Physics 211R: The Work - Kinetic Energy Theorem

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Physics 211R: The Work - Kinetic Energy Theorem"

Transcription

1 Physics 11R: The Work - Kinetic Energy Theorem Reading Assignment: Chapter 7, Sections -8 Introduction: F/A-18E/F Super Hornet U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 3rd Class John Sullivan Aircraft take off from the deck of ships via a catapult system. Essentially, a large force is applied to the aircraft as it is displaced across the deck of the ship. The purpose of this is obvious. A plane needs to reach a particular speed before it can remain airborne and the catapult provides the means to do this. In the language of Kinematics, one would describe the motion of the plane as having acceleration. In the language of Newton s Laws, one would explain that the Net Force on the plane was responsible for causing the accelerated motion. However, there is another language used by Physicists to explain situations such as this aircraft example. This language, and approach to solving problems, is founded upon the concepts of work and energy. The purpose of this lab is to accelerate a cart using two different mock catapult systems and to analyze each of these systems from a work and energy perspective. Work is accomplished on an object any time a force acts over a particular displacement, d, such that the force, or some component of it, is parallel to the displacement. If the force is constant throughout the entire displacement of the object, then the following equation is valid: W sub = F sub d cos θ or W sub = F // sub d where θ is defined as the angle between the force and displacement vectors, sub refers to the descriptive subscript clarifying which force is doing the work, and F // sub = F sub cos θ. If the subscript is friction, for example, then the equation describes the work done on the object by friction. It the subscript is gravity, for example, then the equation describes the work done on the object by the force of gravity. If the subscript is net, for example, then the equation describes the net (or total) work done on the object. It is important to clarify exactly which force, and therefore, work, is being described, because most objects are acted upon by more than one force simultaneously. The total work done on an object describes the overall result of the transfer of energy caused by all of the forces combined. Work is considered to be positive, negative, or zero in value, depending on the value of θ. (Recall that cosθ = 1 if θ = 0 and cosθ = -1 if θ = 180.) In addition, it is important to keep in mind that the above equation is valid if and only if F // sub is constant. If the force is not constant (variable), then the work done cannot be determined via the equation above. Instead, the following integral (for the case of one-dimensional displacement along the x-axis in which θ = 0 ) must be evaluated:

2 W sub = x x i f F sub ( x) dx Essentially, the work done is found by determining the area under the Force vs. Position graph. See Section 7-8 of the text by Halliday, Resnick, and Walker for a three-dimensional analysis of determining the work done by a non-constant force. One example of a non-constant force is a spring force. Springs exert a force that varies in a predictable linear fashion described by Hooke s Law: F x F by the spring = - k x where x is the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium (at rest) position and k represents the force constant of the spring (N/m). Notice the negative sign and the subscript of the force, as it is important to understand the importance of these. Section 7-6 of the text explains the significance of this in detail. The work done by a spring force, due to its linear nature, is rather simple to calculate using the integral above. Computer programs that perform integration calculations do so using various numerical techniques. Data Studio has the ability to estimate the area under a particular plot of data using one of these methods. The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem describes what happens when a particular force, such as the one supplied by the catapult, does work to cause only the kinetic energy of the object to change. It is written as follows: W by a particular force = K = K f K i This equation, then, would not be valid if this particular force caused another type of energy to change, such as gravitational potential energy or thermal energy. However, the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem can be applied to all situations if one is very careful to define the work done as the Net (or Total) Work done on the object. This version of the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem is more versatile: W total = K = K f K i where the Total Work is determined by the sum of the work done by each of the individual forces acting on the object, such as: W total =W by an applied force +W by friction +W by gravity +W by a spring +W by the normal force (etc.) Therefore, if the work done by a particular force appears not to be equal to the change in kinetic energy of the object, then the system should by analyzed for possible work (positive or negative) done by other forces. (Read Section 7-3 for a thorough explanation of the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem.)

3 The Work - Kinetic Energy Theorem Goals: Determine the Work done by a constant & a non-constant force. Verify the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem. Determine the Spring Constant, k, of a given spring and use it to calculate the work done by a spring. Equipment List: Data Studio 1. meter track with adjustable feet Dynamics cart with force sensor attached Ultrasonic motion sensor String Pulley Scale balance (for measuring the mass of the cart) Mass hanger and mass set Spring Computer & Equipment Set Up: There are many calculations to be performed in this Lab. Therefore, it will be more efficient to take the time to completely set up Data Studio before starting the lab activities. 1. Measure the total mass of the dynamics cart and the attached force sensor. Record this mass, m.. Set up Data Studio to read the data collected from the force sensor connected to the dynamics cart and the motion sensor located at the end of the 1. meter track. The motion sensor does not need to be calibrated but the force sensor does. Always remember to first remove all tension and then press the TARE button to re-zero the force sensor before data is taken for each trial. 3. Change Sampling Options so that Periodic Samples = 50 Hz. Change the motion detector s Trigger Rate so that it is also 50 Hz. 4. Open the Experiment Calculator (click on the calculate button) and define the calculation for Kinetic Energy, K= ½ mv. 5. Create a graph of Velocity vs. Time. Once this graph is displayed, drag the input icon for position data and drop it on the x-axis so that the graph plots Velocity vs. Position. Next, click and drag Graph1 (under Displays) and drop it on the calculator icon (the kinetic energy calculation under Data) in order to also graph Kinetic Energy vs. Position (remember to drag the position input icon to the x-axis for this graph too, otherwise time is displayed). Click the Statistics button to open the statistics area of the Kinetic Energy vs. Position graph. Set up this area to display the maximum and minimum values of your data.

4 6. Create a graph of Force vs. Time. Once this graph is displayed, click on the input icon for the x-axis data and change it to position so that the graph plots Force vs. Position. Click the Statistics button to open the Statistics area of the graph. Select Area from the Statistics Menu so that the area between the data and the x-axis will be calculated. Force Sensor Motion Detector Dynamics Cart Track 7. Set up the equipment as shown above, for Activity 1, and get ready to take data. Lab Activity 1: Work Done by a Constant Force 1. Press Record and gather data as the cart moves in one direction along the track while being pulled with a constant force by the hanging mass. Be sure that the cart is released from rest. Note its starting position and ending position relative to the motion detector. (Use the yellow measuring tape located on the track.). Note the region of the graphs over which this motion took place. Remember that the x-axis of each graph is Position, not Time. 3. Note the area calculated by the integration function on the Force vs. Position graph over the constant force interval. Answer the following questions: (Hint: Consider the direction of the Force and the Displacement) 1.) Why is this value negative?.) Is the work done on the cart by the Force (due to the hanging mass) positive or negative? Explain. (Realize that you will need to interpret the sign of this value correctly for all further analysis.) 4. Using the Maximum and Minimum information, determine the Change in the Kinetic Energy ( K) of the cart between these values. Record the K. 5. Highlight the region of the Force vs. Position graph over which the cart was being pulled along by the hanging mass. (In other words, remove extraneous data from the integration calculation). Determine and record the value of the Work done by the Force created by the hanging mass. Include the appropriate sign and units. 6. Copy each graph (including the statistics information) into the Word template by clicking on the Display menu and selecting Export Picture. 7. By what % does the Work done by the hanging mass differ from the K of the cart? (Show your calculation.) 8. Recall that the Work Kinetic Energy Theorem (W = K) implies that W refers to the total work done on the cart, not the work done by any particular individual force. Considering all of the forces acting on the cart, why is it reasonable to assume that the work done by the hanging mass is the total work done on the cart? Explain what might account for the % difference calculated above.

5 Lab Activity : Work Done by a Non-Constant Force (ex. a spring) 1. Unhook the hanging mass from the cart and put the string, hanger, and masses away. Carefully hook a spring to the force probe. Do NOT, at any time during the lab, over-stretch this spring!. Hold the cart at rest in front of the motion detector while carefully stretching the spring a short distance down the track away from the motion detector. Keep the far end of the spring stationary throughout the entire collection of data. 3. Press Record and gather data as the cart moves in one direction along the track while being pulled by the spring. Be sure that the cart is released from rest. Make note of its starting position and ending position relative to the motion detector. 4. Note the region of the graphs over which the cart was being pulled by the spring. Remember that the x-axis of each graph is Position, not Time. 5. Using the Maximum and Minimum information, determine the K of the cart over this region. Record the K. 6. Highlight the region of the Force vs. Position graph over which the cart was being pulled along by the spring. (In other words, remove extraneous data from the integration calculation.) Determine and record the value of the Work done by the spring. Include the appropriate sign and units. 7. Copy each graph (including the statistics information) into the Word template by using Paste Special. Paste each as if it were a picture. 8. By what % does the work done by the spring differ from the K of the cart? (Show your calculation.) 9. Recall that the Work Kinetic Energy Theorem (W = K) implies that W refers to the total work done on the cart, not the work done by any particular individual force. Why is it reasonable to assume that the work done by the spring is the total work done on the cart? Explain what might account for the % difference calculated above. Lab Activity 3: Analyzing the Work Done by a Spring using Hooke s Law 1. Using the graphs from Activity, determine the spring constant, k, of the spring used above. Record your value using SI units. Explain how you obtained your answer.. Hooke s Law defines a position variable, x, the stretch/compression of the spring as the position of the end of the spring measured from the spring s rest position. Explain how this variable differs from the position data taken by the motion detector. Explain how the position data taken by the motion detector could be altered to determine the position of the spring described by Hooke s Law. Write a simple formula for x in terms of the positions measured by the motion detector.

6 3. Using your answers to the previous two questions, calculate the work done by the spring force using equation 7-40: (Note the location of the position of the i and f subscripts.) W spring = 1 4. Because this method differs from the one used to calculate the work done by the spring in Activity, compare this value to the K of the cart by, again, determining the % by which the work done by the spring differs from the K of the cart? 5. In Activity, you calculated the work done by the spring using the area under the Force vs. Position graph. In Activity 3, you calculated the work done by the spring by determining k from the Force vs. Position graph, calculating x as defined in Hooke s Law, and using equation Both methods start with the same data and both results are compared to the K of the cart. Which method of calculating the work done by the spring gives a more correct result? Support your answer. kx i 1 kx f

Lab #5: The Work Kinetic Energy Theorem

Lab #5: The Work Kinetic Energy Theorem Lab #5: The Work Kinetic Energy Theorem Reading Assignment: Chapter 7, Sections 7-1 through 7-6 Introduction: F/A-18E/F Super Hornet U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 3rd Class John Sullivan http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/images/image-cv16.html

More information

Newton s Second Law. Part I

Newton s Second Law. Part I Newton s Second. Part I Reading Assignment: Chapter 5, Sections 2-4 Chapter 6, Section 4 Photo by Keith Larrett http://www.webshots.com/photos/skydiving1.html Introduction: A common misconception is that

More information

Simple Harmonic Motion II

Simple Harmonic Motion II Simple Harmonic Motion II Objectives In this lab you will investigate the relationship between the kinetic energy and elastic potential energy of a mass attached to a Hooke s law spring in simple harmonic

More information

How does the total energy of the cart change as it goes down the inclined plane?

How does the total energy of the cart change as it goes down the inclined plane? Experiment 6 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND THE WORK-ENERGY THEOREM In this experiment you will explore the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. You will see that gravitational energy can be converted

More information

Lab 6: Force, Mass and Acceleration

Lab 6: Force, Mass and Acceleration Lab 6: Force, Mass and Acceleration Objectives: To study Newton's Second Law, F = ma, with a constant net force To study Newton s Second Law with constant mass Equipments: computer-based laboratory system

More information

Work Energy Theorem: W net

Work Energy Theorem: W net Work Energy Theorem: W net = KE 5M Object: Apparatus: To verify the Work-Energy Theorem by comparing the net work done on an object to its change in Kinetic Energy. Computer, PASCO Signal Interface Box

More information

L04 The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem 1. Pre-Lab Exercises. 1) Describe the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem in words and summarize with an equation.

L04 The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem 1. Pre-Lab Exercises. 1) Describe the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem in words and summarize with an equation. L04 The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem 1 Full Name: Lab Section: Pre-Lab Exercises Hand this in at the beginning of the lab period. The grade for these exercises will be included in your lab grade this week.

More information

Lab 8: Work and Energy

Lab 8: Work and Energy Lab 8: Work and Energy Objectives: To understand the concept of work To be able to calculate work for constant and non-constant forces To understand the concept of kinetic energy To understand the relationship

More information

Name: Lab Partner: Section:

Name: Lab Partner: Section: Chapter 6 Energy Name: Lab Partner: Section: 6.1 Purpose In this experiment, energy and work will be explored. The relationship between total energy, kinetic energy and potential energy will be observed.

More information

Purpose of the experiment

Purpose of the experiment Work and Energy Theorem PES 116 Advanced Physics Lab I Purpose of the experiment What is Work and how is it related to energy? Learn about different forms of energy. Learn how to use the Conservation of

More information

Activity P08: Newton's Second Law - Constant Force (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor)

Activity P08: Newton's Second Law - Constant Force (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) Activity P08: Newton's Second Law - Constant Force (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win) Newton s Laws P08 Constant Force.DS P11 Constant Force P11_CONF.SWS

More information

1. What must be stored in the bow?

1. What must be stored in the bow? AP Physics 1 Lesson 7.b Work and Elastic Potential Energy in Springs Outcomes 1. Define work. 2. Define energy. 3. Determine the work done by a constant force. 4. Determine the work done by a force exerted

More information

PRE-LAB FOR CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

PRE-LAB FOR CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Name: Conservation of Energy, p. 1/13 PRE-LAB FOR CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Directions: Read over the lab and answer the following questions. 1. How is gravitational potential energy defined in this lab?.

More information

Conservation of Energy

Conservation of Energy Conservation of Energy APPARATUS Shown in the diagram and picture below (both with a top-down view): Air track, springs and bracket, thread, glider Smart pulley and mount Dumb pulley (on the same mount)

More information

Incline Plane Activity

Incline Plane Activity Purpose Incline Plane Activity During the activity, students will become familiar with solving static and dynamic incline plane problems. The students will use standard component methods and free body

More information

Hooke s Law and Simple Harmonic Motion

Hooke s Law and Simple Harmonic Motion Hooke s Law and Simple Harmonic Motion OBJECTIVE to measure the spring constant of the springs using Hooke s Law to explore the static properties of springy objects and springs, connected in series and

More information

What is the Relationship between Work and Energy?

What is the Relationship between Work and Energy? What is the Relationship between Equipment: PC with DataStudio Dynamics Track Collision Cart High Resolution Force Sensor Pulley w/ photogate Mass Hanger Set & String PowerLink or 2 USB Links Digital Adapter

More information

WORK - ENERGY. Work i = F net s cos(θ) (1.2)

WORK - ENERGY. Work i = F net s cos(θ) (1.2) 1 Object WORK - ENERGY To investigate the work-kinetic energy relationship and conservation of energy. Apparatus Track and associated stops, one dynamics cart, one photogate timer, interface equipment,

More information

E X P E R I M E N T 5

E X P E R I M E N T 5 E X P E R I M E N T 5 Newton s 2nd Law of Motion Produced by the Physics Staff at Collin College Copyright Collin College Physics Department. All Rights Reserved. University Physics, Exp 5: Newton s 2

More information

WEEK 4: FORCE AND MOTION

WEEK 4: FORCE AND MOTION Name Date Partners WEEK 4: FORCE AND MOTION OBJECTIVES To develop a method for measuring forces reliably. To learn how to use a force probe to measure force. To explore how the motion of an object is related

More information

5 NEWTON S SECOND LAW

5 NEWTON S SECOND LAW 5 NEWTON S SECOND LAW LINEAR MOTION OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between force and acceleration in linear motion. INTRODUCTION According to Newton s second law, the acceleration of a mass

More information

LAB 8: WORK AND ENERGY

LAB 8: WORK AND ENERGY Lab 8 - Work and Energy 89 Name Date Partners LAB 8: WORK AND ENERGY Energy is the only life and is from the Body; and Reason is the bound or outward circumference of energy. Energy is eternal delight.

More information

Impulse Momentum Experiment

Impulse Momentum Experiment Impulse Momentum Experiment Discussion Impulse momentum and the impulse-momentum relationship is defined and discussed in the text The momentum of an object with mass m and velocity v is p = mv The impulse

More information

Lab 05: Work and Energy

Lab 05: Work and Energy OBJECTIVE Lab 05: Work and Energy In this experiment you will be verifying the relationship between the work done by a conservative force on an object and the change in its total mechanical energy. This

More information

WORK - ENERGY. Work i = F net s cos(θ) (1.2)

WORK - ENERGY. Work i = F net s cos(θ) (1.2) 1 Object WORK - ENERGY To investigate the work-kinetic energy relationship and conservation of energy. Apparatus Track and associated stops, one dynamics cart, PVC tube, one photogate timer, one force

More information

Force. Net Force Mass. Acceleration = Section 1: Weight. Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Force Sensor 1 Mass and Hanger Set 1 Balance 1

Force. Net Force Mass. Acceleration = Section 1: Weight. Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Force Sensor 1 Mass and Hanger Set 1 Balance 1 Department of Physics and Geology Background orce Physical Science 1421 A force is a vector quantity capable of producing motion or a change in motion. In the SI unit system, the unit of force is the Newton

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion

Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion OBJECTIVES to validate Newton s Laws of Motion EQUIPMENT horizontal dynamic track and safety stopper on one end PASCO carts with a small reflector motion detector connected to the

More information

July 13 - Force & Motion 1. Name Date Partners

July 13 - Force & Motion 1. Name Date Partners July 13 - Force & Motion 1 Name Date Partners FORCE AND MOTION A vulgar Mechanik can practice what he has been taught or seen done, but if he is in an error he knows not how to find it out and correct

More information

LAB 6: WORK AND ENERGY

LAB 6: WORK AND ENERGY 87 Name Date Partners LAB 6: WORK AND ENERGY OBJECTIVES OVERVIEW Energy is the only life and is from the Body; and Reason is the bound or outward circumference of energy. Energy is eternal delight. William

More information

Experiment 6 ~ the Work Energy Theorem

Experiment 6 ~ the Work Energy Theorem Purpose: Experiment 6 ~ the Work Energy Theorem The objective of this experiment is to examine the conversion of work into kinetic energy, specifically work done by the force of gravity. The work-kinetic

More information

Work and Energy. W =!KE = KE f

Work and Energy. W =!KE = KE f Activity 19 PS-2826 Work and Energy Mechanics: work-energy theorem, conservation of energy GLX setup file: work energy Qty Equipment and Materials Part Number 1 PASPORT Xplorer GLX PS-2002 1 PASPORT Motion

More information

Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion Simple Harmonic Motion 9M Object: Apparatus: To determine the force constant of a spring and then study the harmonic motion of that spring when it is loaded with a mass m. Force sensor, motion sensor,

More information

Chapter 7 Work and Kinetic Energy

Chapter 7 Work and Kinetic Energy Chapter 7 Work and Kinetic Energy 7-1 Work Done by a Constant Force The definition of work, when the force is parallel to the displacement: SI unit: newton-meter (N m) = joule, J (7-1) 7-1 Work Done by

More information

Experiment: Static and Kinetic Friction

Experiment: Static and Kinetic Friction PHY 211: General Physics I Lab page 1 of 6 PCC-Cascade OBJECTIVES Experiment: Static and Kinetic Friction Use a Force Sensor to measure the force of static friction. Determine the relationship between

More information

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion Computer 17 We can describe an oscillating mass in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration as a function of time. We can also describe the system from an energy

More information

Chapter 7 Work and Kinetic Energy

Chapter 7 Work and Kinetic Energy Chapter 7 Work and Kinetic Energy Which one costs energy? Question: (try it) How to throw a baseball to give it large speed? Answer: Apply large force across a large distance! Force exerted through a distance

More information

Work and Energy Simulation

Work and Energy Simulation Group member names This sheet is the lab document your TA will use to score your lab. It is to be turned in at the end of lab. To receive full credit you must use complete sentences and explain your reasoning

More information

Experiment 5: Newton s Second Law

Experiment 5: Newton s Second Law Name Section Date Introduction Experiment : Newton s Second Law In this laboratory experiment you will consider Newton s second law of motion, which states that an object will accelerate if an unbalanced

More information

PHYSICS 220 LAB #4: NEWTON S LAWS

PHYSICS 220 LAB #4: NEWTON S LAWS Lab Section (circle one) M T W Th /33 pts Name: Partners: OBJECTIVES PHYSICS 220 LAB #4: NEWTON S LAWS 1. To learn how to use a force probe to measure forces. 2. To get practice with free-body diagrams

More information

Static and Kinetic Friction

Static and Kinetic Friction Static and Kinetic Friction Computer 12 If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult to get the box moving. Static friction is the force that is counters your force on

More information

Name: Lab Partner: Section:

Name: Lab Partner: Section: Chapter 10 Simple Harmonic Motion Name: Lab Partner: Section: 10.1 Purpose Simple harmonic motion will be examined in this experiment. 10.2 Introduction A periodic motion is one that repeats itself in

More information

Experiment: Static and Kinetic Friction

Experiment: Static and Kinetic Friction PHY 201: General Physics I Lab page 1 of 6 OBJECTIVES Experiment: Static and Kinetic Friction Use a Force Sensor to measure the force of static friction. Determine the relationship between force of static

More information

The Center of Mass of a Homogeneous L Bracket

The Center of Mass of a Homogeneous L Bracket L07 Rotational Motion and the Moment of Inertia 1 Lab Section: L07 prelab 1 NAME The Center of Mass of a Homogeneous L Bracket Consider a homogeneous L bracket of mass (M) and symmetric length L. The bracket

More information

Equilibrium. To determine the mass of unknown objects by utilizing the known force requirements of an equilibrium

Equilibrium. To determine the mass of unknown objects by utilizing the known force requirements of an equilibrium Equilibrium Object To determine the mass of unknown objects by utilizing the known force requirements of an equilibrium situation. 2 Apparatus orce table, masses, mass pans, metal loop, pulleys, strings,

More information

Physics 200 Lab 5: Force and Motion... equal forces shall effect an equal change in equal bodies... - Newton

Physics 200 Lab 5: Force and Motion... equal forces shall effect an equal change in equal bodies... - Newton Physics 200 Lab 5: Force and Motion... equal forces shall effect an equal change in equal bodies... - Newton Objectives - To develop a method for measuring forces reliably. - To explore how the motion

More information

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION INTRODUCTION Have you ever wondered why a grandfather clock keeps accurate time? The motion of the pendulum is a particular kind of repetitive or periodic motion called simple harmonic

More information

PHYSICS 220 LAB #3: NEWTON S LAWS

PHYSICS 220 LAB #3: NEWTON S LAWS Name: Partners: PHYSICS 220 LAB #3: NEWTON S LAWS When a golf club strikes a golf ball, it exerts such a large force that the ball is actually deformed. The force has to be large because the club is not

More information

Newton s 2nd Law. 1 Purpose

Newton s 2nd Law. 1 Purpose Newton s 2nd Law Equipment DataStudio, motion sensor, meter stick, force sensor, clamp and rod for force sensor, weights with hooks, 18.7 cm glider, 28.7 cm glider, air track, smart pulley, string for

More information

PRELAB: FORCES AND MOTION

PRELAB: FORCES AND MOTION Name: Forces and Motion, p. 1/11 PRELAB: FORCES AND MOTION 1. What is the purpose of the rubber bands in Activity 11? 2. What is the difference between a linear relationship and a proportional one? 3.

More information

Vectors and the Inclined Plane

Vectors and the Inclined Plane Vectors and the Inclined Plane Introduction: This experiment is designed to familiarize you with the concept of force as a vector quantity. The inclined plane will be used to demonstrate how one force

More information

Activity P09: Newton s Second Law - Push and Pull a Cart (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor)

Activity P09: Newton s Second Law - Push and Pull a Cart (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) Activity P09: Newton s Second Law - Push and Pull a Cart (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win) Newton s Laws P09 Push Pull.ds P12 Push-Pull a Cart

More information

Vectors, Forces, and Equilibrium

Vectors, Forces, and Equilibrium Chapter 1 Vectors, Forces, and Equilibrium 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to give you a qualitative and quantitative feel for vectors and forces in equilibrium. 1.2 Introduction An object

More information

KINEMATICS: THE BOUNCING BALL

KINEMATICS: THE BOUNCING BALL KINEMATICS: THE BOUNCING BALL 8/02 Name: Partner: Section: Date: PURPOSE: To understand the graphical relationships between displacement, velocity and acceleration: slopes and derivatives, areas and integrals.

More information

Chapter F. Work and Energy. Blinn College - Physics Terry Honan

Chapter F. Work and Energy. Blinn College - Physics Terry Honan Chapter F Work and Energy Blinn College - Physics 2425 - Terry Honan F. - Introduction to Work Mechanical Advantage In Chapter D we considered the example of a pulley system lifting a weight. We saw that

More information

Static Equilibrium, Force Decomposition, and Frictional Forces

Static Equilibrium, Force Decomposition, and Frictional Forces Experiment 5 54 Kuwait University Physics 105 Physics Department Static Equilibrium, Force Decomposition, and Frictional Forces Introduction In this experiment, you will study a special case of motion,

More information

Activity P14: Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor)

Activity P14: Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) Activity P14: Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win) Harmonic motion P14 SHM.DS P19 SHM Mass on a Spring

More information

WEEK 6: FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION

WEEK 6: FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION Name Date Partners WEEK 6: FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION OBJECTIVES To develop a definition of mass in terms of an object s acceleration under the influence of a force. To find a mathematical relationship

More information

Static and Kinetic Friction

Static and Kinetic Friction Static and Kinetic Friction Experiment 12 If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult to get the box moving. Static friction is the force that is counters your force

More information

Chapter 6 Lecture Notes. F = -kx U E = (1/2)kx 2

Chapter 6 Lecture Notes. F = -kx U E = (1/2)kx 2 Chapter 6 Lecture Notes Physics 2414 - Strauss Formulas: W = F d = Fd cosθ K (1/2)mv 2 W net = W NC + W C = K W G = - U G U G = mgh F = -kx U E = (1/2)kx 2 W NC = K + U E = K + U = (1/2)mv 2 + U E f =

More information

Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion Simple Harmonic Motion Name: Group Members: Date: TA s Name: Learning Objectives: 1. Use Hooke s law to find a spring constant 2. Understand position-time and velocity-time graphs for a simple harmonic

More information

Static and Kinetic Friction

Static and Kinetic Friction Static and Kinetic Friction Computer 12 If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult to get the box moving. Static friction is the force that counters your force on the

More information

Measuring the Coefficient of Friction

Measuring the Coefficient of Friction Name: Measuring the Coefficient of Objective The purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine and compare the coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of kinetic friction; compare friction

More information

Newton s Second Law. Figure 1

Newton s Second Law. Figure 1 July 7 - Newton's Second Law 1 Newton s Second Law How does a cart change its motion when you push and pull on it? You might think that the harder you push on a cart, the faster it goes. Is the cart s

More information

Problem Solving Strategies: Mechanical Energy. 8.01t Oct 20, 2004

Problem Solving Strategies: Mechanical Energy. 8.01t Oct 20, 2004 Problem Solving Strategies: Mechanical Energy 8.01t Oct 20, 2004 Class Problem: Block-Spring System Example 1: A block of mass m is attached to a spring and is free to slide along a horizontal frictionless

More information

Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion Simple Harmonic Motion 1 Object To determine the period of motion of objects that are executing simple harmonic motion and to check the theoretical prediction of such periods. 2 Apparatus Assorted weights

More information

Static and Kinetic Friction

Static and Kinetic Friction Static and Kinetic Friction Experiment 12 If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult to get the box moving. Static friction is the force that is counters your force

More information

Experiment 5 ~ Friction

Experiment 5 ~ Friction Purpose: Experiment 5 ~ Friction In this lab, you will make some basic measurements of friction. First you will measure the coefficients of static friction between several combinations of surfaces using

More information

Experiment P19: Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor)

Experiment P19: Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) PASCO scientific Physics Lab Manual: P19-1 Science Workshop S. H. M. Mass on a Spring Experiment P19: Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) Concept Time SW Interface Macintosh

More information

STATIC AND KINETIC FRICTION

STATIC AND KINETIC FRICTION STATIC AND KINETIC FRICTION LAB MECH 3.COMP From Physics with Computers, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000. INTRODUCTION If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult

More information

Pendulum Force and Centripetal Acceleration

Pendulum Force and Centripetal Acceleration Pendulum Force and Centripetal Acceleration 1 Objectives 1. To calibrate and use a force probe and motion detector. 2. To understand centripetal acceleration. 3. To solve force problems involving centripetal

More information

Simple Harmonic Motion Concepts

Simple Harmonic Motion Concepts Simple Harmonic Motion Concepts INTRODUCTION Have you ever wondered why a grandfather clock keeps accurate time? The motion of the pendulum is a particular kind of repetitive or periodic motion called

More information

PHY 221 Lab 3 Vectors and Motion in 1 and 2 Dimensions

PHY 221 Lab 3 Vectors and Motion in 1 and 2 Dimensions PHY 221 Lab 3 Vectors and Motion in 1 and 2 Dimensions Print Your Name Print Your Partners' Names Instructions Before lab, read the Introduction, and answer the Pre-Lab Questions on the last page of this

More information

ACTIVITY FIVE NEWTON S SECOND LAW: CONSTANT MASS, CHANGING FORCE

ACTIVITY FIVE NEWTON S SECOND LAW: CONSTANT MASS, CHANGING FORCE 1 ACTIVITY FIVE NEWTON S SECOND LAW: CONSTANT MASS, CHANGING FORCE PURPOSE For this experiment, the Motion Visualizer (MV) is used to capture the motion of a cart moving along a flat, horizontal surface.

More information

UNIT 5 SESSION 1: FORCE AND MOTION

UNIT 5 SESSION 1: FORCE AND MOTION Name Date Partners UNIT 5 SESSION 1: FORCE AND MOTION A vulgar Mechanik can practice what he has been taught or seen done, but if he is in an error he knows not how to find it out and correct it, and if

More information

The Second Law of Motion

The Second Law of Motion The Second Law of Motion Theory: The Second Law of Motion states that: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force applied to the object and inversely proportional to the mass

More information

Static and Kinetic Friction

Static and Kinetic Friction Static and Kinetic Friction Experiment 12a In this experiment, you will use a Force Sensor to study static and kinetic on a wooden block. A Motion Detector will also be used to analyze the kinetic acting

More information

Experiment 5: Newton s Second Law

Experiment 5: Newton s Second Law Experiment 5: Newton s Second Law Figure 5.1: Modified Atwood s Machine Setup EQUIPMENT Low-Friction Cart Pulley and String Triple-Beam Balance Digital Balance Stopwatch Meter Stick Mass Hanger (1) 10

More information

Newton s 2nd Law. 1 Purpose

Newton s 2nd Law. 1 Purpose Newton s 2nd Law Equipment Capstone, motion sensor, meter stick, force sensor, bench clamp, rod for force sensor, weights with hooks, 18.7 cm glider, 28.7 cm glider, air track, photogate/smart pulley,

More information

2 of 19 10/10/ :21 AM where is the spring constant of the cord and is the extension of the cord Express your answer in terms of the cord's final

2 of 19 10/10/ :21 AM where is the spring constant of the cord and is the extension of the cord Express your answer in terms of the cord's final 1 of 19 10/10/2007 04:21 AM Assignment Display Mode: View Printable Answers Course TUPH1061F07 Homework Ch 7 Due 4 Oct Due at 12:00pm on Wednesday, October 10, 2007 View Grading Details Bungee Jumping

More information

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Pre-Lab Assignment CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 1. Read the lab instructions. 2. A hanging mass of 1500 grams compresses a spring 2.0 cm. Find the spring constant in N/m. 3. The spring is compressed a total

More information

Static and Kinetic Friction

Static and Kinetic Friction Dual-Range Force Sensor Static and Kinetic Friction Computer 12 If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult to get the box moving. Static friction is the force that

More information

A) 0.04 cm B) cm C) cm D) 0.2 cm

A) 0.04 cm B) cm C) cm D) 0.2 cm Unit 1 Sample Questions and Problems U1Q1 The length of a block was measured to be 11.23 cm ± 0.03 cm the vernier caliper used to measure the block has an uncertainty of 0.01 cm. Determine the total uncertainty

More information

Oscillations of a Spring and Ball. Purpose: Verify five laws of physics in five seconds of data collection.

Oscillations of a Spring and Ball. Purpose: Verify five laws of physics in five seconds of data collection. Name... Oscillations of a Spring and Ball Purpose: Verify five laws of physics in five seconds of data collection. Apparatus: Vernier force sensor, Vernier motion sensor, Logger Pro, spring and pool ball

More information

Solutions to Homework Set #7 Phys2414 Fall 2005

Solutions to Homework Set #7 Phys2414 Fall 2005 Solution Set #7 Solutions to Homework Set #7 Phys244 Fall 2005 Note: The numbers in the boxes correspond to those that are generated by WebAssign. The numbers on your individual assignment will vary. Any

More information

Semester I lab quiz Study Guide (Mechanics) Physics 135/163

Semester I lab quiz Study Guide (Mechanics) Physics 135/163 Semester I lab quiz Study Guide (Mechanics) Physics 135/163 In this guide, lab titles/topics are listed alphabetically, with a page break in between each one. You are allowed to refer to your own handwritten

More information

Lab 4: Conservation of Energy

Lab 4: Conservation of Energy Lab 4: Conservation of Energy 1 Purpose To study conservation of energy in the case of conservative forces acting on a system. Three mechanical systems are studied: a falling mass, a pendulum, and a mass

More information

PHY 157 Standing Waves on a String (Experiment 5)

PHY 157 Standing Waves on a String (Experiment 5) PHY 157 Standing Waves on a String (Experiment 5) Name: 1 Introduction In this lab you will observe standing waves on a string. You will also investigate the relationship between wave speed and tension

More information

N3 Forces from Motion. General Physics 1

N3 Forces from Motion. General Physics 1 N3 Forces from Motion General Physics 1 The Kinematic Chain A particle moves along the x axis according to the equation x = 2.00 + 3.00 t - 1.00 t 2 where x is in meters and t is in seconds. At t=3.00

More information

Name: Partner(s): Date: Work-Energy Theorem

Name: Partner(s): Date: Work-Energy Theorem Name: Partner(s): Date: Work-Energy Theorem Purpose: Everyone says, Energy is conserved. We decided early on that our decisions about the validity of every hypothesis must, ultimately, appeal to experiment.

More information

PSI AP Physics I Dynamics

PSI AP Physics I Dynamics PSI AP Physics I Dynamics Multiple-Choice questions 1. After firing a cannon ball, the cannon moves in the opposite direction from the ball. This an example of: A. Newton s First Law B. Newton s Second

More information

IP Inclined Plane revised July 25, 2012

IP Inclined Plane revised July 25, 2012 IP Inclined Plane revised July 25, 2012 Learning Objectives: During this lab, you will 1. be introduced to how to write a lab paper. 2. learn how to take data with Logger Pro. 3. estimate the uncertainty

More information

WEEK 10: WORK AND ENERGY

WEEK 10: WORK AND ENERGY Name Date Partners OBJECTIVES WEEK 10: WORK AND ENERGY To extend the intuitive notion of work as physical effort to a formal mathematical definition of work, W, as a function of both the force on an object

More information

7. Kinetic Energy and Work

7. Kinetic Energy and Work Kinetic Energy: 7. Kinetic Energy and Work The kinetic energy of a moving object: k = 1 2 mv 2 Kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the velocity. If the velocity of an object doubles, the kinetic

More information

Name Period Date. What is the relationship between the net force applied to an object and its motion?

Name Period Date. What is the relationship between the net force applied to an object and its motion? Name Period Date Newton's Second Law Driving Questions What is the relationship between the net force applied to an object and its motion? Background Like Newton, we will observe a simple system to look

More information

UNIT VII - ENERGY (WITH LESS WORK)

UNIT VII - ENERGY (WITH LESS WORK) Instructional Goals UNIT VII - ENERGY (WITH LESS WORK) 1. View energy interactions in terms of transfer and storage Develop concept of relationship among kinetic, potential & internal energy as modes of

More information

Applications of Newton's Laws

Applications of Newton's Laws Applications of Newton's Laws Purpose: To apply Newton's Laws by applying forces to objects and observing their motion; directly measuring these forces that we will apply. Apparatus: Pasco track, Pasco

More information

Let's plot F s vs X. In terms ofx, F S = KX. Let's assume the spring is stretched X meters as shown

Let's plot F s vs X. In terms ofx, F S = KX. Let's assume the spring is stretched X meters as shown Elastic potential energy Let's plot F s vs X F s The work done in stretching the spring can be calculated using the area under a force vs distance curve. Therefore the spring has stored elastic potential

More information

Force and Motion. Thought Experiment

Force and Motion. Thought Experiment Team Force and Motion In previous labs, you used a motion sensor to measure the position, velocity, and acceleration of moving objects. You were not concerned about the mechanism that caused the object

More information

Kinetic & Static Friction

Kinetic & Static Friction Kinetic & Static Friction When two objects touch, they exert a force on each other through surface contact. We call the component of this force that is perpendicular to the surface the normal force. We

More information

Lab M1: The Simple Pendulum

Lab M1: The Simple Pendulum Lab M1: The Simple Pendulum Introduction. The simple pendulum is a favorite introductory exercise because Galileo's experiments on pendulums in the early 1600s are usually regarded as the beginning of

More information