Real-TimeVericationofStatemateDesigns. applicationsraisesthedemandforprovingtheircorrectness.becauseverication

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1 Real-TimeVericationofStatemateDesigns vericationofstatemate1designs.statemateisawidelyuseddesign Abstract.Thispaperpresentsanapproachtowardsreal-time toolforembeddedcontrolunits.theseembeddedcontrolunitsare OFFIS,Escherweg2,26121Oldenburg,Germany UdoBrockmeyerandGunnarWittich? usuallycontainedinindustrialproductsandoftenimplementconcurrent translatedintountimedkripkestructureswhichareoptimizedand systems.inourapproachdesignsincludingalltiminginformationare thenveriedbysymbolicmodel-checking.real-timerequirementsare Fax: Introduction touseactlmodel-checkerforthevericationtask.someexperimental resultswiththeunderlyingtoolsetaregiven. Keywords.Statemate,TCTL,model-checking,real-time expressedbytctlformulaeinterpretedoverdiscretetime.areduction Growingcomplexityandwideusageofconcurrentsystemsinsafetycritical fromtctlmodel-checkingtoctlmodel-checkingispresentedinorder applicationsraisesthedemandforprovingtheircorrectness.becauseverication designanddocumentationofconcurrentreal-timesystems.tocopewiththe systems.thestatematetoolsetcapturesthephasesofspecication,analysis, withtheoremprovers[18]isadiculttaskevenforexperts,automatic complexityofreallifeapplications,asystemunderdevelopment(sud)maybe inuenceinthedevelopmentofindustrialapplications. areusuallycontainedinindustrialproductsandoftenimplementconcurrent vericationtechniques,inparticularmodel-checking[5,6],aregainingincreasing specicationtoolforembeddedcontrolunits.theseembeddedcontrolunits ofstatematedesigns[12,13,15].statemateisawidelyusedgraphical describedgraphicallyfromthreedierentviewpointswithinstatemate.they coverstructural(module-charts),functional(activity-charts)andbehavioral Inthispaperwepresentanapproachtowardsreal-timeverication implementationofadesignmeetsitsrequirementspecicationrepresentedbya (Statecharts[11])aspectsofaSUD. model-checking.model-checkingisanautomaticmethodforprovingthatagiven?partofthisworkhasbeenfundedbythecommissionoftheeuropeancommunities 1Statemateisaregisteredtrademarkofi-LogixInc. KORSYS,grantnumber01-IS-519-E-0 undertheespritproject20897,sacresandthegermanbmbfproject Forthereal-timevericationofStatematedesignsweusethetechniqueof

2 in[2]restrictedtoadiscretetimedomain.ourtctlmodel-checkingprocedure temporallogicformula.asspecicationlanguage,weusetctlasintroduced newcomponents:rstatranslationofstatematedesignsintountimedkripke aimsatreuseofanindustrialctlmodel-checker[10]andcontainstwomajor TCTLmodel-checkingtoCTLmodel-checkingbyextendinggenerateduntimed problemintoctlmodel-checking.weperformanautomaticreductionfrom StructuresandsecondanembeddingofthediscretetimeTCTLmodel-checking KripkeStructureswithaboundedclockandbytranslatingTCTLformulae intoctlformulae.asimilarreductionforaderivateofdensetimetctlis givenin[16].unlikeasintheapproachin[16],whereadditionaltimetransitions betweentransitionsofthesystemareintroduced,weavoidthisblowupby wecanreducethenumberofstepsperformedbythemodel-checkerwhiledoing itsworksignicantly.incontrasttotheverustool[7]whereeachtransition extendingctl(andthusthemodel-checker,too)byachooseoperator.thus, toolsfortranslatingstatematedesignsintountimedkripkestructures[4] correspondstoonetimeunit,ourtransitionscanbezerodelayed,too. asrequiredasinputbythemodel-checker[10].thesemanticalfoundation ofthetranslationcanbefoundin[9].aworkthatiscloselyrelatedtoour workcanbefoundin[17].thereaformalsemanticsforanuntimedsubsetof Ourenvironmentsupportsreal-timevericationforthesynchronous(step) Statechartsisgivenwhichisbasedonthebasicstepalgorithmasdenedin [13].Alsoanexperimentalcompilerforconnectingamodel-checkerispresented. semanticsaswellasfortheasynchronous(super-step)semanticsprovidedby TobeabletoverifyStatematedesigns,wehaveimplementedasetof languageofactivity-chartsisalsocoveredbyourtoolset. Furthermore,inadditiontoalmostthecompletelanguageofStatecharts,the thestatematesimulatorandthereforeforbothofthesemanticsgivenin[13]. timemodel-checkingonsomecasestudies.twoofthemareindustrialsized applicationsprovidedbyourprojectpartners.therstoneoriginatesfrom thesacresprojectandisprovidedbybritishaerospace.itisastorage monitorsengineandfuelparameters. thekorsysproject.thiscasestudyisahelicoptermonitoringsystemwhich ManagementSystemofanaircraft.ThesecondonewasprovidedbyESG2in Inthispaperwedemonstratethefeasibilityofourapproachtoreal- Section5concludesthispaperwithanoutlookonourfuturework. 2ModelingReal-TimeFeaturesofStatemate withactlmodel-checker.insection4wepresentsomeexperimentalresults. elaboratessomeofitsconcepts.inadditionthemodelingoftimeispresented. Section3givesthetheoreticalbackgroundweuseforreal-timemodel-checking Thispaperisorganizedasfollows.Section2overviewsStatemateand First,keyissuesofthesemanticsarepointedout.Thenextsubsectiondiscusses Inthissectionanintroductiontothereal-timesemanticsofStatemateisgiven. 2ElekronikSystemeGmbH,Munich,Germany 2

3 theconceptsoftimeavailableinstatemate.thelastsubsectiondescribes [11,14].SeveralsemanticsforStatechartshavebeeninvestigatedinthepast oursemanticalmodelingofreal-timefeaturesinordertoperformreal-time [19].Statematealsoincorporatesseveralsemanticsforitslanguages.Wecan designanddocumentationofreal-timeembeddedsystems.designersdescribe behaviorofcomponentsusingtheestablishedvisualformalismofstatecharts TheStatematetoolset[12,13,15]capturesthephasesofspecication,analysis, 2.1SemanticsofStatemate vericationofstatematedesigns. thesesemanticscanbefoundin[13].arigorousandformaldenitionofthe super-stepsemanticscanbefoundin[9]. rstacceptnewexternalstimuliafterterminationofeverysynchronousstep thegeneratedcodeforc-,ada-,vhdl-andverilog.informalexplanationsof yieldingnewstatecongurationsandnewvaluationsofvariables.asudcan asynchronoussimulationsemantics(super-stepsemantics)andthesemanticsof InthissemanticsallactivecomponentsofaSUDperformstepssynchronously, distinguishbetweenthesynchronoussimulationsemantics(stepsemantics),the andthenperformanotherstep,thusexecutionproceedsincycles.asynchronous discretetimeschemeisassumedinwhichawholesud,i.e.allactivecomponents, byonetimeunit.thestepsemanticsismainlyusedforclockeddesigns. executesasinglestepeverytimeunit,henceineachcycletimeisincremented Thestepsemanticsisbasedonthebasicstepalgorithmasdenedin[13]. computationiscalledastep.incontrasttothestepsemantics,stepsinsucha andreturningintoastateofequilibriumareperformedinnitelyfast,hencethe discretevirtualsimulationclockisnotincrementedbeforeasuper-stephasbeen chaindonotconsumetime.allcomputationsbetweenstimulationofsuchasud stateisreachedagain.acompletechainiscalledasuper-step,whileeverysingle externalstimulustoasudbeinginastablestate,itstartsachainofstepsuntil itreachesastablestateagain.stablemeans,thatfurtherstepsareimpossible withoutnewexternalstimuli.alongchainofreactionsispossibleuntilastable Thebasicideaofthesuper-stepsemanticsis,thatafterhavinggivenan nextrelevantpointintime.apointintimeisrelevantifascheduledaction nished.aftercompletionofasuper-steptheclockwillbeadvancedtothe asudworksynchronouslyandcommunicateaftereverystep.thesuper-step semanticsismainlyusedforasynchronousdesigns. hastobeexecuted,ifatimeouteventhasexpired,orifasudistriggered againbyanewexternalstimulus.thissemanticsconstrainstheinteractionof theenvironmentwithasudtosuper-stepboundaries,butallactivitiesinside stepsemantics.underthestepsemantics,eachstepofasudcorresponds toexactlyonetimeunit,timeincreasesuniformlyandtheenvironmentcan inuencethevaluationofvariablesateverystep.incontrast,thesuper-step statethesystemcanincreasetimersandcanacceptnewstimuli. semanticsneedsadditionalbookkeepingtoindicatestability.onlyinastable Thisoverviewshowsthatthestepsemanticsismuchsimplerthanthesuper- 3

4 Statemateprovidestwowaystointroduceexplicittiminginformationintoa clock.therstalternativeallowstotriggertransitionsbytimeoutevents. 2.2ConceptsofTimeinStatemate Statechartwhichbothrelateeventsandactionstothediscretevirtualsimulation expressionsevent-exprandinteger(time)expressionstime-expr.atimeoutevent Syntactically,timeouteventsareoftheformtm(event-expr,time-expr)forevent denesanewevent,whichwilloccurtime-exprunitsafterthelatestoccurrenceof event-expr.thus,timeoutsallowtomonitorelapsedtimesincealastoccurrence ofevent-expr.tomeasuretheelapsedtimeunitsforeverytimeoutexpression Statemateinternallyintroducesanintegerclockwhichisreseteveryinstant event-exproccurs. clockisintroducedbystatemate.e.g.ifatransitionislabeledwithsc!(v:=1,5) timeuntilaction-exprisexecuted.becausethesameactioncanbescheduledat presenttime.again,statemateinternallyintroducesaclocktomeasurethe severaltimeinstances,foreachexecutionofthescheduledactionanew(internal) Ascheduledactiondelaystheexecutionofaction-exprfortime-exprunitsfrom action.syntactically,scheduledactionsareoftheformsc!(action-expr,timeexpr)foractionexpressionsaction-exprandinteger(time)expressionstime-expr. ThesecondalternativeforintroducingtiminginformationintoaStatechart allowstodelaytheexecutionofactionsforsometimeunitsbyascheduled thus,aftertime-exprstepstimeouteventsaregeneratedandscheduledactions areexecuted.inthesuper-stepsemanticstimeisincrementedonlyafterreaching super-stepsemantics.inthestepsemanticstimeisincrementedwitheverystep, actionsareexecuted. isexecutedattimeinstant5andtimeinstant7. numberofstepsispossibleuntiltimeouteventsaregeneratedandscheduled astablestateagain.individualstepsareexecutedinzerotime,hencealarge andthistransitionisexecutedattimeinstant0andtimeinstant2,thenv:=1 Timeouteventsandscheduledactionsarehandleddierentlyinstepand translatesdesignsintwosteps.astatematedesignisrsttranslatedintoan intermediatelanguagecalledsmi(statemateintermediate).wedenedsmi 2.3TranslatingReal-TimeFeaturesofStatemate Inasecondphase,thegeneratedSMIcodeistranslatedintoaKripkeStructure Inordertoperformreal-timevericationofStatemate,designshaveto data-typesandexpressionlanguageofsmiarepowerfulenoughtocovera modelhierarchy,parallelism,andnondeterminismofstatematedesigns.the formodel-checking. betranslatedintoaformatinterpretablebythemodel-checker.ourtoolset asalanguageforthetranslationofhigh-levelformalismsintokripkestructures3. 3Inotherprojects,wetranslateVHDL,asubclassofPetri-Nets,andasubclassof OCCAMintoSMI SMIisasimpleimperativeprogramminglanguagecontainingconceptsto 4

5 clockvariablesfortimeouteventsandscheduledactions.allclocksarerunning atcompiletime,nitedomainsfortheclockscanbedetermined.forevery synchronously.becausewerequirealltimeexpressionstoevaluatetoaconstant representingthecyclicbehaviorofastatematedesign.oneexecutionofthis loopcorrespondstoexactlyonestepofthedesign.insmiallcontrolinformation, allvariablesandalleventsofthestatematedesignareencodedbyvariables. widerangeofstatematetypes.smicodeconsistsofanon-terminatingloop ispossibletosharetheclockvariablewheretmmaxissettothemaximumof timeouteventweintroduceoneclockvariablerangingfromzerotothevalue thevaluesofthetimeexpressions.forscheduledactionsthevalueofthetime itreachesitsupperbound.iftwotimeoutshaveidenticaleventexpressions,it ofitstimeexpressionplusone(tmmax).theclockstartsatzeroandstopsif Tocopewithtimingaspectsofadesignthetranslationprocessintroduces tothefactthatthenumberoftimeouteventsandscheduledactionsisxedby thedesignandtheuseofshiftregisterstorepresentscheduledactionswithin intimewhereeventexpressionsoccurandscheduledactionsareexecuted.due aglobalclockinourmodels,becauseallclocksareresetrelativetothepoints theactionisexecuteditherightmostbitoftheregisterisset.wedonotneed ofthecorrespondingbit,incrementingtimemeansright-shiftingtheregisterand exactlyoneshiftregisterwithscmaxbits.schedulinganactionmeanssetting expressiondeterminesthenumberofnecessaryclocks,allrangingfromzeroto SMI,thenumberofclocksweintroduceislimited.Togetherwiththefactthat thevalueofitstimeexpressionplusone(scmax).weencodetheseclocksby ofsmi. allclocksarebounded,thisenablesustogeneratenitekripkestructuresout timeexpression,thecorrespondingtimeouteventtmeisgeneratedandadded tothesetofgeneratedevents.likeallevents,itisvisibleexactlyonestepforall componentsofthestatechart.ifattheendofastepashiftregisterindicatesthat maybeinconict,too. conictwiththem.nospecialtreatmentisnecessary,becauseundelayedactions thetimetoexecuteanactionhasexpiredthecorrespondingactionisexecuted. Thisactionbehaveslikeallotheractionsexecutedinthisstepandmaybein Ifattheendofastepaclockvariableforatimeoutreachesthevalueofits thetimeoutthetranslationprocesshasto sc!(v:=1,3)whereeisaneventandvisanboundedintegervariable.within byconsideringanexample.supposeastatechartwithatransitionfromstates1 tostates2,triggeredbytimeouteventtm(e,2)andexecutingscheduledaction SMIthestatesS1andS2areencodedbybooleanvariablesstS1andstS2.For 1.introduceaclocktm0rangingfromzerototmmax(tmmax=3), 2.introduceatimeouteventtmEV0, Weclarifytheconceptsforthetranslationofreal-timefeaturesofStatemate 6.generatethetimeouteventtmEV0iftheclockreachesthevalueofthetime 4.resettheclockifeventEhasbeengenerated, 5.incrementtheclockifitdoesnotequaltmmaxandtimeprogresses, 3.translatetheeventexpressionintoabooleanexpressioninSMI, expression(tm0=2). 5

6 Forthescheduledactionthetranslationhasto 1.introduceashiftregistersc0containingscmaxbits(scmax=4), 2.translatetheactionexpressionintoanexpressioninSMI, 3.setbittime-exproftheshiftregister(sc0[3]:=1), 4.performaright-shiftoftheregisteriftimeprogresses(asr(sc0)), 5.executetheactionexpressioniftherightmostbitisset. InSMInondeterministicbranchesareusedtomodelthetriggeringoftransitions. Nondeterminismcanoccurifmorethanonetransitionisenabledandtransitions areinconict.thepieceofcodefortransitionringinthisexamplelookslike: NDCASE%non-deterministicbranchtomodelconflictingtransitions [](st_s1=trueandtmev_0=true):%firsttransition;[]meansnewbranch st_s1:=false; %exitstates1 st_s2:=true; %enterstates2 sc_0[3]:=1; %setbit3intheshiftregister []%secondtransition... []%lasttransition NDESAC Thepieceofcodeforsynchronization(SYNC-PART)lookslike: %Handletimeouts DCASE%deterministicbranchfor'eventEisgeneratedornot' [](E=true): tm_0:=0;%resettheclockforthetimeout []not(e=true): DCASE%deterministicbranchfor'clockdoesnotequaltm_max' [](tm_0<3): tm_0:=tm_0+1;%incrementclock []not(tm_0<3): tm_0:=tm_0;%clockremainsunchanged DESAC; DESAC; %Handlescheduledactions sc_0:=asr(sc_0);%performright-shiftonsc_0 DCASE [](sc_0[0]=1):%rightmostbitofsc_0isset V:=1;%executeaction []not(sc_0[0]=1): SKIP;%executenulloperation DESAC; Whilethepieceofcodefortransitionringisthesameinbothsemantics, thisisnotthecaseforthesynchronizationcode.inthestepsemanticstime isincrementedaftereverystep,thusthesynchronizationcodeforresetting andincrementingclocksisexecutedineverycycle.ifsuper-stepsemanticsis used,thecompilerintroducesaspecialvariableasync(forasynchronous)to indicateinstabilityofthesystem.onlyifasyncequalsfalse,asuper-stephas terminatedandthesynchronizationactionstakeplace.thesynchronizationcode forthissemanticslookslike: 6

7 [](ASYNC=true):%systemisnotstable;clocksarenotincremented DCASE%deterministicbranchfor'systemisstableornot' DCASE%deterministicbranchfor'eventEisgeneratedornot' %Handletimeouts DESAC; []not(async=true):%systemisstable;clocksareincremented []not(e=true): SYNC-PART%seepage6forsynchronizationcode %codeforresettingandincrementingclocksfollows [](E=true): DESAC; BecauseafterthetranslationofaStatematedesignintoSMIallnecessary SKIP;%executenulloperation tm_0:=0;%resettheclockforthetimeout untimedkripkestructurescanbegeneratedoutofthecode4.theconstruction clocksarerepresentedbyanitenumberofboundedmodelvariables,nite issuchthatonestepofthekripkestructurecorrespondstooneexecutionof thecompleteloop-bodyofthesmicode.thus,instepsemanticsineachstate ofthekripkestructureexactlyonetimeunitpasses.insuper-stepsemantics, timeprogressesonlyincertainstates,whileinallotherstatestimeremains unchanged.thestatesinwhichtimepassesarecharacterizedbyanexpression C.IncaseofstepsemanticsthistimeconditionCequalstrue,insuper-step time.vericationisperformedbytranslatingtctlintoctlandmodelcheckingasuitableextendedmodelagainsttheresultingformulaewithactl semanticscequalsasync=false. model-checker. thenitedomainoft.letinpbeanitesetofinputvariablesandvarbea 3Real-TimeModelChecking nitesetofstatevariables.foreachv2inp[varlettype(v)denotethetypeof checkingprocedure.asspecicationlogicweusetctlinterpretedoverdiscrete Inthissectionwepresentthetheoreticalbackgroundofourreal-timemodel- variablev2inpavalueinthedomaindom(type(v)).let[[expr]]beamapping thedomaindom(type(v)).aninputisamappingthatassignstoeveryinput v.astateisamappingthatassignstoeverystatevariablev2varavaluein thatassignstoabooleanexpressionexproverthevariablesofinp[varaset ofinputsandstates(theinputsandstatessatisfyingtheexpression). TCTLasdenedindenition1belowwasintroducedbyAlur,Courcoubetis LetTypesdenoteasetoftypes.Foreachtypet2Typesletdom(t)denote anddill[2]. Denition1(TCTL).ThesyntaxofTCTLformulaeisinductivelydened by: 4WegeneratefunctionalKripkeStructuresbyeliminatingallnon-determinismby introducingadditionalinputvariables7 ::=exprj:1j1^2j91uc2j81uc2

8 whereexprisabooleanexpression,1,2aretctlformulae,isoneofthe ourtranslationfromtctltoctl. Inourcontext,thesemanticsofTCTLformulaeisdenedoverKripke Remark1.Byomittingthetimeconstraintscindenition1wegetthe usualdenitionofctlwithoutthenextoperator.intheremainderweextend CTLbythechooseoperator:IfisanCTLformulaandv2Varthen v:isactlformula,too.theoperatorinctlisessentiallyneededfor binaryrelations;<;=;>;andcisanaturalnumber. Structures. Denition2(KripkeStructure).AKripkeStructureisatupleK= (Inp;Var;f;I)with: Denition3(Path).LetKbeaKripkeStructure,()nasequenceofinputs and()nasequenceofstates.thesequence()nwithi:=(i;i)foralli0 iscalledapathofkii+1=f(i;i)foralli0.forthepath()nwecall ()nthecorrespondinginputsequenceand()nthecorrespondingstatesequence {Inpisanitesetofinputvariables of()n.inthefollowingweusetheabbreviation()n=(()n;()n)todenote {Varisanitesetofstatevariables that()nisthecorrespondinginputsequenceand()nisthecorrespondingstate {Iisasetofinitialstates {fisafunctionmappingeachtupleofinputandstatetoa"next"state sequenceofpath()n.foraninputandastate,apathisa(;)-pathi Denition4(SemanticsofTCTL).LetK=(Inp;Var;f;I)beaKripke statesofthekripkestructuresinwhichtimepasses. 0=(;). OursemanticsofTCTLformulaeoverKripkeStructuresisdenedwrt.thetime Structure,exprandCexpressions,aninput,astate,1and2TCTL conditionc.asdescribedinsubsection2.3theexpressionccharacterizesthe formulae.thesemanticsoftctlisinductivelydenedby: (K;(;))j=91Uc2:,9(;)-path()n=(()n;()n)9i0: (K;(;))j=:1 (K;(;))j=1^2:,(K;(;))j=1and(K;(;))j=2 (K;(;))j=expr:,(;)2[[expr]] :,(K;(;))6j=1 WeusetheabbreviationKj=for882I:(K;(;))j=. (K;(;))j=81Uc2:,8(;)-path()n=(()n;()n)9i0: 3:jfjjji^(K;j)j=Cgjc 1:8j<i:(K;j)j=1 2:(K;i)j=2 8

9 Remark2.Byomittingthetimeconstraintscinthepathformulaeandthe thirdconditionsindenition4wegettheusualsemanticsofctlformulaeover extensionofctl:letk,,and1beasaboveandletv2var.then: KripkeStructures.Furthermorewedenethesemanticsoftheoperatorofour isincrementedwhenevertimeprogresses.thesestatesarecharacterizedby Remark3.InROBDDbasedCTLmodel-checkersthechooseoperatorcan easilybeimplementedbyperformingexistentialquanticationovertherobdd variablesrepresentingvariablevinv:1. thekripkestructurebyaddinganadditionalspecicationclocksclkwhich Tomodel-checkaTCTLformulawithaCTLmodel-checker,wetransform (K;(;))j=v:1:,9x2dom(type(v)):(K;(;[v=x]))j=1 KripkeStructureandletCbeatimecondition.ThecorrespondingtimedKripke letnbethegreatesttimeconstraintofplusone.letk=(inp;var;f;i)bea Denition5(TimedKripkeStructure).LetbeanTCTLformulaand In[2]itisshownthatthisupperboundforthespecicationclockissucient. thetctlformulatobeveried.theupperboundofthespecicationclockis countingtheelapsedtimeonapathforcomparisonwiththetimeconstraintsof determinedbythegreatesttimeconstraintofthegiventctlformulaplusone. theabovementionedtimeconditionc.thespecicationclockisnecessaryfor StructureK0=(Inp0;Var0;f0;I0)isdenedby: {Inp0=Inp Bydenition,thesclkisincrementedonlyintheshadedstates. Figure1showsapathofatimedKripkeStructure.Thestatessatisfyingthe timeconditioncareshaded.belowthestatesthevaluationofsclkisgiven. {I0=f0j92I:0jVar=g {f0(;)(v):=8<:f(;jvar)(v)v6=sclk {Var0=Var[fsclkgwithdom(type(sclk))=f0;:::;ngwheresclk=2Var min(n;(v)+1)v=sclk^(k;(;f(;jvar)))j=c v=sclk^(k;(;f(;jvar)))6j=c timedkripkestructurethantheapproachin[16]. ThefollowinglemmashowsthatpathsofaKripkeStructureKandpathsof InatimedKripkeStructure,independentoftheprogressoftime,allsteps correspondtosystemsteps.thusweneedlessstepswhilemodel-checkinga First,ifapathofKsatisesatimeconstraintcinitsithstate,thenthere Notethatwedonotdistinguishbetweentimeandsystemstepsinourapproach. thecorrespondingtimedkripkestructurek0arerelatedinthefollowingway. Fig.1.ApathofatimedKripkeStructure 9 s_clk

10 ofthelemmastatesthatifapathofk0,onwhichsclkequalszeroinitsrst andstatesofthetwopathsareequalmodulosclk.analogous,thesecondpoint Lemma1.LetK=(Inp;Var;f;I)beaKripkeStructureandletK0= satisestheconditionsclkcintheithstateandthevaluationofallinputs stateandsatisesaconstraintsclkcinitsithstate,thenthereexistsapath existsexactlyonepathofk0onwhichsclkequalszerointherststate,sclk ofkwhichsatisesthetimeconstraintcintheithstateandthevaluation (Inp0;Var0;f0;I0)thecorrespondingtimedKripkeStructurewrt.aTCTL formulaandatimeconditionc.let2f<;;=;;>gandletcbeanatural ofallinputsandstatesofthetwopathsareequalmodulosclk. numbersuchthatc+12dom(type(sclk)).then: ofthespecicationclocksclk. Proof(sketch).FollowsbythedenitionofK0andthechoiceofthedomain 2.Let(0)nbeapathofK0,i0with0(sclk)=0^0i(sclk)c 1.Let()nbeapathofK,i0withjfjjji^(K;j)j=Cgjc Denepath()ninKwith8j:j=(0j;0jjVar) 0i(sclk)c Then()nisapathofKwithjfjjji^(K;j)j=Cgjc Then91path(0)nofK0with0(sclk)=0^8j:j=(0j;0jjVar)^ ThenextdenitiongivesthetranslationofTCTLintoCTL.Thetime Denition6(TranslationofTCTLintoCTL).Letexprbeanexpression overvarandlet1;2betctlformulae.thetranslationofantctl formulaintoanctlformulaisinductivelydenedby: constraintsoftctlaretranslatedintoconditionsonthespecicationclock KripkeStructureswithaCTLmodel-checkersupportingthechooseoperator. sclkinctl.theresultingctlformulaecanbemodel-checkedovertimed (expr):=expr sclkc)themodel-checkerrstcomputesthesetofstatessatisfyingthis thecorrespondingtimedkripkestructurewilldothefollowing:thetranslation ofapathformulacontainsthreeparts.fortherightmostpart(e.g.91u(2^ Remark4.ACTLmodel-checkerappliedtoatranslatedTCTLformulaand (81Uc2):=sclk:((sclk=0)^(8(1)U((2)^sclkc))) (91Uc2):=sclk:((sclk=0)^(9(1)U((2)^sclkc))) (1^2):=(1)^(2) (:1) :=:(1) thecomputedsetofstatesisintersectedwiththesetofstatesinwhichthe intheuntimedkripkestructure.next,bytheconjunctionwith(sclk=0) andthetimeconstraintcofthetctlformulainthetimedkripkestructure. subformula.modulosclkthisisexactlythesetofstatessatisfying91u2 Hence,modulosclkthisisthesetofstatessatisfyingtheTCTLformulainthe specicationclockevaluatesto0.theresultisthesetofstatessatisfying91u2 10

11 arbitrarystateintheset,allstatesthatdieronlyinthevaluationofsclkare KripkeStructureandmodel-checkingthetranslatedCTLformulaoverthe intheset,too. Theorem1statestheequivalenceofmodel-checkingaTCTLformulaovera untimedkripkestructure.third,applyingtheoperatorforsclkonthisset ofstates,themodel-checkercomputesanextendedsetofstates.astateisin Theorem1.LetKbeaKripkeStructure,aTCTLformulaandK0bethe thissetindependentlyofitsparticularvaluationofsclk.inotherwords:foran Proof(sketch).Theproofisdonebyinductionoverthestructureof.For correspondingtimedkripkestructure.then: Inparticularstate[sclk=0]2.Thispropertyholds,becausestateformulae stateformulaethereisnothingtodo.forpathformulaethefollowingproperty isneeded.foreverycomputedsetofstatessatisfyingatranslatedsubformula ofthefollowingconditionholds: 2)8x2dom(type(sclk)):[sclk=x]2 Kj=,K0j=() donotrefertosclkandthetranslatedpathformulaeextendcomputedsetsof statesbyapplyingthechooseoperatortothespecicationclocksclk.based resultswereevaluatedonasunsparc20runningat60mhz. Themodel-checkerweuseistheROBDD[1,3]basedassumption/commitment stylectlmodel-checkerprovidedbyourprojectpartnersiemens[10].all onthisproperty,lemma1canbeapplied. Inthissectionwepresentsomeexperimentalresultsobtainedwithourtools. 4ExperimentalResults Modelstm2smismi2fsm#ofbits#ofBDDMC TLC2:560:4518=33 SMS4:826:4113=53 HMS6:781:6032=103 insinsinput/statenodesins : :6 providedbyourprojectpartnerbritishaerospace.finally,wemodel-checkeda ManagementSystem(SMS)ofanaircraft.Thisindustrialsizedapplicationwas wellknowntraclightcontrollerenhancedbytiminginformationmodelingthe delayofchangingthelights.thesecondexampleisacomponentofastorage Table1overviewstheresultsforthreeexaminedcasestudies.TheTLCisthe Table1.Experimentalresults419587:4 HelicopterMonitoringSystem(HMS)whichwasprovidedbyourprojectpartner 11

12 ESG.Thesecondcolumncontainsthetimesneededforthetranslationfrom StatemateintoSMI.Thethirdcolumnshowsthetimestogeneratenite KripkeStructures.Columnfourandveareindicatingthecomplexityofthe timepropertiesonthegivenmodelsarepresented. studies.finally,inthemccolumn,timesformodel-checkingofrelevantreal- designsagainsttctlformulae,wealreadyhaveveryencouragingresultson verifyingsubstantiallylargertimedstatematedesignsagainstctlformulae. Someoftheseresultsarepresentedin[4].Therewehaveshown,thatourtools areverypowerfulingeneratingkripkestructuresandperformingctlmodelchecking.industrialsizedapplicationswithseveralhundredstatebitscouldbe additionalspecicationclocksclkhastobeadded,wewillapplyourtoolseton handled.thesemodelscontainallclocksthatmodeltimeoutsandscheduled actionsofstatematedesigns.becausefortctlmodel-checkingonlythe BeyondtheseexperienceswithverifyingmoderatelysizedStatemate ofconcurrentsystemswasdemonstrated.furthermore,areductionfromtctl thesedesigns,too,andweexpecttobeabletoverifyrelevantreal-timeproperties model-checkingtoctlmodel-checkingtoperformthevericationtaskwas againsttctlformulaehasbeenpresentedanditsusabilityonsomecasestudies Inthispaperanapproachforreal-timevericationofStatematedesigns forthem. introduced.becauseofthecomplexityofstatemate,therearesomerareused featuresnotyetcoveredbyourtools.ourfutureworkisaboutclosingthisgapin 5ConclusionsandFutureWork FurthermorewethankWernerDammandMartinFranzleforhelpfuldiscussions. SIEMENSandi-Logixforprovidingthetools,casestudiesandfordiscussions. ordertosupporteventhesefeatures.also,wehavealotofideasforoptimizations Acknowledgment.WethankourprojectpartnersBritishAerospace,ESG, Statematedesigns.Someoftheseideashavealreadybeenimplementedand thatcanbeperformedinordertogeneratesmallerkripkestructuresoutof References beabletoverifyreal-timepropertiesofmuchbiggerdesignsinthenearfuture. resultshavebeenpresentedin[4].applyingtheseoptimizations,weexpectto 2.R.Alur,C.CourcoubetisandD.Dill.Model-CheckingforReal-TimeSystems.In 1.S.B.Akers.Binarydecisiondiagrams.InTransactionsonComputers,No.6in 4.U.BrockmeyerandG.Wittich.Tamagotchisneednotdie{Vericationof 3.K.S.Brace,RichardL.RudellandRandalE.Bryant.Ecientimplementationof Vol.C-27,pages ,IEEE,1978 ofsystems(tacas'98),march StatemateDesigns.ToolsandAlgorithmsfortheConstructionandAnalysis Orlando,Florida,1990.ACM/IEEE. Proceedingsofthe5thSymposiumonLogicinComputerScience,pages , Philadelphia,June1990. abddpackage.inproceedings27thdesignautomationconference,pages40-45,

13 6.J.R.Burch,E.M.Clarke,K.L.McMillan,D.L.DillandJimHwang.Symbolic 5.J.R.Burch,E.M.Clarke,K.L.McMillan,andD.L.Dill.Sequentialcircuit 7.S.Campos,E.M.Clarke,M.Minea.TheVerusTool:AQuantitativeApproach modelchecking:1020statesandbeyond.inproceedingsofthefifthannualieee SymposiumonLogicinComputerscience,June1990 Conference,1990. vericationusingsymbolicmodelchecking.inacm/ieeedesignautomation 10.T.Filkorn,SIEMENSAG.ApplicationsofFormalVericationinIndustrial 8.W.Damm,U.Brockmeyer,H.J.Holberg,G.WittichandM.Eckrich.Einsatz 9.W.Damm,H.Hungar,B.JoskoandA.Pnueli.ACompositionalReal-Time totheformalvericationofreal-timesystems.inproceedingsofcav'97,edt. O.Grumberg,LNCS1254,1997 VDI/VWGemeinschaftstagung,1997 formalermethodenzurerhohungdersicherheiteingebettetersystemeimkfz. SemanticsofSTATEMATEDesigns.InProceedingsofCOMPOS97,edt.H. AutomationandTelecommunication.InProceedings,WorkshoponFormal LangmaackandW.P.deRoever,SpringerVerlag,toappear D.HarelandA.Naamad.TheStatemateSemanticsofStatecharts.InACM 12.D.Harel,H.Lachover,A.Naamad,A.Pnueli,M.Politi,R.Sherman,A.Shtull{ 11.D.Harel.Statecharts:AVisualFormalismforComplexSystems.Scienceof transactionsonsoftwareengineeringandmethodology,vol5no4,1996 Engineering,16:403{414,1990 developmentofcomplexreactivesystems.inieeetransactionsonsoftware TrauringandM.Trakhtenbrot.STATEMATE:Aworkingenvironmentforthe ComputerProgramming8,1987. DesignofSafetyCriticalEmbeddedSystems,April D.Harel,A.Pnueli,J.P.SchmidtandR.Sherman.OntheFormalSemantics 15.D.HarelandM.Politi.ModelingReactiveSystemswithStatecharts:The ofstatecharts.inproceedingfirstieee,symposiumonlogicincomputer Science, S.Owre,N.ShankarandJ.M.Rushby.ATutorialonSpecicationand 17.E.Mikk,Y.Lakhnech,C.PetersohnandM.Siegel.OnFormalSemanticsof 16.T.A.HenzingerandO.Kupferman.FromQuantitytoQuality.InProceedingsof StatemateApproach.i{LOGIXINC.,ThreeRiversideDrive,Andover,MA 19.M.vonderBeek.AComparisonofStatechartVariants.InFormalTechniquesin VericationUsingPVS.InComputerScienceLaboratory,SRIInternational, ,June1996.PartNo,D{1100{43 Real-TimeandFault-TolerantSystems,number863inLectureNotesinComputer Science,1993 HybridandReal-TimeSystems(HART'97),March1997 FormalMethodsWorkshop,1997 StatechartsasSupportedbyStatemate.InProceedingsofBCS-FACSNorthern 13

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