army copper

More information

LINA AND HER NURSE. SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNI0 N, 200 MULBERRY-STREET, N. Y.

LINA AND HER NURSE. SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNI0 N, 200 MULBERRY-STREET, N. Y. LINA AND HER NURSE. SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNI0 N, 200 MULBERRY-STREET, N. Y. LINA AND HER NURSE. SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION, 200 MULBERRY-STREET, NEW YORK. LINA AND HER NURSE. L INA lived away in that land of the East

More information

1. How did the Native Americans make it into the Americas? 2. What were the religious beliefs of most Native American tribes?

1. How did the Native Americans make it into the Americas? 2. What were the religious beliefs of most Native American tribes? Social Studies Standard 2 Test Review Native Americans, Explorers, & Colonization 1. How did the Native Americans make it into the Americas? The Native Americans crossed over the Land Bridge (Bering Strait)

More information

Summarize how Portugal built a trading empire

Summarize how Portugal built a trading empire Objectives Summarize how Portugal built a trading empire in. Analyze the rise of Dutch and Spanish dominance in the region. Understand how the decline of Mughal India affected European traders in the region.

More information

Religious Studies (Short Course) Revision Religion and Planet Earth

Religious Studies (Short Course) Revision Religion and Planet Earth Religious Studies (Short Course) Revision Religion and Planet Earth How to use this presentation The first part of this presentation (blue headings) will give you brief information, religious viewpoints

More information

ONE DOLLAR AND EIGHTY-SEVEN CENTS.

ONE DOLLAR AND EIGHTY-SEVEN CENTS. T h e G i f t o f t h e M a g i p T h e G i f t o f t h e M a g i ONE DOLLAR AND EIGHTY-SEVEN CENTS. That was all. She had put it aside, one cent and then another and then another, in her careful buying

More information

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED ENDANGERED AND THREATENED Understand how species in the Sonoran Desert Region may become endangered or threatened and what is being done to protect them. ARIZONA SCIENCE STANDARDS SC03-S4C3-03&04, SC08-S1C3-07,

More information

3.1. Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities. A35 Starting Point. What Happens to a Vacant Lot?

3.1. Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities. A35 Starting Point. What Happens to a Vacant Lot? 3.1 Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities Here is a summary of what you will learn in this section: Ecosystems change in predictable ways known as succession. Ecosystems can establish

More information

Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change A Triple Win?

Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change A Triple Win? Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change A Triple Win? Dr. Andrew Steer Special Envoy for Climate Change The World Bank Group Your Royal Highnesses, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, Let me begin

More information

Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for

Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for Keynote Address by former Prime Minister of Malaysia Are We Really Civilized? Make War a Crime Mahathir bin Mohamad Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for this opportunity

More information

Lesson 2: Principles of Evangelism

Lesson 2: Principles of Evangelism Lesson 2: Principles of Evangelism Introduction In our last lesson, we discovered that our identity determines, more than anything else, the success of our mission work. Who we are is so much more important

More information

Fry Phrases Set 1. TeacherHelpForParents.com help for all areas of your child s education

Fry Phrases Set 1. TeacherHelpForParents.com help for all areas of your child s education Set 1 The people Write it down By the water Who will make it? You and I What will they do? He called me. We had their dog. What did they say? When would you go? No way A number of people One or two How

More information

A 25 th Anniversary Redux of the Simon and Ehrlich Global Sustainability Wager

A 25 th Anniversary Redux of the Simon and Ehrlich Global Sustainability Wager A 25 th Anniversary Redux of the Simon and Ehrlich Global Sustainability Wager Abstract Thomas M. Fitzpatrick Saint Anselm College Karen Spohn Rivier College The purpose of this paper is to examine the

More information

Religion and Science

Religion and Science Religion and Science Glossary Cosmology the study of the origins of the universe How did the world come into existence? Theory one Aristotle Taught that the universe has always existed and would always

More information

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site Amherst County Public Schools AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide College Board AP Environmental Science Site REV: 8/12 1 st 9 weeks AP Objectives Energy Resources and Consumption A. Energy

More information

Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Pros:

Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Pros: P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation

More information

Stage 4. Geography. Blackline Masters. By Karen Devine

Stage 4. Geography. Blackline Masters. By Karen Devine 1 Devine Educational Consultancy Services Stage 4 Geography Blackline Masters By Karen Devine Updated January 2010 2 This book is intended for the exclusive use in NSW Secondary Schools. It is meant to

More information

Can resource depletion be omitted from environmental impact assessments? 1

Can resource depletion be omitted from environmental impact assessments? 1 Can resource depletion be omitted from environmental impact assessments? 1 Bo P. Weidema, 2.-0 LCA consultants, http://www.lca.dk INTRODUCTION: The nature of the resource problem The main problem involved

More information

Five Themes of Geography

Five Themes of Geography Five Themes of Geography Studying the geography of the entire world is a huge task. You can make that task easier by using the five themes of geography: location, regions, place, movement, and humanenvironment

More information

Composition as Explanation Gertrude Stein

Composition as Explanation Gertrude Stein Composition as Explanation Gertrude Stein First delivered by the author as a lecture at Cambridge and Oxford, this essay was first published by the Hogarth Press in London in 1926 and revived in the volume

More information

THE GROWTH OF THE THIRTEEN COLONIES 1607-1760

THE GROWTH OF THE THIRTEEN COLONIES 1607-1760 THE GROWTH OF THE THIRTEEN COLONIES 1607-1760 Motivations for Colonization Jamestown Economic prosperity Single men hoped to make fortunes in Virginia and return to England Previous explorers brought home

More information

Whom Shall I Send? Isaiah 6: 8-13

Whom Shall I Send? Isaiah 6: 8-13 Whom Shall I Send? Isaiah 6: 8-13 Isaiah lived in a day much like ours. The people of Judah had developed a sense of arrogance toward God. They were His chosen people; He had brought them out of Egypt,

More information

Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240-4027 ISBN 0-07-824996-1. Printed in the United States of America

Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240-4027 ISBN 0-07-824996-1. Printed in the United States of America Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use;

More information

12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518

12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518 12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518 Key Concepts: 1. Electrical energy is produced by energy transformations. 2. Electrical energy is produced from renewable and non-renewable resources. 4. Electrical

More information

ISTANBUL DECLARATION ON CADASTRE IN THE WORLD CADASTRE SUMMIT 2015

ISTANBUL DECLARATION ON CADASTRE IN THE WORLD CADASTRE SUMMIT 2015 ISTANBUL DECLARATION ON CADASTRE IN THE WORLD CADASTRE SUMMIT 2015 Let us Cadastre the World... 1. INTRODUCTION Land had represented wealth and power from the first settlement to the end of 1700s. As a

More information

Alternative Energy. Terms and Concepts: Relative quantities of potential energy resources, Solar constant, Economies of scale

Alternative Energy. Terms and Concepts: Relative quantities of potential energy resources, Solar constant, Economies of scale Objectives Key Terms and Concepts Introduction Solar Wind Hydroelectric Power Geothermal Sources Biofuels Summary: Economies of Scale Questions for the video if time permits Alternative Energy Objectives:

More information

Answer Keys to Unit Tests

Answer Keys to Unit Tests Reading Geography Series Answer Keys to Unit Tests Unit 1 The Five Themes of Geography Unit 2 Patterns in Physical Geography Unit 3 Natural Resources 7 Portage & Main Press Unit Test for The Five Themes

More information

OBJECTIVES: LESSON 5. Lungs of the Earth. Page 1. Overview: Suggested Time: Resources/Materials: Activities/Procedures:

OBJECTIVES: LESSON 5. Lungs of the Earth. Page 1. Overview: Suggested Time: Resources/Materials: Activities/Procedures: 0 LESSON 5 Lungs of the Subjects: Social Studies/Civics, Science, Communication Arts Overview: In this lesson, students learn about the little publicized connection between tobacco production and deforestation,

More information

Introduction. So, What Is a Btu?

Introduction. So, What Is a Btu? Introduction The way of life that we Americans take for granted every day depends upon a stable and abundant supply of affordable energy. Energy shortages can quickly affect our everyday lives and harm

More information

Ms Chairman and distinguished guests,

Ms Chairman and distinguished guests, Ms Chairman and distinguished guests, On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment, I am honored to open this conference that brings together scientists, policymakers and civil society from the Barents

More information

Texas Wind: The New Oil. The earth is slowly, but surely, exhausting its resources. Fossil Fuels like coal and

Texas Wind: The New Oil. The earth is slowly, but surely, exhausting its resources. Fossil Fuels like coal and Charles Budney English 138T Friday, April 5, 2013 Texas Wind: The New Oil The earth is slowly, but surely, exhausting its resources. Fossil Fuels like coal and petroleum are undeniably a finite resource.

More information

Tel. : 206 370 9722 E-mail: emin.aliyev@yahoo.fr To: REECAS Conference

Tel. : 206 370 9722 E-mail: emin.aliyev@yahoo.fr To: REECAS Conference From: Emin ALIYEV Tel. : 206 370 9722 E-mail: emin.aliyev@yahoo.fr To: REECAS Conference Subject: Ongoing Research Proposal Thesis Dissertation: The pertinence of Knowledge Based Azerbaijan hypothesis:

More information

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations Population Ecology An Overview of Population Ecology Population ecology is the study of factors that affect population: Density Growth A population is a group of individuals of a single species that occupy

More information

Second International Conference on Health Promotion, Adelaide, South Australia, 5-9 April 1998

Second International Conference on Health Promotion, Adelaide, South Australia, 5-9 April 1998 Second International Conference on Health Promotion, Adelaide, South Australia, 5-9 April 1998 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy (WHO/HPR/HEP/95.2) The adoption of the Declaration of Alma-Ata

More information

Contents. Introduction 4. Joseph-Michel Montgolfier 7. Louis Blériot 19. Charles Lindbergh 31. Amelia Earhart 45. Amy Johnson 59.

Contents. Introduction 4. Joseph-Michel Montgolfier 7. Louis Blériot 19. Charles Lindbergh 31. Amelia Earhart 45. Amy Johnson 59. Contents Introduction 4 Joseph-Michel Montgolfier 7 Louis Blériot 19 Charles Lindbergh 31 Amelia Earhart 45 Amy Johnson 59 Glossary 73 Joseph-Michel Montgolfier 1740 1810 the man who helped humans to fly

More information

Fourth Grade Social Studies Content Standards and Objectives

Fourth Grade Social Studies Content Standards and Objectives Fourth Grade Social Studies Content Standards and Objectives Standard 1: Citizenship characterize and good citizenship by building social networks of reciprocity and trustworthiness (Civic Dispositions).

More information

1 rethinking the Ten Commandments: Why Ten Commandments? The Backstory September 4, 2011 Rev. George S Reynolds

1 rethinking the Ten Commandments: Why Ten Commandments? The Backstory September 4, 2011 Rev. George S Reynolds 1 We all have rules. Some we keep, some we don t. Some we expect others to keep, even if we don t. After all isn t a person s ability to keep the rules we create what we base our relationships on? You

More information

Worksheet A Environmental Problems

Worksheet A Environmental Problems Worksheet A Environmental Problems Vocabulary Can you talk about Environmental issues in English? With a partner, try to explain the terms in the diagram below. Why are the words divided into two groups

More information

Therefore, this is a very important question, which encourages consideration of the current management of the resource.

Therefore, this is a very important question, which encourages consideration of the current management of the resource. Aalisarnermut, Piniarnermut Nunalerinermullu Naalakkersuisoqarfik Department of Fisheries, Hunting and Agriculture Finn's speech to NAFMC Climate change in the North Atlantic has become a reality which

More information

SILVER A LITTLE BIG HISTORY 770L

SILVER A LITTLE BIG HISTORY 770L 3 SILVER A LITTLE BIG HISTORY 770L SILVER A CLOSER LOOK AT THE POPULAR METAL By Big History Project, adapted by Newsela It s amazing how much you can learn when you look at things through the lens of Big

More information

What is our role in creating change?

What is our role in creating change? What is our role in creating change? Margaret Wheatley 2008 Note: This is a new conversation starter for Turning To One Another, 2 nd edition. January 2009, Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc. Proceed until

More information

IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF

IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF p T h e L a s t L e a f IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF Washington Square, the streets have gone wild. They turn in different directions. They are broken into small pieces called places. One street

More information

Madagascar: Makira REDD+

Madagascar: Makira REDD+ project focus Madagascar: Makira REDD+ Madagascar is considered to be one of the top five biodiversity hotspots in the world due to more than 75% of all animal and plant species being endemic while less

More information

Crucial development areas for organizations and how to succeed in them. Leadership Development & Coaching

Crucial development areas for organizations and how to succeed in them. Leadership Development & Coaching INNONews Crucial development areas for organizations and how to succeed in them Innotiimi newsletter 2010 Leadership Development & Coaching Change Team Innovation Meaningful Meetings Global Challenges

More information

A beautiful sunny day in July; I m walking on a street in the middle of a city, being surrounded by

A beautiful sunny day in July; I m walking on a street in the middle of a city, being surrounded by A Trip to Cambridge By Iina Lahti A beautiful sunny day in July; I m walking on a street in the middle of a city, being surrounded by stunning old buildings. Colleges and churches seem to be in every corner,

More information

7 WHERE AND WHY DID THE FIRST CITIES APPEAR?

7 WHERE AND WHY DID THE FIRST CITIES APPEAR? 7 WHERE AND WHY DID THE FIRST CITIES APPEAR? In this three-part video David Christian explains how the rise of agriculture led to the formation of the world s first large-scale civilizations. Fueled by

More information

S OAPY MOVED RESTLESSLY ON HIS SEAT

S OAPY MOVED RESTLESSLY ON HIS SEAT T h e C o p a n d t h e A n t h e m p The Cop and the Anthem S OAPY MOVED RESTLESSLY ON HIS SEAT in Madison Square. There are certain signs to show that winter is coming. Birds begin to fly south. Women

More information

Agricultural Production and Research in Heilongjiang Province, China. Jiang Enchen. Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Northeast

Agricultural Production and Research in Heilongjiang Province, China. Jiang Enchen. Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Northeast 1 Agricultural Production and Research in Heilongjiang Province, China Jiang Enchen Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China. Post code: 150030

More information

THEME: God has a calling on the lives of every one of His children!

THEME: God has a calling on the lives of every one of His children! Devotion NT298 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Paul s First Missionary Journey THEME: God has a calling on the lives of every one of His children! SCRIPTURE: Acts 12:25 13:52 Dear Parents

More information

A Green Sector Overview

A Green Sector Overview A Green Sector Overview Micro Hydro Electric Power Ontario's Waterpower Resources: Past and Present The first hydroelectric generator in Canada was installed near Ottawa, which was the first city in North

More information

Types of Engineering Jobs

Types of Engineering Jobs What Do Engineers Do? Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathematics to the economical solution of practical technical problems. I.e. To solve problems Often their work is the link

More information

KINGDOM OF MOROCCO. Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment. Conference. Concentrated Solar Power

KINGDOM OF MOROCCO. Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment. Conference. Concentrated Solar Power KINGDOM OF MOROCCO Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment Conference Concentrated Solar Power Speech by Mrs. Amina Benkhadra, Minister of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment London, February

More information

"Coming together is a beginning. Staying together is progress. Working together is success."

Coming together is a beginning. Staying together is progress. Working together is success. "Coming together is a beginning. Staying together is progress. Working together is success." People serving people was a core value for Henry Ford. He believed that a successful company must be devoted

More information

Agriculture in Australia: growing more than our farming future

Agriculture in Australia: growing more than our farming future Australia 2025: Smart Science With growing pressures on our land, the aim will be to farm smarter, not harder. choctruffle/flickr, CC BY-NC-SA Agriculture in Australia: growing more than our farming future

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

YEAR 11 REVISION KEYCARD (Religion and Planet Earth)

YEAR 11 REVISION KEYCARD (Religion and Planet Earth) Essential revision: How was the earth created? In book of Genesis, says that God created the world in 6 days on 7 th, he rested Each day, God created something new: Day 1 light Day 2 Sky Day 3 land, sea

More information

True education fosters human values

True education fosters human values 25 True education fosters human values Daivaadheenam Jagathsarvam Sathyaadheenamtu Daivatham That Sathyam Uthamaadheenam Uthamo Paradevatha The whole world is under the control of God; God is subject to

More information

Late Medieval Period (WHI.12)

Late Medieval Period (WHI.12) Name Late Medieval Period (WHI.12) Label on Map: England, France, Spain, Russia, Holly Roman Empire, Paris, Rome, Mediterranean Sea, English Channel, Atlantic Ocean Term: Nation-state Describe: Draw: 1

More information

Farming. In the Standard Grade Geography exam there are three types of farming you need to know about arable, livestock and mixed.

Farming. In the Standard Grade Geography exam there are three types of farming you need to know about arable, livestock and mixed. Types of Farming In the Standard Grade Geography exam there are three types of farming you need to know about arable, livestock and mixed. Arable farms are ones where the main way of making money is by

More information

Power: Hydraulic Water Pressure Engines

Power: Hydraulic Water Pressure Engines Power: Hydraulic Water Pressure Engines Extract taken from Burt, R. 1982. A Short History of British Metal Mining Technology in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. De Archæologische Pers Nederland

More information

Ch.1. Name: Class: Date: Matching

Ch.1. Name: Class: Date: Matching Name: Class: Date: Ch.1 Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. technology e. democracy b. diffusion f. extended family c. exports g. interdependence d. climate 1. goods sent to markets

More information

The Downfall of the Dutch Republic

The Downfall of the Dutch Republic Western Michigan University ScholarWorks at WMU Best Midwestern High School Writing 2014 Winners Best Midwestern High School Writing: A Celebration and Recognition of Outstanding Prose 5-2014 The Downfall

More information

GRADES: 4-5. Be like the stars of our faith-help care for the church! Tithe. to tithe is to share to tithe is to care

GRADES: 4-5. Be like the stars of our faith-help care for the church! Tithe. to tithe is to share to tithe is to care GRADES: 4-5 Be like the stars of our faith-help care for the church! Tithe to tithe is to share to tithe is to care Dear Student, As Orthodox Christians, we care about our faith and our church. One way

More information

Ordinary Moments of Grace

Ordinary Moments of Grace Ordinary Moments of Grace To everything there is a time and a season for every purpose under heaven. A time to be born and a time to die. A time to sow and a time to reap. A time to laugh and a time to

More information