# Rules of the Game. Imagine you are an oligopolist. Divide yourselves into six groups of six to seven. Each group is a company.

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1 Oligopoly

2 Oligopoly A market structure in which a small number of firms compete with each other, The quantity that a firm sells depends on the firm s price and on the other firms prices and quantities sold. Firms take into account the effects of their own actions on the behavior of other firms and the effects of the actions of other firms on their own profits.

3 Rules of the Game Imagine you are an oligopolist. Divide yourselves into six groups of six to seven. Each group is a company.

4 Market Structure All these companies produce identical commodity and sell their products in the same market. At this point of time, these six companies do almost 98% of the worldwide business. There are certainly others who are capable of entering the market.

5 Capital and Cost Each firm initially has \$100. Every firm has a constant marginal cost of \$8 per unit of output. Since there is no fixed cost, average total cost also equals \$8.

6 Market Demand You are all facing a market demand: Q = 40-(1)P If there are 5 units of this good supplied in the market, Q=5 5= 40- (1)P P=35 The whole market s profit: revenue- minus cost (\$35 x 5)- (\$8 x 5) = \$135

7 Prize The goal of each company is to make as much profit as possible. There are prizes for all companies that earn more than \$100. There is an additional prize for the company that earns the most profit.

8 Production Decision Card Decide how many goods to produce, given the cost of production and the amount of money you have in hands. Write down your desired production amount on the Production Decision Card within 1 minute. Don t communicate with other firms. 向 每 一 組 分 派 一 張 生 產 決 議 卡

9 After 1 minute Please hand me your Production Decision Card. I will help you calculate the following: the total market output market price profit for each company 在 表 三 記 下 每 間 公 司 的 生 產 數 量 和 計 算 出 市 場 的 總 產 量

10 Balance Sheet Calculate your own Cost Revenue Profit Balance. Record these information on the balance sheet. 向 每 組 分 派 第 一 回 合 的 收 支 平 衡 表

11 Production Decision Card With the money you currently have, each group will now decide on the number of output you want to produce and supply in a new round. Write down your decision on the production decision card.

12 After 1 minute Please hand me your Production Decision Card. I will help you calculate the following: the total market output market price profit for each company 在 表 三 記 下 每 間 公 司 的 生 產 數 量 和 計 算 出 市 場 的 總 產 量

13 Balance Sheet Calculate your own Cost Revenue Profit Balance. Record these information on the balance sheet. 向 每 組 分 派 第 一 回 合 的 收 支 平 衡 表

14 Convention Now, each company can have a representative to take part in a convention. You can discuss whatever related to your business in the convention for three minutes.

15 Production Decision Card No more communication between companies is allowed. Write down your production decision on production card for this round. 再 次 向 每 組 派 發 一 張 生 產 決 議 卡

16 After 1 minute Please hand me your Production Decision Card. I will help you calculate the following: the total market output market price profit for each company 在 表 三 記 下 每 間 公 司 的 生 產 數 量 和 計 算 出 市 場 的 總 產 量

17 Balance Sheet Calculate your own Cost Revenue Profit Balance. Record these information on the balance sheet. 向 每 組 分 派 第 一 回 合 的 收 支 平 衡 表

18 Convention Now, each company can have a representative to take part in a convention. You can discuss whatever related to your business in the convention for three minutes.

19 Production Decision Card No more communication between companies is allowed. Write down your production decision on production card for this round. 再 次 向 每 組 派 發 一 張 生 產 決 議 卡

20 After 1 minute Please hand me your Production Decision Card. I will help you calculate the following: the total market output market price profit for each company 在 表 三 記 下 每 間 公 司 的 生 產 數 量 和 計 算 出 市 場 的 總 產 量

21 Balance Sheet Calculate your own Cost Revenue Profit Balance. Record these information on the balance sheet. 向 每 組 分 派 第 一 回 合 的 收 支 平 衡 表

22 Discussion Which team made the most money? What was your strategy? Which team made the least? What was your strategy? Why did it fail?

23 Discussion How did you decide how much to produce? What did the factors affect your profit level?

24 Discussion What did you talk about in the convention? Did you make some agreement? Did the agreement work? If yes, what was the impact of it on your profit?

25 Cartel A group of firms in the same industry that agree to raise prices and restrict output is known as a cartel, and such behavior is known as collusion. If Cartel can enforce its agreement, each of its members can make higher profits than they otherwise would. However, there is always an incentive for each firm to cheat.

26 Discussion Looking at all rounds of the experiment, make a generalization about the relationship between price and level of production/supply.

27 Relationship between price and supply the firm s price the other firms prices and quantities sold. Firms take into account the effects of their own actions on the behavior of other firms and the effects of the actions of other firms on their own profits.

28 Case Studies Use supermarkets and petrol stations in Hong Kong as example of oligopolists. Discuss the difference of price strategies these two industries use.

29

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