CH421 Experiment 2. Nitration of Aniline: a three-step protecting group strategy to prepare p-nitroaniline

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CH421 Experiment 2. Nitration of Aniline: a three-step protecting group strategy to prepare p-nitroaniline"

Transcription

1 CH421 Experiment 2 Nitration of Aniline: a three-step protecting group strategy to prepare p-nitroaniline Reading: Organic Chemistry by John McMurry, 8e, Chapter Techniques: recrystallization, melting point, IR, NMR Introduction Electrophilic aromatic substitution is one of the more common ways to functionalize aromatic rings, and one common method is nitration. The reactivity of the aromatic ring is heavily influenced by substituent effects, specifically resonance and/or inductive effects of the substituent. The purpose of this experiment is to prepare para-nitroaniline from aniline. Para-nitroaniline is used in the synthesis of the dye para red (aka American flag red). One of the intermediates in our synthetic scheme, acetanilide, was also used in the synthesis of sulfanilamide, one of the first synthetic antibiotics. We will perform the synthesis of para-nitroaniline over several steps (overall scheme shown below): acetylation of aniline to form acetanilide; nitration of acetanilide, which forms a mixture of ortho- (minor) and para-nitroacetanilide (major); and hydrolysis of the nitroacetanilides to liberate ortho- and para-nitroanilines. Separation of the ortho- and para-nitroanilines is accomplished by recrystallization. When performing multi-step synthesis, high yield is important, since each reaction uses as starting material the product of the previous reaction. For example, if in three successive reactions the yields are: 80%, 90%, and 75% respectively, the overall yield at the end of the third reaction is 0.8 x 0.9 x 0.75 x 100 = 54%. For this reason, multi-step syntheses are a good test of laboratory skills. In the first step of the sequence above, aniline is acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce acetanilide. Note that the desired final product in this experiment is a mono-nitroaniline. Why, then, is the step of acetylating the aniline included in the reaction scheme? Essentially, the amide is used as a protecting group for the aniline in this scheme (keep in mind amines can act as bases and nucleophiles; amides in contrast are non-basic, non-nucleophilic). First, aniline can be oxidized by nitric acid. (If aniline and nitric acid are mixed directly, a violent oxidation of the aniline occurs which can cause the mixture to ignite.) In addition, under these acidic reaction conditions, aniline is protonated, and the anilinium cation is actually a meta-director! Thus, in order to successfully and selectively mononitrate aniline at the para position, it is necessary to modify the amine as the amide, perform the nitration reaction, and remove the acetamide protecting group at the end of the synthesis the liberate the amine. The second step in our sequence is the nitration of acetanilide. Nitronium ion (NO 2 + ) is a very strong electrophile that is generated in situ from concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid, as shown below.

2 In the mechanism of this reaction, the nucleophilic pi electrons on the aromatic ring attack the electrophile NO 2 +. The resulting intermediate carbocation is short-lived, since aromaticity is lost upon addition of NO 2 +. Elimination of the paraproton restores aromaticity, resulting in an overall substitution reaction. In electrophilic aromatic substitutions where there is an electron-donating group (EDG, such as OMe) on the aromatic ring, the electrophile substitutes in the ortho- and/or para- positions relative to the EDG. This is due to resonance stabilization of the intermediate carbocation by the EDG. On the other hand, if there is an electron-withdrawing group (EWG) on the aromatic ring, reaction is directed to the meta position. In this reaction, the electrophile substitutes mainly at the position para to the acetanilide, since the amide is an electron-donating group (EDG) by resonance. While we want to obtain the p-nitroacetanilide selectively, in reality we obtain a mixture of isomers, wherein p- nitroacetanilide is the major isomer (see scheme below). Acetanilide displays moderate reactivity in electrophilic aromatic substitution as it is a weak EDG. Also, unlike aniline, acetanilide is not oxidized by nitric acid. Nitration of acetanilide gives principally the ortho and para mononitroacetanilides (with more para than ortho due to sterics), together with a small amount of 2,4-dinitroacetanilide. To prevent dinitration of the acetanilide, the nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acids is added in small portions to the acetanilide solution (and not vice versa), so that the concentration of the nitrating agent is kept at a minimum. The nitroacetanilides are not isolated in this reaction scheme. Instead, the reaction mixture is heated and the acid present serves to hydrolyze them to the nitroanilines (see scheme below). Separation of the para- and ortho-nitroanilines is effected by recrystallization in ethanol due to the different solubility of each compound in ethanol. In Week 1, we will prepare acetanilide (Step 1), isolate it, and fully characterize the crude product. In Week 2, we will perform two steps: nitration of acetanilide (Step 2), followed by hydrolysis of the acetamide (Step 3) to generate the desired nitroaniline product.

3 Safety Precautions Nitrobenzene, aniline, and nitroaniline are toxic; aniline is also a cancer suspect agent. Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, acetic anhydride, and ammonium hydroxide are extremely caustic; avoid skin contact. If contact does occur, flush with water for 15 minutes. Wear your gloves and protective clothing throughout this experiment and work in the fume hood to avoid breathing vapors. Week 1: Preparation of Acetanilide Pre-Lab Notebook (to be completed prior to the start of lab in Week 1) Enter date, experiment number and title on notebook page and in TOC with corresponding page number. Copy the Week 1 reaction and the reaction table below (in your own writing) into your notebook and complete all empty cells in the table. Make sure to check your calculations with your instructor before starting the experiment. Name formula MW (g/mol) mass (g) mmol equiv d (g/ml) vol (ml) mp ( C) bp ( C) aniline C 6 H 7 N acetic anhydride C 4 H 6 O water H 2 O desired rxn conc M 1.0 acetanilide C 8 H 9 NO Lit. mp Week 1 Procedure Into a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask, weigh out 1.50 g of aniline (NOTE: always record the actual mass that you measured to the precision of your balance), add a stir bar, and dissolve this in enough water to give a concentration of 0.27 M (you should record the VOLUME of water used). Add 1.2 equivalents of acetic anhydride, and stir the solution at room temperature for at least minutes. At some point, solids should form. Note any changes that occur to the reaction mixture and the times at which they occurred. After minutes, cool the reaction mixture in an ice bath to complete crystallization. Isolate the product by vacuum filtration, wash it with cold water, and allow it to dry on the funnel by pulling air through the solids for 20 minutes. It is imperative that your acetanilide be dry for the next step! Thus, label a small beaker, obtain a tare weight, and put your produce in it covered with a Kimwipe/rubber band to dry in the back of the hood for a week.

4 Data for Week 1 (collect and record in your notebook during the lab) Describe product and calculate crude % yield of the dried solid Obtain melting point and list with literature value Obtain IR (solid is best), staple in notebook, and assign major functional group peaks Obtain 1 H NMR (use ~10 mg in CDCl 3 ), staple into notebook, and assign all peaks in the spectrum Record beaker tare weights Week 2: a) Nitration of Acetanilide; b) Hydrolysis of Nitroacetanilides Pre-Lab Notebook (to be completed prior to the start of lab in Week 2) Enter date, experiment number and title on notebook page and in TOC with corresponding page number. Copy the Week 2 reaction and the reaction table below (in your own writing) into your notebook and complete all empty cells in the table. Make sure to check your calculations with your instructor before starting the experiment. HN O 1.H 2 SO 4,HNO 3 2.H 2 O,heat 3.NH 4 OH NH 2 acetanilide NO 2 p-nitroaniline Name formula MW (g/mol) mass (g) mmol equiv d (g/ml) vol (ml) mp ( C) bp ( C) acetanilide C 8 H 9 NO conc. H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO conc. HNO 3 HNO conc. NH 4 OH NH 4 OH 33.9 p-nitroaniline C 6 H 6 N 2 O 2 Lit. mp

5 Week 2 Procedure Measure 8 equivalents of concentrated sulfuric acid into a 10-mL graduated cylinder (this volume should be in your notebook, as you calculated it previously). Pour about half of this acid into a 50-mL round bottom flask. To the acid remaining in the graduated cylinder, add 2.0 equivalents of concentrated nitric acid (again, record volume). Carefully mix the two acids in the cylinder by filling a Pasteur pipet at the bottom of the cylinder, and then discharging it at the top, several times. Add 0.90 g of your dry acetanilide from Week 1 to the sulfuric acid in the Erlenmeyer flask, swirl until almost all of it has dissolved, and then cool the flask in an ice bath. Using a Pasteur pipet, transfer about ¼ ml portions of the nitric-sulfuric acid mixture to the flask and swirl the flask in the ice bath after each addition. Do not allow the flask to become warm; the addition of all of the mixture of acids should require about 10 min. When the addition of acids is complete, swirl for 2 minutes, then add to the reaction mixture 10 ml of ice water and a boiling chip. Attach a water-cooled condenser to the flask. Using a heating mantle as the heat source (Variac setting ~ 70), gently boil the mixture for 15 min to effect hydrolysis of the nitroacetanilides. Cool the flask in an ice bath. When the reaction mixture is thoroughly cold (make sure it and the ice bath are directly under your hood), CAUTIOUSLY add a total of 9 ml of concentrated ammonium hydroxide in approximately 1 ml portions, taking care to swirl the flask after each addition. Make sure that the mouth of the flask is not pointed at yourself or your neighbor. This neutralization reaction is quite exothermic, and if done improperly, it will result in a sudden evolution of ammonia that expels the contents out of the flask! Collect the crude product by vacuum filtration, wash the product in the Büchner funnel with a total of 4 ml of cold water, and dry it by drawing air through it for 5-10 minutes. Run a TLC of your crude product in 1:1 hexanes:ethyl acetate, draw the plate in the Data section and calculate Rf s for all spots. The crude product contains both ortho- and para-nitroaniline. As stated in the introduction to this experiment, the major isomer is para-nitroaniline. (The amount of dinitroaniline present is negligible.) Recrystallize the crude product from about 2 ml of hot ethanol in a 25-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Allow the mixture to slowcool to room temperature, and then set it in an ice bath for min. Isolate the resulting solids by vacuum filtration use 1-2 ml of cold ethanol to transfer remaining crystals to the funnel and to rinse the crystals on the filter paper. Dry the solids by pulling air through the funnel for 10 minutes. Run TLC of your purified product in 1:1 hexanes:ethyl acetate, draw the plate and calculate Rf in your Data section. Data for Week 2 (collect and record in your notebook during the lab) Describe product and calculate % yield of the recrystallized solid TLC data (draw crude and purified product TLC s, calculate Rf s, include mobile phase) Obtain melting point and list with literature value Obtain IR (solid is best), staple in notebook, and assign major functional group peaks Obtain 1 H NMR (use ~10 mg in CDCl 3 ), staple into notebook, and assign all peaks in the spectrum Overall Conclusion (record in your notebook) State outcome, yield for each step, overall yield for the two steps, proof of success and purity, possible sources of error, and any other information deemed necessary and relevant (i.e. spectral data as support). Also note how well recrystallization went (should compare TLC of crude vs. purified product).

6 The IR and NMR data for your aniline starting material are given below for your reference. IR of aniline (thin film) 1H NMR of aniline (90 MHz in CDCl 3 ) s, 2H m, 2H m, 3H

Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance

Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance 1 Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance Read pp 142-155, 161-162, Chapter 10 and pp 163-173, Chapter 11, in LTOC. View the videos: 4.2 Extraction (Macroscale);

More information

Recrystallization II 23

Recrystallization II 23 Recrystallization II 23 Chem 355 Jasperse RECRYSTALLIZATIN-Week 2 1. Mixed Recrystallization of Acetanilide 2. Mixed Recrystallization of Dibenzylacetone 3. Recrystallization of an Unknown Background Review:

More information

Syllabus CHM 2202 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Spring 2011

Syllabus CHM 2202 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Spring 2011 Villanova University Department of Chemistry Syllabus CHM 2202 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Spring 2011 Text: C.E. Bell, D.F. Taber and A.K. Clark, Organic Chemistry Laboratory with Qualitative Analysis,

More information

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Learning Goals: Students will understand how to produce biodiesel from virgin vegetable oil. Students will understand the effect of an exothermic

More information

Acid-Base Extraction.

Acid-Base Extraction. Acid-Base Extraction. Extraction involves dissolving a compound or compounds either (1) from a solid into a solvent or (2) from a solution into another solvent. A familiar example of the first case is

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

Taking Apart the Pieces

Taking Apart the Pieces Lab 4 Taking Apart the Pieces How does starting your morning out right relate to relief from a headache? I t is a lazy Saturday morning and you ve just awakened to your favorite cereal Morning Trails and

More information

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

More information

Dipeptide Synthesis. polarized light (Figure 2).

Dipeptide Synthesis. polarized light (Figure 2). Dipeptide Synthesis + Scheme 1: Peptide synthesis without carboxyl activation + 2 Throughout your organic chemistry tenure you have been taught the underlying principles necessary to construct simple organic

More information

Pure Solid Compounds: Molecules held together in rigid formations by intermolecular forces.

Pure Solid Compounds: Molecules held together in rigid formations by intermolecular forces. Recrystallization: Purification of Solid Compounds Pure Solid Compounds: Molecules held together in rigid formations by intermolecular forces. Types of Intermolecular Forces? 1. Van der Waal s forces London

More information

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml elearning 2009 Introduction Target Mole Lab Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation Publication No. A common chemical reaction used in chemistry class is zinc and hydrochloric In this lab, students

More information

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid 1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will

More information

Distillation of Alcohol

Distillation of Alcohol CHEM 121L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 1.6 Distillation of Alcohol To learn about the separation of substances. To learn about the separation technique of distillation. To learn how to characterize

More information

Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound

Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound The analysis of the outcome of a reaction requires that we know the full structure of the products as well as the reactants In the 19 th and early 20 th

More information

Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids

Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids Willamette University Chemistry Department 2013 Project 5: HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids LABORATORY REPORT: Formal Writing Exercises PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT Read the entire laboratory project and section 28C

More information

Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution

Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution Introduction The classic method of determining calcium and other suitable cations is titration with a standardized solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic

More information

Transformation Protocol

Transformation Protocol To make Glycerol Stocks of Plasmids ** To be done in the hood and use RNase/DNase free tips** 1. In a 10 ml sterile tube add 3 ml autoclaved LB broth and 1.5 ul antibiotic (@ 100 ug/ul) or 3 ul antibiotic

More information

Whoosh Bottle Safe Laboratory Practices

Whoosh Bottle Safe Laboratory Practices E-Learning Introduction Whoosh Bottle Safe Laboratory Practices Teach essential safety precautions relative to combustion, flammability, and the fire triangle. Publication No. 95010 Concepts Flammable

More information

Quality. Now Certified to ISO 9001:2008

Quality. Now Certified to ISO 9001:2008 Quality Now Certified to ISO 90012008 Quality Policy It is Peptides International's goal is to achieve complete customer satisfaction by addressing customer needs and delivering what we promise. The company

More information

Phosphates (ortho- and total)

Phosphates (ortho- and total) INTRODUCTION Phosphates (ortho- and total) Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all aquatic plants and algae. Only a very small amount is needed, however, so an excess of phosphorus can easily occur.

More information

Hot water extractable acidity or alkalinity of paper (Reaffirmation of T 428 om-08) (No changes from Draft 1)

Hot water extractable acidity or alkalinity of paper (Reaffirmation of T 428 om-08) (No changes from Draft 1) NOTICE: This is a DRAFT of a TAPPI Standard in ballot. Although available for public viewing, it is still under TAPPI s copyright and may not be reproduced or distributed without permission of TAPPI. This

More information

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS 5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS Sl. No. Contents Preamble 5.1 Aim 5.2 Introduction 5.2.1 Environmental Significance 5.3 Principle 5.4 Materials Required 5.4.1 Apparatus Required 5.4.2

More information

Household Acids and Bases

Household Acids and Bases Household Acids and Bases GRADE LEVEL INDICATORS Experiment Demonstrate that the ph scale (0-14) is used to measure acidity and classify substances or solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral. 21 Develop

More information

Safety Data Sheet. Product #: 300178. Aspira Scientific 521 Cottonwood Dr. Milpitas, CA 95035 408.571.1100 techsupport@aspirasci.com www.aspirasci.

Safety Data Sheet. Product #: 300178. Aspira Scientific 521 Cottonwood Dr. Milpitas, CA 95035 408.571.1100 techsupport@aspirasci.com www.aspirasci. Safety Data Sheet Aspira Scientific 521 Cottonwood Dr. Milpitas, CA 95035 408.571.1100 techsupport@aspirasci.com www.aspirasci.com Section 1: Product Identification Product Identifiers Product Name: L-

More information

AIRFREE TECHNIQUE AND SENSITIVE REAGENTS S ECTI O N 1: GLASS W ARE A ND E Q UIP M ENT. A. Using a manifold

AIRFREE TECHNIQUE AND SENSITIVE REAGENTS S ECTI O N 1: GLASS W ARE A ND E Q UIP M ENT. A. Using a manifold AIRFREE TECHNIQUE AND SENSITIVE REAGENTS S ECTI O N 1: GLASS W ARE A ND E Q UIP M ENT Some organic compounds are air sensitive. They can react with the water vapor or oxygen in the air. In order to perform

More information

Working with Hazardous Chemicals

Working with Hazardous Chemicals A Publication of Reliable Methods for the Preparation of Organic Compounds Working with Hazardous Chemicals The procedures in Organic Syntheses are intended for use only by persons with proper training

More information

ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS

ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS 1 ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS Buck Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Model 200 Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) has for many years

More information

Overview'of'Solid-Phase'Peptide'Synthesis'(SPPS)'and'Secondary'Structure'Determination'by'FTIR'

Overview'of'Solid-Phase'Peptide'Synthesis'(SPPS)'and'Secondary'Structure'Determination'by'FTIR' verviewofsolid-phasepeptidesynthesis(spps)andsecondarystructuredeterminationbyftir Introduction Proteinsareubiquitousinlivingorganismsandcells,andcanserveavarietyoffunctions.Proteinscanactas enzymes,hormones,antibiotics,receptors,orserveasstructuralsupportsintissuessuchasmuscle,hair,and

More information

Experimental procedures. Solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS)

Experimental procedures. Solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 214 Experimental procedures Solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) Solid phase

More information

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression 1 Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression Objective: In this experiment, you will determine the molecular weight of a compound by measuring the freezing point of a

More information

SPIKE RECOVERY AND DETERMINING A METHOD DETECTION LIMIT Pamela Doolittle, University of Wisconsin Madison, pssemrad@wisc.edu 2014

SPIKE RECOVERY AND DETERMINING A METHOD DETECTION LIMIT Pamela Doolittle, University of Wisconsin Madison, pssemrad@wisc.edu 2014 SPIKE RECOVERY AND DETERMINING A METHOD DETECTION LIMIT Pamela Doolittle, University of Wisconsin Madison, pssemrad@wisc.edu 2014 This experiment explores quality assurance practices which are commonly

More information

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets Cautions: 6 M hydrochloric acid is corrosive. Purpose: To colorimetrically determine the mass of iron present in commercial vitamin tablets using a prepared calibration curve. Introduction: Iron is considered

More information

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 7-Amino cephalosporanic Acid Derivatives of Amino Acids and Peptides

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 7-Amino cephalosporanic Acid Derivatives of Amino Acids and Peptides Asian Journal of Chemistry Vol. 22, No. 4 (2010), 2914-2918 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 7-Amino cephalosporanic Acid Derivatives of Amino Acids and Peptides M. HIMAJA*, SIDDHARTH DESAI, A.

More information

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, BATTERIES, & THE NERNST EQUATION Experiment partially adapted from J. Chem. Educ., 2008, 85 (8), p 1116 Introduction Electrochemical cell In this experiment,

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

ACIDS AND BASES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

ACIDS AND BASES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ACIDS AND BASES Mild acids and bases are used in cooking (their reaction makes biscuits and bread rise). Acids such as those in our stomachs eat away at food or digest it. Strong acids and bases are used

More information

CHEM 124L Syllabus General Organic and Biochemistry Lab Summer 2015

CHEM 124L Syllabus General Organic and Biochemistry Lab Summer 2015 CHEM 124L Syllabus General Organic and Biochemistry Lab Summer 2015 Instructor: Office Hours: Text: Frank Tyminski, MEYR 564, x 52552, tyminski@umbc.edu By appointment Bettelheim, Frederick A. and Joseph

More information

NORDIC VOLCANOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 78 05 UNIVERSITY OF ICELANO XRF-SPECTROSCOPY. February '.1 9 7 0

NORDIC VOLCANOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 78 05 UNIVERSITY OF ICELANO XRF-SPECTROSCOPY. February '.1 9 7 0 NORDIC VOLCANOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 78 05 UNIVERSITY OF ICELANO THE ANALYSIS OF RUBIDIUM IN LOW POTASSIUM THOLEIITES BY XRF-SPECTROSCOPY b v February '.1 9 7 0 - 1 - INTRODUCTION The low Rb concentration of

More information

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET "LIQUID FIRE" DRAIN LINE OPENER 09/2007 PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET LIQUID FIRE DRAIN LINE OPENER 09/2007 PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS: 09/2007 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET "LIQUID FIRE" DRAIN LINE OPENER MANUFACTURER'S NAME: AMAZING PRODUCTS, INC. P.O. BOX 14226 LOUISVILLE, KY 40214 PHONE: 502-361-3655 FAX: 502-361-1810 E-MAIL: amazingp@bellsouth.net

More information

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2007 CHEMISTRY - ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 19 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions in

More information

Estimation of Alcohol Content in Wine by Dichromate Oxidation followed by Redox Titration

Estimation of Alcohol Content in Wine by Dichromate Oxidation followed by Redox Titration Sirromet Wines Pty Ltd 850-938 Mount Cotton Rd Mount Cotton Queensland Australia 4165 www.sirromet.com Courtesy of Jessica Ferguson Assistant Winemaker & Chemist Downloaded from seniorchem.com/eei.html

More information

Assessment of Accuracy and Precision

Assessment of Accuracy and Precision 2 chapter Assessment of Accuracy and Precision S.S. Nielsen, Food Analysis Laboratory Manual, Food Science Texts Series, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1463-7_2, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 9 Chapter

More information

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School Prentice Hall Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School C-1.1 Apply established rules for significant digits,

More information

Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts

Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts Goals: Use various methods to separate mixtures, make inferences from temperature/time graphs, and identify substances. 81 Activity M3.3: What

More information

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS Adapted from "Chemistry with Computers" Vernier Software, Portland OR, 1997 INTRODUCTION Titration is the volumetric measurement of a solution

More information

Mt. San Antonio College

Mt. San Antonio College Green Organic Chemistry @ Mt. SAC Mt. San Antonio College Walnut, California Iraj B. Nejad inejad@mtsac.edu 210 th 2YC3 Conference Chemistry for a Sustainable Future Kaneohe, Hawaii May 22-23, 2015 Mt.

More information

Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method)

Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method) Standard Operating Procedure for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Lachat Method) Grace Analytical Lab 536 South Clark Street 10th Floor Chicago, IL 60605 April 15, 1994 Revision 2 Standard Operating Procedure

More information

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES 4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES Sl. No. Contents Preamble 4.1 Aim 4.2 Introduction 4.2.1 Environmental Significance 4.3 Principle 4.4 Materials Required 4.4.1 Apparatus Required 4.4.2 Chemicals

More information

RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY Have your lab textbook available for quick reference to specific pages, indicated in red. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Chromatography

More information

Laboratory Hazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines

Laboratory Hazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Satellite Accumulation Area (SAA) For safety and environmental reasons, hazardous waste must be stored in a designated "Satellite Accumulation Area." These areas must be inspected weekly for container

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2006 69451 Weinheim, Germany Supporting information: experimental details of the synthesis of the amino-functionalized polymers and nanoparticles used Tailor-made ligands

More information

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State State the term that applies to each of the following changes of physical state: (a) Snow changes from a solid to a liquid. (b) Gasoline changes from a liquid

More information

ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1. NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire.

ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1. NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire. ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1 DISTILLATION NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire. The most common methods of distillation are simple distillation

More information

PCR and Sequencing Reaction Clean-Up Kit (Magnetic Bead System) 50 preps Product #60200

PCR and Sequencing Reaction Clean-Up Kit (Magnetic Bead System) 50 preps Product #60200 3430 Schmon Parkway Thorold, ON, Canada L2V 4Y6 Phone: 866-667-4362 (905) 227-8848 Fax: (905) 227-1061 Email: techsupport@norgenbiotek.com PCR and Sequencing Reaction Clean-Up Kit (Magnetic Bead System)

More information

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid The Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleach Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 156-159. We will study an example of a redox titration in order to determine the concentration of sodium

More information

HS 1003 Part 2 HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test

HS 1003 Part 2 HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test 1. Purpose This test method is used to analyse the heavy metal content in an aliquot portion of stabilised hot acetic acid extract by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Note:

More information

Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to introduce concepts of mass spectrometry (MS) as they pertain to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organochlorine

More information

Alkoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Cellulose in Ionic Liquids

Alkoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Cellulose in Ionic Liquids Supplementary data Alkoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Cellulose in Ionic Liquids Anna sichow and Stefan Mecking* Chair of Chemical Materials Science, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, 78464

More information

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system?

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system? Acids and Bases acid: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph less than 7 base: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph greater than 7 ph: the

More information

Stains for Developing TLC Plates

Stains for Developing TLC Plates Stains for Developing TLC Plates Once a TLC has been developed, it is frequently necessary to aid in the visualization of the components of a reaction mixture. This is true primarily because most organic

More information

Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater

Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater Document: AND Sol Env 08 2013 Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater Matrix specific sample preparation and testing methods for environmental waters

More information

EXPERIMENT 5: DIPEPTIDE RESEARCH PROJECT

EXPERIMENT 5: DIPEPTIDE RESEARCH PROJECT EXPERIMENT 5: DIPEPTIDE RESEARCH PROJECT Pre-Lab Questions: None. 64 I. Background Information DIPEPTIDE RESEARCH PROJECT Methods developed by organic chemists for the synthesis of biopolymers have had

More information

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET WORLD PRECISION INSTRUMENTS EMERGENCY NUMBER 941/371-1003 1/800/535-5053 175 Sarasota Center Blvd DATE PREPARED: Sarasota, FL 34240 12/01/95 Rev 02 SECTION I CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

More information

Laboratory Waste Disposal

Laboratory Waste Disposal Laboratory Waste Disposal 1. Purpose This guideline details the procedures to follow in disposing of hazardous waste that is generated in the laboratory in order to minimise risks associated with the disposal

More information

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators Many substances can be classified as acidic or basic. Acidic substances contain hydrogen ions, H +, while basic substances contain hydroxide ions, OH. The relative

More information

Metalloids will also react with oxygen. Upon reaction with oxygen silicon forms silicon dioxide, the main component of sand.

Metalloids will also react with oxygen. Upon reaction with oxygen silicon forms silicon dioxide, the main component of sand. The Preparation and Properties of xygen Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pp. 135-141. Goals We will observe the thermal decomposition of several oxygen-containing compounds called oxides.

More information

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Revision 2.3 Calibration of Volumetric Glassware In this laboratory exercise, we will calibrate the three types of glassware typically used by an analytical chemist;

More information

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7 Alcohols, Ethers and More 1 What do you do when you are in Pain? What do you do when you are in a lot of pain? 2 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom, groups

More information

Making Biodiesel in the Classroom

Making Biodiesel in the Classroom Making Biodiesel in the Classroom April Lanotte Big Sandy Schools alanotte@bigsandy100j.org What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel is made from vegetable oil or animal fat (triglycerides) reacted with methanol or

More information

1. Product and Company Identification

1. Product and Company Identification Material Safety Data Sheet Oligonucleotide (unmodified and modified) English 1 / 7 1. Product and Company Identification 1.1 Product identifier Chemical Name / Trade Name: Synthetic Nucleic Acid (Oligonucleotide)

More information

NITRIC OXIDE and NITROGEN DIOXIDE 6014

NITRIC OXIDE and NITROGEN DIOXIDE 6014 NITRIC OXIDE and NITROGEN DIOXIDE 6014 NO MW: 30.01 CAS: 10102-43-9 RTECS: QX0525000 46.01 10102-44-0 QW9800000 METHOD: 6014, Issue 1 EVALUATION: FULL Issue 1: 15 August 1994 OSHA : 25 ppm NO; C 1 ppm

More information

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Manual to experiment nr 10 Instructor: Dr Tomasz S. Pawłowski 1 Goal of the experiment The goal of the experiment is introduction of

More information

Common Syllabus for CHEM 232L College of Charleston Spring 2015

Common Syllabus for CHEM 232L College of Charleston Spring 2015 Common Syllabus for CHEM 232L Spring 2015 Section Information 20285 01 M 02:15 pm - 05:15 pm Frederick J Heldrich 20286 02 M 05:30 pm - 08:30 pm Andrew Keith Gelasco 20287 03 T 12:00 pm - 03:00 pm Frederick

More information

LABORATORY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

LABORATORY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABRATRY F RGANIC CHEMISTRY NATURAL PRDUCTS AND PHARMACEUTICALS Anna K. Przybył Joanna Kurek Edited by Jan Milecki UAM, Poznań 2013 CNSTENTS I. Synthesis of compounds 1. Aspirin (synthesis)...... 2. Paracetamol

More information

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY EXPERIMENT: LUMINOL TEST Luminol Test Visitors mix a solution of luminol with fake blood (hydrogen peroxide) to produce a reaction that gives off blue light. OBJECTIVES: Visitors learn that some chemical

More information

Experiment 5 Empirical Formula of Zinc Iodide

Experiment 5 Empirical Formula of Zinc Iodide Experiment 5 Empirical Formula of Zinc Iodide Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to react elemental zinc and iodine to form the binary compound zinc iodide (Zn x I y ) and to use the amounts of

More information

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Solution, Acids and Bases Mixtures Two or more substances Heterogeneous- different from place to place Types of heterogeneous mixtures Suspensions- Large particles that eventually settle out

More information

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware Chemistry 119: Experiment 2 Calibration of Volumetric Glassware For making accurate measurements in analytical procedures, next in importance to the balance is volumetric equipment. In this section volumetric

More information

SAFETY DATA SHEET Glen-Pak TM DNA purification cartridge (for use with disposable syringes) 60-5200-xx

SAFETY DATA SHEET Glen-Pak TM DNA purification cartridge (for use with disposable syringes) 60-5200-xx Product Code: Product Name: Product Use: Manufacturer Information Company Name: SAFETY DATA SHEET 1. Product and Company Identification 60-5200-xx Glen-Pak TM DNA purification cartridge For Research Use

More information

JUNIOR COLLEGE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EXPERIMENT 21 SECOND YEAR PRACTICAL. Name: Group: Date: THE CHEMISTRY OF COPPER AND IRON

JUNIOR COLLEGE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EXPERIMENT 21 SECOND YEAR PRACTICAL. Name: Group: Date: THE CHEMISTRY OF COPPER AND IRON JUNIOR COLLEGE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EXPERIMENT 21 SECOND YEAR PRACTICAL Name: Group: Date: COPPER THE CHEMISTRY OF COPPER AND IRON 1. To a solution of Cu 2+ ions add aqueous sodium hydroxide and heat the

More information

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15 Chemistry 201 Lecture 15 Practical aspects of buffers NC State University The everyday ph scale To review what ph means in practice, we consider the ph of everyday substances that we know from experience.

More information

Determination of Insoluble Solids in Pretreated Biomass March 2008 Material

Determination of Insoluble Solids in Pretreated Biomass March 2008 Material National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future A national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Determination of Insoluble Solids

More information

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

More information

METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL FILTER PAPERS

METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL FILTER PAPERS U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS RESEARCH PAPER RP1653 Part of Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, Volume 34, May 1945 METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL

More information

SUCRALOSE. White to off-white, practically odourless crystalline powder

SUCRALOSE. White to off-white, practically odourless crystalline powder SUCRALOSE Prepared at the 41st JECFA (1993), published in FNP 52 Add 2 (1993). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 63rd JECFA (2004). An ADI of 0-15 mg/kg bw was established at the 37th JECFA

More information

Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V.

Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V. Voltaic Cells Introduction In this lab you will first prepare a set of simple standard half-cells and then measure the voltage between the half-cells with a voltmeter. From this data you will be able to

More information

Calendula Extract Safety Data Sheet

Calendula Extract Safety Data Sheet Calendula Extract Safety Data Sheet SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking Product name: Calendula Extract Product code: 305-109 Supplier: Majestic Mountain Sage

More information

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET SECTION 1: PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION PRODUCT NAME: Thrift Drain Cleaner SYNONYMS: Thrift Crystals PRODUCT CODES: T-100, T-200, T-600 MANUFACTURER: JR2D, INC. DIVISION: ADDRESS: 3435 St. Hwy 146

More information

Courtesy of Professor Daley, Foothill College Chemistry Dept. 1

Courtesy of Professor Daley, Foothill College Chemistry Dept. 1 Foothill College Department of Chemistry Safety Rules and Regulations Safety Rules: 1. Prepare for each experiment by reading all of the directions before lab starts. 2. Locate the Safety Equipment. Know

More information

INTDUCTIN T LEWIS ACID-BASE CEMISTY DEINITINS Lewis acids and bases are defined in terms of electron pair transfers. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor, and a Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor.

More information

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances and Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances What is this lab about? You mean what ARE THESE labs about? Ok, so what are THESE labs about?

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Description: SAF DRAIN Revision Number: 00

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Description: SAF DRAIN Revision Number: 00 GRANULAR, ALKALINE DRAIN CLEANER GENERAL SAF-DRAIN is a powerful alkaline drain cleaner designed so that the product reaches the problem area before the reaction takes place. It effectively cleans organic

More information

APPENDIX 2: A BRIEF GUIDE TO WRITING IN CHEMISTRY

APPENDIX 2: A BRIEF GUIDE TO WRITING IN CHEMISTRY Writing Guide - 1 APPENDIX 2: A BRIEF GUIDE TO WRITING IN CHEMISTRY This document is a guide to assist students in chemistry courses with writing and formatting laboratory reports and research reports.

More information

: CRYSTAL CLEAN DRAIN CLEANER CRYSTALS

: CRYSTAL CLEAN DRAIN CLEANER CRYSTALS 1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product information Trade name Use of the Substance/Preparation : : Drain Cleaner Company : PRO-TEC CHEMICAL AND PLASTICS LLC. 9646 Highway 20 West Freeport, FL 32439

More information

GRS Plasmid Purification Kit Transfection Grade GK73.0002 (2 MaxiPreps)

GRS Plasmid Purification Kit Transfection Grade GK73.0002 (2 MaxiPreps) 1 GRS Plasmid Purification Kit Transfection Grade GK73.0002 (2 MaxiPreps) (FOR RESEARCH ONLY) Sample : Expected Yield : Endotoxin: Format : Operation Time : Elution Volume : 50-400 ml of cultured bacterial

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

Waste Management Log Book

Waste Management Log Book Waste Management Log Book Web address: www.ehs.psu.edu Designated Accumulation Area: Building & Room Number Location in Room Supervisor: E-mail Individual Assigned to Oversight: E-mail Form 1 Chemical

More information

Mechanical Systems Competency 1.20

Mechanical Systems Competency 1.20 Competency 1.20 Mechanical systems personnel shall demonstrate a working level knowledge of the safety and health fundamentals of mechanical systems and/or components. 1. Supporting Knowledge and Skills

More information