2 Key Terms perfect competition: a market structure in which a large number of firms all produce the same product and no single seller controls supply or prices commodity: a product that is considered the same no matter who produces or sells it barrier to entry: any factor that makes it difficult for a new firm to enter a market
3 Key Terms, cont. imperfect competition: a market structure that fails to meet the conditions of perfect competition start-up costs: the expenses a new business must pay before it can begin to produce and sell goods
4 Introduction What are the characteristics of perfect competition? Many buyers and sellers Identical products Informed buyers and sellers Free market entry and exit
5 Perfect Competition The simplest market structure is perfect competition, also called pure competition. A perfectly competitive market: Has a large number of firms Has firms that produce the same product Assumes the market is in equilibrium Assumes that firms sell the same product at the same price
6 Conditions of Perfect Competition There are only a few perfectly competitive markets in today s world because these markets must meet four strict conditions: Many buyers and sellers participating in the market Sellers offering identical products Buyers and sellers that are well-informed about products Sellers are able to enter and exit the market freely
7 Conditions, cont. Many buyers and sellers Perfectly competitive markets must have many buyers and sellers. No one person or firm can be so powerful as to influence the total market quantity or market price.
8 Conditions, cont. Identical Products There is no difference in the products sold in a perfectly competitive market. These commodities include things like low-grade gasoline, notebook paper, and sugar.
9 Conditions, cont. Informed buyers and sellers Under conditions of perfect competition, the market provides the buyer with full information about the product features and its price. Both buyers and sellers have full disclosure about the product. Free market entry and exit It is very easy for sellers to enter and exit in a perfectly competitive market. Usually they enter when a product is very popular and exit when the demand for that product decreases.
10 What is Perfect Competition?
11 Barriers to Entry Checkpoint: Which barrier to entry can be overcome by education or vocational training? Imperfect competition can come about through barriers to entry. Common barriers include: Start-up costs: When start-up costs are high it is more difficult for new firms to enter the market. Therefore, markets with high start-up costs are less likely to be perfectly competitive. Technology: Markets that require a high degree of technical knowledge can be difficult to enter into without preparation and study.
12 Barriers to Entry, cont. Landscaping presents no technical challenges and startup costs are low. However, an auto repair shop requires advanced technical skills and the equipment needed to run the shop makes start-up costs another significant barrier to entry.
13 Prices Perfectly competitive markets are efficient and competition keeps both prices and production costs low. In a perfectly competitive market prices correctly represent the opportunity costs of each product. They are also the lowest sustainable prices possible.
14 Output Checkpoint: How are output decisions made in a perfectly competitive market? Since no supplier in a perfectly competitive market can influence prices, producers make their output decisions based on their most efficient use of resources.
15 Chapter 7: Market Structures Section 2
16 Key Terms monopoly: a market in which a single seller dominates economies of scale: factors that cause a producer s average cost per unit to fall as output rises natural monopoly: a market that runs most efficiently when one large firm supplies all of the output government monopoly: a monopoly created by the government
17 Key Terms, cont. patent: a license that gives the inventor of a new product the exclusive right to sell it for a specific period of time franchise: a contract that gives a single firm the right to sell its goods within an exclusive market license: a government-issued right to operate a business price discrimination: the division of consumers into groups based on how much they will pay for a good market power: the ability of a company to control prices and total market output
18 Introduction What are the characteristics of a monopoly? A single seller Many barriers to entry for new firms No variety of goods Complete control over price
19 Describing Monopoly Checkpoint: What are three characteristics of a monopoly? A single seller in a market Many barriers to entry for new firms Supplying a unique product with no close substitute Since they have the market cornered for a particular good or service, monopolies can charge high prices and the quantity of goods is lower than it would be in a competitive market.
20 Economies of Scale Different market conditions can create different types of economies. Some monopolies enjoy what is known as economies of scale - characteristics that cause a producer s average cost to drop as production rises. Why do production costs fall as output increases in an economy of scale?
21 Natural Monopolies Another type of monopoly is a natural monopoly. Public water is an example of a natural monopoly. If water were a part of the competitive market, different companies would spend large sums of money to dig reservoirs - more land and water would be used than necessary. It would be very inefficient.
22 Natural Monopolies, cont. Technology can sometimes destroy a natural monopoly. A new innovation can cut fixed costs and make small companies as efficient as one large firm.
23 Government Monopolies Checkpoint: What government actions can lead to the creation of monopolies? Issuing a patent - gives a company exclusive rights to sell a new good or service for a particular period of time. Granting a franchise - gives a single firm the right to sell its goods within an exclusive market Issuing a license - allows firms to operate a business, especially where scarce resources are involved Restricting the number of firms in a market
24 The Monopolist s Dilemma Monopolists look at the big picture and try to maximize profits, which usually means they produce fewer goods at higher prices. The monopolist s dilemma can be viewed in terms of demand. The law of demand states that buyers will demand more of a good at lower prices. BUT the more a monopolist produces, the less they will receive in profits.
25 Falling Marginal Revenue One of the key differences between monopolies and perfect competition is that in a perfectly competitive market, marginal revenue is always the same as price, and each firm receives the same price no matter how much it produces. Neither assumption is true in a monopoly.
26 Setting a Price The graph to the right shows how prices are set in a monopoly. The marginal revenue curve is in blue, the demand curve is in red, and the marginal cost in green. How does point c show the benefits to consumers in a perfectly competitive market?
27 Price Discrimination In many cases, the monopolist charges the same price to all customers. But in some instances, the monopolist may be able to charge different prices to different groups. This is known as price discrimination. Price discrimination is based on the idea that each customer has a maximum price that he or she will pay for a good.
28 Targeted Discounts There are many targeted discounts available to particular groups, including: Discounted airline fares Senior citizen and student discounts Children fly or stay free promotions
29 Limits of Price Discrimination Checkpoint: What three conditions must a market meet in order for price discrimination to work? Firms must have some market power Customers must be divided into distinct groups Buyers must not be in a position in which they can easily resell the good or service Most forms of price discrimination are legal, but some firms use price discrimination to drive other firms out of business, which is illegal.
30 Chapter 7: Market Structures Section 3
31 Key Terms monopolistic competition: a market structure in which many companies sell products that are similar but not identical differentiation: making a product different from other, similar products nonprice competition: a way to attract customers through style, service, or location, but not a lower price oligopoly: a market structure in which a few large firms dominate a market
32 Key Terms, cont. price war: a series of competitive price cuts that lowers the market price below the cost of production collusion: an illegal agreement among firms to divide the market, set prices, or limit production price fixing: an agreement among firms to charge one price for the same good cartel: a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production
33 Introduction What are the characteristics of monopolistic competition and oligopoly? Monopolistic Competition Many firms in the market Some variety of goods Minimal barriers to entry Little control over prices Oligopoly Few firms in the market Some variety of goods Many barriers to entry Some control over prices
34 Monopolistic Competition In monopolistic competition, many companies compete in an open market to sell similar, but not identical, products. Common examples or monopolistically competitive firms are: Bagel shops Gas stations Retail stores The market for jeans is monopolistically competitive because jeans can vary by size, color, style, and designer.
35 Monopolistic Competition Conditions Many Firms Low start-up costs allow many firms to enter the market. Few barriers to entry It is easy for new firms to enter the market. Little control over price If a firm raises their prices too high, consumers will go elsewhere to buy the product. Differentiated products Allows a firm to profit from the differences between their product and a competitor s product.
36 Nonprice Competition In a monopolistically competitive market, nonprice competition plays a big role.
37 Prices Prices, output, and profits under monopolistically competitive market structures look very similar to those under perfectly competitive market structures. Prices Under monopolistic competition prices are higher but their demand curves are more elastic because customers can choose among many substitutes.
38 Output and Profits Output As a result of the relative elasticity in monopolistically competitive firms, the total output falls somewhere between that of a monopoly and that of perfect competition. Profits Monopolistically competitive firms earn just enough to cover all of their costs. They can earn profits in the short run, but too many competitors make this hard to maintain in the long run. Checkpoint: What keeps monopolistically competitive firms from making high profits?
39 Oligopoly Oligopoly describes a market dominated by a few, profitable firms. Why are high barriers to entry an important part of oligopoly? Why are there only a few firms in an oligopoly?
40 Barriers to Entry Barriers to entry in an oligopoly can be technological or they can be created by a system of government licenses or patents. Economies of scale can also lead to an oligopoly.
41 Cooperation, Collusion, and Cartels There are three practices that concern government regarding oligopolies. Price leadership: This can lead to price wars when companies in an oligopoly disagree Collusion: This leads to price fixing and is illegal in the United States Cartels: By coordinating prices and production, cartels offer its members strong incentives to produce more than its quota, which leads to falling prices.
42 Chapter 7: Market Structures Section 4
43 Key Terms predatory pricing: selling a product below cost for a short period of time to drive competitors out of the market antitrust laws: laws that encourage competition in the marketplace trust: an illegal grouping of companies that discourages competition merger: when two or more companies join to form a single firm deregulation: the removal of some government controls over a market
44 Introduction When does the government regulate competition? Sometimes the government takes steps to promote competition because markets with more competition have lower prices. The government does this through: Antitrust laws Approving or not approving mergers Deregulation
45 Market Power Monopolies and oligopolies are viewed by many as being bad for the consumer and the economy. Public outrage with powerful trusts in the late 1800s led Congress to pass antitrust regulation.
46 Government and Competition The federal government has policies, known as antitrust laws, to keep firms from gaining too much market power. The Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice s Antitrust Division watch firms to make sure they don t unfairly force out competitors.
47 History of Antitrust Policy Despite the antitrust laws, companies have used many strategies to gain control over their markets. Over the past century, the federal government has acted to promote competition in American industry.
48 Regulating Microsoft The government can regulate companies that try to get around antitrust laws. In 1997 the Department of Justice accused Microsoft of using its near-monopoly over the operating system market to try to take control of the browser market. A judge ruled against Microsoft. The case was finally settled in Microsoft could not force computer manufacturers to provide only Microsoft software on new computers.
49 Blocking Mergers The government has the power to prevent the rise of monopolies by blocking mergers. The government also checks in on past mergers to make sure that they do not lead to unfair market control. The government tries to predict the effects of a merger before approving it.
50 Corporate Mergers Some mergers can benefit consumers. Corporate mergers will lower average prices, which leads to: Lower prices More reliable products and services More efficient industry
51 Deregulation Some government regulation was seen to reduce competition, which led to the deregulation of some industries. Over several years, the government deregulated: Airlines Trucking Banking Natural gas Railroad Television broadcasting
52 Judging Deregulation Checkpoint: How does deregulation encourage competition in a market? Usually many new firms enter deregulated industries right away. Deregulation often weeds out weaker players in the long term but it can be hard on workers in the short term.
53 Deregulating the Airlines When airlines were first deregulated, many new airlines entered the market, but some eventually failed. Competition increased among the remaining airlines and prices went down. Yet many busy airports had and still have one dominant airline.
54 Deregulating the Airlines, cont. The 9/11 attacks caused many people to stop flying and revenues fell as costs for security, insurance, and fuel rose. Today the future of the airline industry is still uncertain.
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