PREPARATION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID (ASPIRIN)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PREPARATION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID (ASPIRIN)"

Transcription

1 PREPARATIN F ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID (ASPIRIN) BACKGRUND ne of the most widely used nonprescription drugs is aspirin. In the United States, more than 15,000 pounds are sold each year. This is not surprising when one considers the medicinal applications for aspirin. It is an effective analgesic (pain killer) that can reduce the mild pain of headache, toothache, neuralgia (never pain), muscle pain, and join pain (from arthritis and rheumatism). Aspirin behaves as an antipyretic drug (it reduces fever) and it is an anti-inflammatory agent capable of reducing swelling and redness associated with inflammation. It is also an effective agent in preventing strokes and heart attacks due to its ability to act as an anticoagulant by preventing platelet aggregation. The father of modern medicine was Hippocrates, who lived sometime between 460 B.C and 377 B.C. Hippocrates left historical records of pain relief treatments, including the use of powder made from the bark and leaves of the willow tree to help heal headaches, pains and fevers. By 1829, scientists discovered that it was the compound salicin in willow plants that gave pain relief. It was a short time later that a tiny amount of bitter tasting, yellow, needle-like crystals were isolated from willow bark by Johann Buchner, professor of pharmacy at the University of Munich. By 1829, a French chemist improved the extraction procedure and was able to obtain about 30g from 1.5kg of bark. In 1838, an Italian chemist was able convert salicin to an acid of crystallized, colorless needles, which he named salicylic acid. Since salicylic acid contains phenolic and carboxylic acid groups, it was irritating to the mouth, throat, and stomach. After considerable work, the derivative acetylsalicylic acid was found to have similar painrelieving properties without the harsh side effects. It was in 1899, that the Bayer Company in Germany patented the ester acetylsalicylic acid and marketed the product as aspirin in Their studies showed that this material was less of an irritant and the acetylsalicylic acid hydrolyzed in the small intestine to salicylic acid, which was then absorbed into the bloodstream. The relationship between salicylic acid and aspirin is shown in Figure 1. CH CH H C CH 3 Salicylic Acid Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin) Fig. 1: Aspirin vs. Salicylic Acid The first person to do so was a French chemist named Charles Frederic Gerhardt. In 1853, Gerhardt neutralized salicylic acid by buffering it with sodium (sodium salicylate) and acetyl chloride, creating acetylsalicylic acid. Gerhardt's product worked but he had no desire to market it and abandoned his discovery.

2 In 1899, a German chemist named Felix Hoffmann (Fig. 2), who worked for a German company called Bayer, rediscovered Gerhardt's formula. Felix Hoffmann made some of the formula and gave it to his father who was suffering from the pain of arthritis, with good results. Felix Hoffmann then convinced Bayer to market the new wonder drug. Aspirin was patented on February 27, The folks at Bayer came up with the name Aspirin, it comes from the 'A" in acetyl chloride, the "spir" in spiraea ulmaria (the plant they derived the salicylic acid from) and the 'in' was a then familiar name ending for medicines. Aspirin was first sold as a powder. In 1915, the first Aspirin tablets were made. Interestingly, Aspirin was once a trademark belonging to Bayer. After Germany lost World War I, Bayer was forced to give it up as part of the Treaty of Versailles in Fig. 2: Felix Hoffman Fig. 3: Bayer was the first company to market Aspirin. Fig. 4: Pure Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) SYNTHESIS Chemistry H H H CH 3 CH 3 CH CH 3 H Acetic Anhydride Salicylic Acid Acetyl Salicylic Acid Acetic Acid Figure 5: The Aspirin Synthesis Reaction

3 Safety The chemicals used to synthesize aspirin present a health hazard and exposure should be kept to a minimum: 1) Sulfuric Acid: A highly corrosive liquid that will cause severe burns if it comes into contact with skin. 2) Salicylic Acid: Harmful by inhalation, ingestion, and through skin absorption. An irritant. 3) Acetic anhydride: Poison. Corrosive. Cuases severe burns. Harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Causes severe respiratory irritation. Eye contact may cause serious irritation or burns. 4) Ferric Chloride Solution: Corrosive 5) Ethanol: Toxic and flammable Procedure 1. Set up a secure water bath, as shown in the figure to the right, using a ring stand, extension clamp (which will be used to hold a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask), and a hotplate. Begin heating the water. A 600 ml beaker will accommodate the flask well. 2. Weigh approximately 2 grams of salicylic acid, using a watch glass, on the top loading balance. Record the weight to the full precision of the balance. 3. Transfer the salicylic acid completely to a clean, dry 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. 4. In the hood, transfer 4.0 ml of acetic anhydride into the 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask using a 10 ml graduated cylinder. 5. In the hood, carefully add 5 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid to the Erlenmeyer flask using the dropper provided. Be careful not to let the sulfuric acid drop anywhere other than into the flask. If any acid does spill anywhere, advise the teaching assistant immediately. Swirl the flask to help mix the contents. Do not add the sulfuric acid before the acetic anhydride. The reaction mixture should form a clear solution as it is heated. 6. Bring the flask back to the desk. Place it in the extension clamp (tilting the flask will help minimize boil over). Make sure the reaction mixture is below the liquid level in the bath and that the water is boiling. Heat in the boiling water bath for not less than 20 minutes by which time all of the solid should have dissolved.

4 7. btain 50 ml of ice water in a 150 ml beaker. After removing the flask from the water bath, measure 10 ml of ice water in a 10 ml graduated cylinder and add it to the reaction mixture, 3-5 drops at a time, to hydrolyze the unreacted acetic anhydride. 8. Chill the Erlenmeyer flask in an ice bath with occasional swirling to cause precipitation of the product. Add 25 ml of ice water to the reaction mixture. If no precipitate forms, scratching the side of the flask with a glass stirring rod may help initiate crystallization. While the flask is chilling, prepare a vacuum filtration apparatus as shown in the figure to the right. 9. Weigh a piece of filter paper on a watchglass. Record the weight of the paper + the watchglass. Place the weighed paper in the Buchner funnel. Wet the paper with a small amount of water using your wash bottle to seal the paper to the funnel surface. 10. Turn on the aspirator. Swirl the flask and pour its contents carefully onto the center of the filter paper. Use a stirring rod with a rubber policeman to assist in getting all of the solid out of the flask. 11. When all the solid has been captured on the filter paper and the liquid has all been sucked through, wash the product by slowly pouring a measured amount of ice water, not to exceed 15 ml, on the surface of the precipitate. Decrease the aspirator flow and adjust it so the liquid is removed at a very slow drop rate. This is to wash the precipitate to remove any remaining acetic acid. 12. Take a very small amount (50 mg) of the sample and place it on a watch glass. We will use this amount to perform some tests. It can be dried on the laboratory ventilators. 13. Transfer the filter paper and remaining product back to the watch glass by inserting a clean spatula under the bottom of the filter paper to peel it away from the funnel. Weigh the product and weigh paper. Qualitative Tests of the Purity of the Product: 1) Ferric Chloride Test The addition of ferric chloride to salicylic acid produces a specific color caused by the reaction of salicylic acid with aqueous ferric (Fe(H2) +3 6 ) ion. The oxygen atoms of the acid group CH, and of the -H group on the salicylic acid together can form a complex with Fe(H2) That complex has an intense violet color. In aspirin, the H group of salicylic acid has been replaced by a -CCH3 group which prevents the second bond from being formed. The resulting complex with aspirin shows only a slight yellow color, not very different from that of Fe(H2) +3 6 itself. Into each of three clean and dry small test tubes, place 1 ml of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and one drop of 1% aqueous ferric chloride solution. Into the first, place a few crystals (about 5 mg) of salicylic

5 acid. Into the second, place the same amount of your product from the 50 mg sample on the watch glass in step 12, above. The third tube is used as a control (blank). Shake the mixture in each test tube. Record the results in your notebook and on the data sheet. Comment on the significance of the results in particular, how it relates to the purity of your product. 2) Heat Test Aspirin is known to be unstable in the presence of moisture at elevated temperatures. At those temperatures, aspirin hydrolyzes (i.e., reacts with water) to decompose into salicylic acid and acetic acid. Acetic acid has a characteristic pungent smell. The detection of this odor depends on the assumption that all of the acetic acid (which was both a product in the reaction and produced from the hydrolysis of excess acetic anhydride) was removed from the sample in the final washing process. To another clean small test tube, add a few crystals (about 10 mg) of your product, again, from the 50 mg sample on the watch glass in step 12, above. Heat it gently to melting. Remove from the heat and note the odor of the escaping vapor by carefully fanning the vapors with your hand toward your nose. Comment on the odor and on the implications on the purity of your product. ACKNWLEDGEMENTS The History of Aspirin by Mary Bellis, 15 July Aspirin, 15 July Aspirin in it s Pure State, Retouched photo of Thesmallprint189 + Leridant (modification of colour) source: 15 July 2009.

6 REPRT SHEET 1. Theoretical Yield = g aspirin 2. Actual Yield a) Mass of empty 50mL beaker g b) Mass of aspirin + beaker g c) Mass of aspirin (b a) g d) Percent yield [(c/1) x 100% % 3. Iron (III) Chloride Test SAMPLE CLR INTENSITY a) Salicylic acid b) Your aspirin c) Commercial aspirin

7 4. Post-lab Questions a) What was used to increase the rate of the reaction? b) What would happen to your percent yield if the aspirin you prepared was not dried completely? c) A student s theoretical yield was 12.0g of aspirin, but he only obtained 7.5g. What was his percent yield? d) Did you like this experiment? (Please explain why or why not.)

One of the most widely used nonprescription drugs is aspirin. In. the United States, more than 15,000 pounds are sold each year.

One of the most widely used nonprescription drugs is aspirin. In. the United States, more than 15,000 pounds are sold each year. BPreparation of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) Background: One of the most widely used nonprescription drugs is aspirin. In the United States, more than 15,000 pounds are sold each year. It is no wonder

More information

Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin

Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin Aspirin is an effective analgesic (pain reliever), antipyretic (fever reducer) and anti-inflammatory agent and is one of the most widely used non-prescription drugs. The

More information

EXPERIMENT 29 SYNTHESIS OF ASPIRIN

EXPERIMENT 29 SYNTHESIS OF ASPIRIN EXPERIMENT 29 SYNTHESIS OF ASPIRIN INTRODUCTION Aspirin is one of the most widely used medications in the world. It is employed as an analgesic (pain relief), an anti-pyretic (fever control) and an anti

More information

Aspirin Synthesis H 3 PO 4

Aspirin Synthesis H 3 PO 4 Aspirin Synthesis Experiment 5 Aspirin is the common name for the compound acetylsalicylic acid, widely used as a fever reducer and as a pain killer. Salicylic acid, whose name comes from Salix, the willow

More information

experiment5 Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Learning how to perform a vacuum filtration.

experiment5 Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Learning how to perform a vacuum filtration. 81 experiment5 LECTURE AND LAB SKILLS EMPHASIZED Synthesizing an organic substance. Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Determining percent yield. Learning how to perform a vacuum

More information

Synthesis of Aspirin and Oil of Wintergreen

Synthesis of Aspirin and Oil of Wintergreen Austin Peay State University Department of hemistry hem 1121 autions Purpose Introduction Acetic Anhydride corrosive and a lachrymator all transfers should be done in the vented fume hood Methanol, Ethanol

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan - Cherif Synthesis of Aspirin - Esterification

EXPERIMENT 9 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan - Cherif Synthesis of Aspirin - Esterification EXPERIMENT 9 (rganic hemistry II) Pahlavan - herif Materials Hot plate 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask Melting point capillaries Melting point apparatus Büchner funnel 400-mL beaker Stirring rod hemicals Salicylic

More information

Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester

Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester AP Chemistry Laboratory Introduction An ester is a chemical compound that is formed when an organic acid reacts with an alcohol. Esters frequently have

More information

# 14 Synthesis of Salicylic Acid from Aspirin Tablets

# 14 Synthesis of Salicylic Acid from Aspirin Tablets # 14 Synthesis of Salicylic Acid from Aspirin Tablets Purpose: Acetyl salicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets, then is hydrolyzed to form another white solid, salicylic acid. Introduction: The

More information

Purification by Recrystallization

Purification by Recrystallization Experiment 2 Purification by Recrystallization Objectives 1) To be able to select an appropriate recrystallizing solvent. 2) To separate and purify acetanilide by recrystallization. 3) To compare the melting

More information

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 4 Chem.1A

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 4 Chem.1A Name: Section: Experiment 4: Synthesis of Alum Pre-laboratory Assignment (Read through the experiment before starting!) 1. a) What are the strong acid and strong base used in this synthesis? b) What should

More information

PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF A SOAP

PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF A SOAP (adapted from Blackburn et al., Laboratory Manual to Accompany World of Chemistry, 2 nd ed., (1996) Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth) Purpose: To prepare a sample of soap and to examine its properties.

More information

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE EXPERIMENT 1

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE EXPERIMENT 1 PURPOSE To investigate the criteria used to distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter. 1 DEFINITIONS Chemical property, physical property, chemical change, physical change, conservation

More information

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Matter can be classified into two groups: mixtures and pure substances. Mixtures are the most common form of matter and consist of mixtures of pure substances.

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Properties Introduction Matter can be classified in different ways using physical and chemical properties. Physical properties include color, odor, density, hardness, structure, solubility,

More information

CHEM 2423 Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid

CHEM 2423 Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid Purpose: a) To purify samples of organic compounds that are solids at room temperature b) To dissociate the impure sample in the minimum

More information

Mixtures and Pure Substances

Mixtures and Pure Substances Unit 2 Mixtures and Pure Substances Matter can be classified into two groups: mixtures and pure substances. Mixtures are the most common form of matter and consist of mixtures of pure substances. They

More information

How are drugs developed?

How are drugs developed? How are drugs developed? Take part in the research of a drug Experiment workshop Student guide 1 Introduction Many stages are involved in the discovery and development of medicines. One of the most important

More information

Synthesis of a Coordination Compound Containing Iron and Analysis of this Compound Using Redox Methods Prelab

Synthesis of a Coordination Compound Containing Iron and Analysis of this Compound Using Redox Methods Prelab Synthesis of a Coordination Compound Containing Iron and Analysis of this Compound Using Redox Methods Prelab Name Total /10 NOTE: AT THIS POINT YOU WILL ANSWER ALL PRELAB QUESTIONS IN YOUR CARBON COPY

More information

Recrystallization Introduction Solubility

Recrystallization Introduction Solubility 1 Recrystallization Introduction Solubility Most compounds are more soluble in a given solvent at higher temperatures. As you can see from the data in the table below, the solubilities in water of salt

More information

Lab 1: Gravimetric Analysis of a Metal Carbonate

Lab 1: Gravimetric Analysis of a Metal Carbonate AP Chemistry Lab Date: Chemist: Lab Write Up Due Date: Lab 1: Gravimetric Analysis of a Metal Carbonate BACKGROUND How do chemists determine the identity of a compound? A large variety of analytical techniques

More information

THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS

THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS 1 NOTE: You are required to view the podcast entitled Decanting and Suction Filtration before coming to lab this week. Go to http://podcast.montgomerycollege.edu/podcast.php?rcdid=172

More information

Stoichiometry: Mass-mass and percent yield in a precipitate reaction

Stoichiometry: Mass-mass and percent yield in a precipitate reaction Stoichiometry: Mass-mass and percent yield in a precipitate reaction Prelab Assignment: You will complete the Title, Purpose, Background information, Storyboard, and BLANK data table portion of your lab

More information

SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF A COORDINATION COMPOUND OF COPPER

SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF A COORDINATION COMPOUND OF COPPER Chemistry 111 Lab: Synthesis of a Copper Complex Page H-1 SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF A COORDINATION COMPOUND OF COPPER In this experiment you will synthesize a compound by adding NH 3 to a concentrated

More information

What is the Percent Copper in a Compound?

What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? Lab 9 Name What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? Pre-Lab Assignment Complete this pre-lab on this sheet. This written pre-lab is worth 15% (3 points) of your lab report grade and must be initialed

More information

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle Cautions Nitric acid and sulfuric acid are toxic and oxidizers and may burn your skin. Nitrogen dioxide gas produced is hazardous if inhaled. Sodium hydroxide is toxic and corrosive and will cause burns

More information

Water Lab. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components.

Water Lab. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components. Water Lab I. Distillation Hypothesis: Water can be purified by distillation. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components. Materials and Equipment: Sodium chloride,

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes An understanding of material things requires an understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of matter. A few planned experiments can help you

More information

Separation of Active Components from Excedrin ES

Separation of Active Components from Excedrin ES Separation of Active Components from Excedrin ES Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to isolate the active components present in Exedrin ES tablets, namely acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine. To accomplish

More information

Good Hope School Integrated Science New S.1 Summer Work

Good Hope School Integrated Science New S.1 Summer Work Good Hope School Integrated Science New S.1 Summer Work Section 1: Basic vocabulary in Secondary Science The following lists some English terms used in Secondary Science. analyze demonstrate laboratory

More information

12BL Experiment 10: Friedel Crafts Acylation An EAS Reaction

12BL Experiment 10: Friedel Crafts Acylation An EAS Reaction 12BL Experiment 10: Friedel Crafts Acylation An EAS Reaction Safety: Proper lab goggles/glasses must be worn (even over prescription glasses). WEAR GLOVES! Acetic anhydride is corrosive and a lachrymator

More information

Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment 4 Preparation and Properties of Soap

Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment 4 Preparation and Properties of Soap Organic Chemistry Lab Experiment 4 Preparation and Properties of Soap Introduction A soap is the sodium or potassium salt of a long-chain fatty acid. The fatty acid usually contains 12 to 18 carbon atoms.

More information

ALUM FROM WASTE ALUMINUM CANS 2000 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved.

ALUM FROM WASTE ALUMINUM CANS 2000 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. ALUM FROM WASTE ALUMINUM CANS 2000 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. INTRODUCTION Modern beverage containers are usually composed of either aluminum, in the form of aluminum cans, or polyethylene

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNKNOWN ORGANIC COMPOUND Classification Tests

IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNKNOWN ORGANIC COMPOUND Classification Tests IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNKNOWN ORGANIC COMPOUND Classification Tests In this experiment you will attempt to identify an organic unknown from a selected group of compounds from the class of alcohols, aldehydes,

More information

Separation by Solvent Extraction

Separation by Solvent Extraction Experiment 3 Separation by Solvent Extraction Objectives To separate a mixture consisting of a carboxylic acid and a neutral compound by using solvent extraction techniques. Introduction Frequently, organic

More information

Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds

Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds Objective The objective of this experiment is to take a piece of copper as efficiently as possible through a series of chemical reactions. The final

More information

Composition otebook. Student ame: Kip ibly Class: CHM 1025/1045/2210/2211. Instructor: Dr. Barnett

Composition otebook. Student ame: Kip ibly Class: CHM 1025/1045/2210/2211. Instructor: Dr. Barnett Composition otebook Student ame: Kip ibly Class: CM 1025/1045/2210/2211 Instructor: Dr. Barnett (Back of Front Cover) Table of Contents Experimental Title Page Numbers Synthesis of Acetanilide 4 15 1 Table

More information

Synthesis of tetraamminecopper(ii) sulfate, [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ]SO 4 The reaction for making tetraamminecopper(ii) sulfate and some molar masses are:

Synthesis of tetraamminecopper(ii) sulfate, [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ]SO 4 The reaction for making tetraamminecopper(ii) sulfate and some molar masses are: Experiment 9 Synthesis of a opper oordination omplex and Aspirin with Demonstrations of the Synthesis of Nylon, Bakelite, and Polyvinyl Alcohol Slime Synthesis of tetraamminecopper(ii) sulfate, [u(n 3

More information

Experiment #7: Esterification

Experiment #7: Esterification Experiment #7: Esterification Pre-lab: 1. Choose an ester to synthesize. Determine which alcohol and which carboxylic acid you will need to synthesize your ester. Write out the reaction for your specific

More information

Experiment 7 Preparation of 1-Bromobutane

Experiment 7 Preparation of 1-Bromobutane Experiment 7 Preparation of 1-Bromobutane In this experiment you will prepare 1-bromobutane (n-butyl bromide) from n-butanol (1-butanol) using a substitution reaction under acidic conditions. This is an

More information

H 2 N NH 2. ethylenediamine (en) phenanthroline (phen) catechol. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) Cobalt Complexes Spring 2005 NF Page 1 of 6

H 2 N NH 2. ethylenediamine (en) phenanthroline (phen) catechol. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) Cobalt Complexes Spring 2005 NF Page 1 of 6 Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Complexes Adapted from Preparation and Analysis of Two Coordination Complexes of Cobalt, Carnegie Mellon University. For this experiment: 1. Complete the Prelab

More information

RIYADH COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY AND PHARMACY LEVEL V-PHARMACY STUDENTS MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY -I LAB NOTEBOOK FIRST SEMESTER COURSE DIRECTOR:

RIYADH COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY AND PHARMACY LEVEL V-PHARMACY STUDENTS MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY -I LAB NOTEBOOK FIRST SEMESTER COURSE DIRECTOR: RIYADH COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY AND LEVEL V- STUDENTS MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY -I LAB NOTEBOOK FIRST SEMESTER 2007-2008 COURSE DIRECTOR: DR.MAHA ELHAKEEM Name: Student No.: 1 Level V PHRM 312 Lab -1 RIYADH COLLEGE

More information

Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate

Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate Objectives: Challenge: Students should be able to - recognize evidence(s) of a chemical change - convert word equations into formula equations - perform

More information

Isolation of Caffeine from Tea

Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Introduction A number of interesting, biologically active compounds have been isolated from plants. Isolating some of these natural products, as they are called, can require

More information

H H H O. Pre-Lab Exercises Lab 6: Organic Chemistry. Lab 6: Organic Chemistry Chemistry 100. 1. Define the following: a.

H H H O. Pre-Lab Exercises Lab 6: Organic Chemistry. Lab 6: Organic Chemistry Chemistry 100. 1. Define the following: a. Lab 6: Organic hemistry hemistry 100 1. Define the following: a. ydrocarbon Pre-Lab Exercises Lab 6: Organic hemistry Name Date Section b. Saturated hydrocarbon c. Unsaturated hydrocarbon 2. The formula

More information

Experiment 8 Preparation of Cyclohexanone by Hypochlorite Oxidation

Experiment 8 Preparation of Cyclohexanone by Hypochlorite Oxidation Experiment 8 Preparation of Cyclohexanone by ypochlorite xidation In this experiment we will prepare cyclohexanone from cyclohexanol using hypochlorite oxidation. We will use common household bleach that

More information

Taking Apart the Pieces

Taking Apart the Pieces Lab 4 Taking Apart the Pieces How does starting your morning out right relate to relief from a headache? I t is a lazy Saturday morning and you ve just awakened to your favorite cereal Morning Trails and

More information

Aldol Condensation Notes

Aldol Condensation Notes Reminder: These notes are meant to supplement, not replace, the laboratory manual. Aldol Condensation Notes History and Application Many aldehydes have distinctive strong odors. Benzaldehyde smells like

More information

Title: Training Lab 1 Chemistry 11100, Fall Use of a balance a balance is used to measure the mass of solids in the chemistry lab.

Title: Training Lab 1 Chemistry 11100, Fall Use of a balance a balance is used to measure the mass of solids in the chemistry lab. Title: Training Lab 1 Chemistry 11100, Fall 2012 Introduction The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to a series of techniques that you will use in chemistry lab. For this lab, you will be using the

More information

Experiment 2 Separation of Unknown Mixture Using Acid-Base Reactions

Experiment 2 Separation of Unknown Mixture Using Acid-Base Reactions Experiment 2 Separation of Unknown Mixture Using Acid-Base eactions In this experiment you will be given an unknown mixture of three compounds, consisting of one of the two carboxylic acids, one of the

More information

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4 Catalog No. AP6356 Publication No. 6356A Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4 Introduction A procedure for determining the molar mass of a substance is very useful to chemists.

More information

The Chemistry of Dyes Part I: The Synthesis of Indigo Dye

The Chemistry of Dyes Part I: The Synthesis of Indigo Dye The Chemistry of Dyes Part I: The Synthesis of Indigo Dye Name: Period: PURPOSE: To synthesize indigo dye in preparation for understanding how and why it dyes fabrics THEORY: Organic Chemistry is the study

More information

5. Determine the limiting reagent and calculate the theoretical yield of a reaction. 6. Calculate percent yield.

5. Determine the limiting reagent and calculate the theoretical yield of a reaction. 6. Calculate percent yield. Stoichiometry The term "stoichiometry" refers to the quantitative relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions. In a balanced chemical equation, the coefficients (or mole ratios)

More information

ISOLATION OF CAFFEINE FROM TEA

ISOLATION OF CAFFEINE FROM TEA ISLATIN F CAFFEINE FRM TEA Introduction In this experiment, caffeine is isolated from tealeaves. The chief problem with the isolation is that caffeine does not exist alone in the tealeaves, but other natural

More information

Dissolving of sodium hydroxide generates heat. Take care in handling the dilution container.

Dissolving of sodium hydroxide generates heat. Take care in handling the dilution container. TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS 2009, 1996, 1973 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright

More information

Experiment 5 Preparation of Cyclohexene

Experiment 5 Preparation of Cyclohexene Experiment 5 Preparation of yclohexene In this experiment we will prepare cyclohexene from cyclohexanol using an acid catalyzed dehydration reaction. We will use the cyclohexanol that we purified in our

More information

Determination of a Chemical Formula

Determination of a Chemical Formula 1 Determination of a Chemical Formula Introduction Molar Ratios Elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds. For example, consider the compound TiCl 4 (titanium chloride). Each molecule of TiCl

More information

What is a Chemical Reaction?

What is a Chemical Reaction? Lab 8 Name What is a Chemical Reaction? Macroscopic Indications and Symbolic Representations Pre-Lab Assignment This written pre-lab is worth 25% (5 POINTS) of your lab report grade and must be turned

More information

CH243: Lab 4 Synthesis of Artificial Flavorings by Fischer Esterification

CH243: Lab 4 Synthesis of Artificial Flavorings by Fischer Esterification H243: Lab 4 Synthesis of Artificial Flavorings by Fischer Esterification PURPSE: To prepare esters by reaction of carboxylic acids and alcohols. To modify a known procedure to prepare an unknown. DISUSSIN:

More information

DETERMINATION of the EMPIRICAL FORMULA

DETERMINATION of the EMPIRICAL FORMULA DETERMINATION of the EMPIRICAL FORMULA One of the fundamental statements of the atomic theory is that elements combine in simple whole number ratios. This observation gives support to the theory of atoms,

More information

The most common active ingredient used in deodorants is aluminium chlorohydrate. But not all deodorants contain aluminium chlorohydrate:

The most common active ingredient used in deodorants is aluminium chlorohydrate. But not all deodorants contain aluminium chlorohydrate: Engineeringfragrance make a deodorant practical activity 2 student instructions page 1 of 5 chemical compounds The most common active ingredient used in deodorants is aluminium chlorohydrate. But not all

More information

EXPERIMENT 3 (Organic Chemistry II) Nitration of Aromatic Compounds: Preparation of methyl-m-nitrobenzoate

EXPERIMENT 3 (Organic Chemistry II) Nitration of Aromatic Compounds: Preparation of methyl-m-nitrobenzoate EXPERIMENT 3 (Organic Chemistry II) Nitration of Aromatic Compounds: Preparation of methyl-m-nitrobenzoate Pahlavan/Cherif Purpose a) Study electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction (EAS) b) Study regioselectivity

More information

In this experiment, we will use three properties to identify a liquid substance: solubility, density and boiling point..

In this experiment, we will use three properties to identify a liquid substance: solubility, density and boiling point.. Identification of a Substance by Physical Properties 2009 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for academic use provided the original copyright is included Every substance has a unique set

More information

Experiment 15 Vitamins

Experiment 15 Vitamins Experiment 15 Vitamins Part 1: Solubility of Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds that are required as cofactors for specific enzymes. They are not synthesized in the body and therefore must be obtained

More information

EXPERIMENT 2: Recrystallization and Melting Point

EXPERIMENT 2: Recrystallization and Melting Point Recrystallization (or Crystallization) is a technique used to purify solids. This procedure relies on the fact that solubility increases as temperature increases (you can dissolve more sugar in hot water

More information

Structure of caffeine: O CH 3 CH 3

Structure of caffeine: O CH 3 CH 3 1 Extraction of Caffeine Introduction Caffeine Caffeine occurs naturally in tea leaves and coffee beans. Cocoa beans, used to produce chocolate, contain a compound that is nearly identical in structure

More information

DETERMINATION OF THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE

DETERMINATION OF THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE Chemistry 111 Lab: Percent Composition Page D-3 DETERMINATION OF THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE In this experiment you are to determine the composition of a mixture containing unknown proportions

More information

Chemical Tests for Alkanes, Alkenes, and Aromatic Compounds

Chemical Tests for Alkanes, Alkenes, and Aromatic Compounds Chemical Tests for Alkanes, Alkenes, and Aromatic Compounds Introduction There are four types of hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic compounds, each type with different chemical properties.

More information

Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets

Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets Procedure Each Part of lab requires a separate data table. You might want to put each table on a separate page so you can leave room to show equations and calculations.

More information

DYES AND DYEING 2003 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use provided original copyright is included.

DYES AND DYEING 2003 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use provided original copyright is included. DYES AND DYEING 2003 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use provided original copyright is included. Dyeing of textiles has been practiced for thousands of years with the first

More information

# 12 Condensation Polymerization: Preparation of Two Types of Polyesters

# 12 Condensation Polymerization: Preparation of Two Types of Polyesters # 12 Condensation Polymerization: Preparation of Two Types of Polyesters Submitted by: Arturo Contreras, Visiting Scholar, Center for Chemical Education, Miami University, Middletown, OH; 1996 1997. I.

More information

EXPERIMENT 4. This lab will meet on Monday October 22 nd and Tuesday October 23 rd in Science Center 210.

EXPERIMENT 4. This lab will meet on Monday October 22 nd and Tuesday October 23 rd in Science Center 210. EXPERIMENT 4 Synthesis and Analysis of CdSe Quantum Dot Nanocrystals This lab will meet on Monday October 22 nd and Tuesday October 23 rd in Science Center 210. Before You Come to Lab: Read the entire

More information

Experiment 8: Synthesis and Analysis of an Inorganic Compound CH3500: Inorganic Chemistry, Plymouth State University

Experiment 8: Synthesis and Analysis of an Inorganic Compound CH3500: Inorganic Chemistry, Plymouth State University Experiment 8: Synthesis and Analysis of an Inorganic Compound CH3500: Inorganic Chemistry, Plymouth State University Adapted from Johnson, R.C. "Convenient procedure for the preparation of potassium trioxalatoferrate(iii),"

More information

The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride

The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride CHEM 122L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 2.0 The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride To learn about Coordination Compounds and Complex Ions. To learn about Isomerism.

More information

Page 1 of 5. Purification of Cholesterol An Oxidative Addition-Reductive Elimination Sequence

Page 1 of 5. Purification of Cholesterol An Oxidative Addition-Reductive Elimination Sequence Page 1 of 5 Purification of Cholesterol An Oxidative Addition-Reductive Elimination Sequence From your lectures sessions in CEM 2010 you have learned that elimination reactions may occur when alkyl halides

More information

Determination of Aspirin using Back Titration

Determination of Aspirin using Back Titration Determination of Aspirin using Back Titration This experiment is designed to illustrate techniques used in a typical indirect or back titration. You will use the NaH you standardized last week to back

More information

Preparation of an Alum

Preparation of an Alum Preparation of an Alum Pages 75 84 Pre-lab = pages 81 to 82, all questions No lab questions, a lab report is required by the start of the next lab What is an alum? They are white crystalline double sulfates

More information

Aim To prepare a sample of cuprammonium rayon threads from filter paper.

Aim To prepare a sample of cuprammonium rayon threads from filter paper. Aim To prepare a sample of cuprammonium rayon threads from filter paper. Apparatus Required a) Conical flask (preferably 250 ml) b) Funnel c) Glass rod d) Beaker (preferably 250 ml) e) Water bath f) Filter

More information

Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual

Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual EXPERIMENT 4: Separation of a Mixture of Solids Read the entire experiment and organize time, materials, and work space before beginning. Remember to review the safety sections and wear goggles when appropriate.

More information

SCH 4C Summative - QUANTITATIVE TITRATION - Part 1

SCH 4C Summative - QUANTITATIVE TITRATION - Part 1 SCH 4C Summative - QUANTITATIVE TITRATION - Part 1 PURPOSE: Design a procedure to make a 0.300mol/L solution of NaOH from solid NaOH pellets. MATERIALS: Solid NaOH Electronic Balance Distilled water Safety

More information

Extraction: Separation of Acidic Substances

Extraction: Separation of Acidic Substances Extraction: Separation of Acidic Substances Chemists frequently find it necessary to separate a mixture of compounds by moving a component from one solution or mixture to another. The process most often

More information

Table 1. Common esters used for flavors and fragrances

Table 1. Common esters used for flavors and fragrances ESTERS An Introduction to rganic hemistry Reactions 2012, 2006, 1990, 1982 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for educationa use provided original copyright is included. In contrast

More information

Experiment #6: Isolation of Caffeine from Tea

Experiment #6: Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Experiment #6: Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Pre-Lab: Prepare your notebook. Include: name, partner s name, title of experiment, date, purpose, structure of caffeine, procedures (bulleted list), separation

More information

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD KEY

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD KEY CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD Objective To gain familiarity with basic laboratory procedures, some chemistry of a typical transition element, and the concept of percent yield. Apparatus

More information

PART I: PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE

PART I: PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS 2009, 1996, 1973 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright

More information

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 4. Limiting Reactant

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 4. Limiting Reactant General Chemistry Lab Experiment 4 Limiting Reactant INTRODUCTION Two factors affect the yield of products in a chemical reaction: (1) the amounts of starting materials (reactants) and (2) the percent

More information

PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES. Introduction

PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES. Introduction PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Lab #2 Introduction When two or more substances, that do not react chemically, are blended together, the result is a mixture in which each component retains its individual

More information

Stoichiometry Limiting Reagent Laboratory. Chemistry 118 Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Boston

Stoichiometry Limiting Reagent Laboratory. Chemistry 118 Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Boston Chemistry 118 Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Boston STOICHIOMETRY - LIMITING REAGENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Lab #1: Determining the Empirical Formula of a Compound

Lab #1: Determining the Empirical Formula of a Compound Ms. Sonderleiter AP Chemistry Name: Date: Lab #1: Determining the Empirical Formula of a Compound Background: How did early chemists ever manage to determine the chemical formulas of compounds? What kind

More information

Chapter 6, Lesson 3: Forming a Precipitate

Chapter 6, Lesson 3: Forming a Precipitate Chapter 6, Lesson 3: Forming a Precipitate Key Concepts The ions or molecules in two solutions can react to form a solid. A solid formed from two solutions is called a precipitate. Summary Students will

More information

Make up Lab: Synthesis and Quantitation of Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin).

Make up Lab: Synthesis and Quantitation of Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin). Make up Lab: Synthesis and Quantitation of Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin). Introduction: Matthew Szapacs, Mary Jo Bojan, and Joseph Keiser, August 2005 Aspirin is a substance commonly found in medicine

More information

Experiment 4: Synthesis of Alum from Scrap Aluminum

Experiment 4: Synthesis of Alum from Scrap Aluminum 1 Experiment 4: Synthesis of Alum from Scrap Aluminum Objective: In this experiment, you will be converting the aluminum metal from a beverage can into the chemical compound potassium aluminum sulfate,

More information

Example Lab Report for Organic Labs Actual lab report is in black; notes about how to write reports are in red.

Example Lab Report for Organic Labs Actual lab report is in black; notes about how to write reports are in red. Example Lab Report for Organic Labs Actual lab report is in black; notes about how to write reports are in red Jacquie Richardson CHEM 3321-100 1/1/2000 The introduction, physical data, and procedure make

More information

Dispose of all materials in the proper waste containers which are provided in the laboratory.

Dispose of all materials in the proper waste containers which are provided in the laboratory. THE EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLORS 2009, 2003, 2000, 1997, 1975 by David A. Katz. All Rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright is included.

More information

Saturated NaCl solution rubber tubing (2) Glass adaptor (2) thermometer adaptor heating mantle

Saturated NaCl solution rubber tubing (2) Glass adaptor (2) thermometer adaptor heating mantle EXPERIMENT 5 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan/Cherif Dehydration of Alcohols - Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Purpose - The purpose of this lab is to produce cyclohexene through the acid catalyzed elimination

More information

For the highest level of protection, safety goggles that completely cover the. seal against the face are recommended.

For the highest level of protection, safety goggles that completely cover the. seal against the face are recommended. Lab Equipment Safety Goggles For the highest level of protection, safety goggles that completely cover the eye and eye socket and seal against the face are recommended. Lab Apron (folded) Beaker Beakers

More information

Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression

Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Objectives: To determine the molecular mass of an unknown solid using the colligative property of freezing point depression. Background: When

More information

ESTERIFICATION: PREPARATION OF BENZYL ACETATE MICROSCALE EXPERIMENT IV R C O R'

ESTERIFICATION: PREPARATION OF BENZYL ACETATE MICROSCALE EXPERIMENT IV R C O R' ESTERIFICATIN: PREPARATIN F BENZYL ACETATE MICRSCALE EXPERIMENT IV 39 R C R' The ester group is an important functional group that can be synthesized in a number of different ways. The low molecular-weight

More information

Qualitative Analysis Identification of Some Important Anions and Cations

Qualitative Analysis Identification of Some Important Anions and Cations Qualitative Analysis Identification of Some Important Anions and Cations Qualitative analysis is the testing of a sample of matter to determine its composition. Qualitative analysis, applied by scientists

More information