# LECTURE #15: MICROECONOMICS CHAPTER 17

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1 LECTURE #15: MICROECONOMICS CHAPTER 17 I. IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS A. Oligopoly: a market structure with a few sellers offering similar or identical products. B. Game Theory: the study of how people behave in strategic situations. 1. By strategic, we mean a situation in which each person, in deciding what actions to take, must consider how others might respond to that action. 2. Each firm in an oligopoly must act strategically, because its profit not only depends on how much output it produces, but also on how much other firms produce as well. II. MARKETS WITH ONLY A FEW SELLERS A. A key feature of oligopoly is the tension between cooperation and self-interest. 1. The group of oligopolists is better off cooperating and acting like a monopolist, producing a small quantity of output and charging a price above marginal cost. 2. Yet, because the oligopolist cares about his own profit, there is an incentive to act on his own. This will limit the ability of the group to act as a monopoly. B. A Duopoly Example 1. A duopoly is an oligopoly with only two members. 2. Example: Jack and Jill own the only water wells in town. They have to decide how much water to bring to town to sell. (Assume that the marginal cost of pumping each gallon of water is zero.) 3. The demand for the water is as follows: Quantity (gallons) Price Total Revenue (and TP) 0 \$120 \$ , , , , , , , , , , ,

2 C. Competition, Monopolies, and Cartels 1. If the market for water were perfectly competitive, price would equal marginal cost (\$0). This means that 120 gallons of water would be sold. 2. If a monopoly controlled the supply of water, profit would be maximized at a price of \$60 and an output of 60 gallons. a. Note that in this case, price (\$60) exceeds marginal cost (\$0). b. This level of output is lower than the socially efficient level of output (120 gallons). 3. The duopolists may agree to act together to set the price and quantity of water. a. Collusion: an agreement among firms in a market about quantities to produce or prices to charge b. Cartel: a group of firms acting in unison (OPEC) c. If Jill and Jack did collude, they would agree on the monopoly outcome of 60 gallons and a price of \$60. d. The cartel must also decide how to split the production of water. Each member will want a larger share because that means more profit. 4. In the News: Public Price Fixing a. Firms that meet in secret to set prices run the risk of prosecution. b. This is an article from The Wall Street Journal suggesting that firms may collude by publicly posting prices. D. The Equilibrium for an Oligopoly 1. It is often difficult for oligopolies to form cartels. a. Antitrust laws prohibit agreements among firms. b. Squabbling among cartel members over their shares is also likely to occur. 2. In the absence of a binding agreement, the monopoly outcome is unlikely. 3. Assume that Jack expects Jill to produce 30 gallons of water (half of the monopoly outcome). a. Jack could also produce 30 gallons and earn a profit of \$1,800. b. However, he could produce 40 gallons and earn a profit of \$2,000. c. Jack will want to produce 40 gallons. 4. Jill might reason the same way. If she expects Jack to produce 30 gallons, she could increase her profits by raising her output to 40 gallons. 5. If duopolists pursue their own self-interest when deciding how much to produce, they produce a quantity greater than the monopoly quantity, charge a price lower than the monopoly price, and earn total profit less than the monopoly profit. 6. Nash equilibrium: a situation in which economic actors interacting with one another each choose their best strategy given the strategies that all the other actors have chosen. 7. In this example, the Nash equilibrium occurs when both Jack and Jill are producing 40 gallons. 2

3 a. Given that Jack expects Jill to produce 40 gallons, he will not be better off at any b. Given that Jill expects Jack to produce 40 gallons, she will not be better off at any 8. Note that the oligopolists could earn a higher total profit if they cooperated with one another, but instead pursue their own self-interest and earn a lower level of profit. 9. When firms in an oligopoly individually choose production to maximize profit, they end up somewhere between perfect competition and monopoly. a. The quantity of output produced by the oligopoly is greater than the level produced by a monopoly but less than the level produced by a competitive market. b. The oligopoly price is less than the monopoly price but greater than the competitive price (which implies that it is greater than marginal cost). E. How the Size of an Oligopoly Affects the Market Outcome 1. When an oligopolist decides to increase output, two things occur. a. Because price is greater than marginal cost, increasing output will increase profit. This is the output effect. b. Because increasing output will raise the total quantity sold, the price will fall and will therefore lower profit. This is the price effect. 2. The larger the number of sellers in the industry, the less concerned each seller is about its own impact on market price. 3. Thus, as the number of sellers in an oligopoly grows larger, an oligopolistic market looks more and more like a competitive market. a. Price will approach marginal cost. b. The quantity of output produced will approach the socially efficient level. III. THE ECONOMICS OF COOPERATION A. Prisoners Dilemma: a particular game between two captured prisoners that illustrates why cooperation is difficult to maintain even when it is mutually beneficial B. The Prisoners Dilemma 1. Example: Bonnie and Clyde are captured. The police have enough evidence to convict them on a weapons charge (sentence = one year) but suspect that they have been involved in a bank robbery. Because they lack hard evidence in the crime, they need at least one of them to confess. 2. The police lock the two in separate rooms and offer each of them a deal: "We can lock you up for one year. However, if you confess to the bank robbery and implicate your partner, we will give you immunity. You will go free and your partner will get 20 years in jail. If you both confess, we won t need your testimony and avoid the cost of a trial so you will both get an intermediate sentence of eight years." 3. The decision for both Bonnie and Clyde can be described using a payoff matrix: 3

4 Bonnie s Decision Clyde s Decision Confess Confess Bonnie gets 8 years Clyde gets 8 years Remain Silent Bonnie goes free Clyde gets 20 years Remain Silent Bonnie gets 20 years Clyde goes free Bonnie gets 1 year Clyde gets 1 year 4. Dominant Strategy: a strategy that is best for a player in a game regardless of the strategies chosen by the other players. 5. Bonnie s dominant strategy is to confess. a. If Clyde remains silent, Bonnie can go free by confessing. b. If Clyde confesses, Bonnie can lower her sentence by confessing. 6. Clyde s dominant strategy is to confess. a. If Bonnie remains silent, Clyde can go free by confessing. b. If Bonnie confesses, Clyde can lower his sentence by confessing. 7. If they had both remained silent, they would have been better off collectively (with a sentence of only one year instead of eight). But, by each pursuing his or her own self-interests, the two prisoners together reach an outcome that is worse for both of them. 8. Cooperation between the two prisoners is difficult to maintain, because cooperation is individually irrational. C. Oligopolies as a Prisoners Dilemma 1. Example: Jack and Jill are trying to keep the sale of water low to keep the price high. After reaching an agreement, each person must decide whether to follow the agreement. 2. Suppose that they are faced with the following decision: Jack s Decision High Production Low Production Jill s Decision High Production Low Production \$1,600 profit for Jack \$1,600 profit for Jill \$2,000 profit for Jack \$1,500 profit for Jill \$1,500 profit for Jack \$2,000 profit for Jill \$1,800 profit for Jack \$1,800 profit for Jill 3. The dominant strategy for Jack is to produce at a high rate. c. If Jill produces at a high rate, Jack will earn a higher amount of profit if he too produces at a high rate. 4

5 d. If Jill produces at a low rate, Jack will earn a higher profit if he produces at a high rate as well. 4. For the same reasons, the dominant strategy for Jill is to produce at a high rate. 5. Even though total profit would be highest if both individuals produced at a low rate, self-interest will encourage them to produce at a high rate. e. This is an article from The Wall Street Journal suggesting that firms may collude by publicly posting prices. D. The Equilibrium for an Oligopoly 1. It is often difficult for oligopolies to form cartels. a. Antitrust laws prohibit agreements among firms. b. Squabbling among cartel members over their shares is also likely to occur. 2. In the absence of a binding agreement, the monopoly outcome is unlikely. 3. Assume that Jack expects Jill to produce 30 gallons of water (half of the monopoly outcome). a. Jack could also produce 30 gallons and earn a profit of \$1,800. b. However, he could produce 40 gallons and earn a profit of \$2,000. c. Jack will want to produce 40 gallons. 4. Jill might reason the same way. If she expects Jack to produce 30 gallons, she could increase her profits by raising her output to 40 gallons. 5. If duopolists pursue their own self-interest when deciding how much to produce, they produce a quantity greater than the monopoly quantity, charge a price lower than the monopoly price, and earn total profit less than the monopoly profit. 6. Definition of Nash equilibrium: a situation in which economic actors interacting with one another each choose their best strategy given the strategies that all the other actors have chosen. 7. In this example, the Nash equilibrium occurs when both Jack and Jill are producing 40 gallons. a. Given that Jack expects Jill to produce 40 gallons, he will not be better off at any b. Given that Jill expects Jack to produce 40 gallons, she will not be better off at any 8. Note that the oligopolists could earn a higher total profit if they cooperated with one another, but instead pursue their own self-interest and earn a lower level of profit. 9. When firms in an oligopoly individually choose production to maximize profit, they end up somewhere between perfect competition and monopoly. a. The quantity of output produced by the oligopoly is greater than the level produced by a monopoly but less than the level produced by a competitive market. b. The oligopoly price is less than the monopoly price but greater than the competitive price (which implies that it is greater than marginal cost). E. How the Size of an Oligopoly Affects the Market Outcome 5

6 1. When an oligopolist decides to increase output, two things occur. a. Because price is greater than marginal cost, increasing output will increase profit. This is the output effect. b. Because increasing output will raise the total quantity sold, the price will fall and will therefore lower profit. This is the price effect. 2. The larger the number of sellers in the industry, the less concerned each seller is about its own impact on market price. 3. Thus, as the number of sellers in an oligopoly grows larger, an oligopolistic market looks more and more like a competitive market. a. Price will approach marginal cost. b. The quantity of output produced will approach the socially efficient level. IV. PUBLIC POLICY TOWARD OLIGOPOLIES A. Restraint of Trade and the Antitrust Laws 1. The Sherman Act of 1890 elevated agreements among oligopolists from an unenforceable contract to a criminal conspiracy. 2. The Clayton Act of 1914 strengthened the Sherman Act and allowed individuals the right to sue to recover three times the damages sustained from an illegal agreement to restrain trade. 3. Case Study: An Illegal Phone Call a. In the early 1980s, Howard Putnam, the president of Braniff Airways, taped a telephone call from Robert Crandall, the president of American Airlines. b. In the phone conversation, Crandall suggested to Putnam that they each raise their fares. c. Putnam turned the tape over to the Justice Department, which filed suit against Crandall. B. Controversies over Antitrust Policy 1. Business practices that appear to reduce competition may in fact have legitimate purposes. 2. Resale Price Maintenance a. Resale price maintenance (also called fair trade ) is a restriction by a manufacturer on the price that sellers can charge for a product, usually used to keep the price from being lower at one retailer than another. b. Economists have argued that this policy has a legitimate goal. Customers often go to one store with good service, knowledgeable sales people, and higher prices for information on a product and then buy the product at a discount superstore. Resale price maintenance limits the superstore s ability to "free ride" on the service provided by other retailers. c. In the News: A Reversal of Policy This is a New York Times article describing how the Supreme Court has reversed itself on the issue of resale price maintenance. 6

7 3. Predatory Pricing a. When firms with monopoly power are faced with new competition, they may cut prices drastically to drive the new competition out of business and restore their monopoly power. b. This behavior is called predatory pricing. c. Economists doubt whether this strategy is used often, because it would mean that the monopoly would have to sustain large losses. It is also difficult to expect that courts are able to determine which price cuts are competitive and which are predatory. 4. Tying a. Tying occurs when two products are sold together. b. Economists do not believe this to be a problem because people will not be willing to pay more for two products sold together than they would be willing to pay for the goods separately. Thus, this practice cannot change market power. c. Instead, tying may simply be a form of price discrimination. Profits may rise if a firm charges a combined price closer to the buyers total willingness to pay. 5. Case Study: The Microsoft Case In 1998, the U.S. Justice Department filed suit against Microsoft Corporation. A central issue in the case involved the tying of Microsoft s Internet browser to its Windows operating system. In November 1999, a judge issued a ruling that Microsoft had a great amount of monopoly power and had illegally abused this power. In June 2000, the judge ordered that Microsoft be broken up into two companies, one that sold the operating system and one that sold applications software. An appeals court overturned the verdict and handed the case to a new judge. In September 2001, the Justice Department announced that it no longer sought a breakup of the company and wanted to settle the case quickly. A settlement was reached in November In recent years, Microsoft has contended with several private antitrust lawsuits as well as lawsuits brought by the European Union. V. HOMEWORK A. Questions for Review: 1, 2, 4, 8 (Same questions for Chapter 16 in 4th edition) B. Problems and Applications: 1 (a, b, c), 6 (a, b, c) 3 (a, b, c) and 6 (a, b, c) Chapter 16 in 4th Edition 7

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