Everything before this year is said to be before Christ or B.C.

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1 How to date art: B.C means before Christ was born The year Christ was born is year 1 Everything before this year is said to be before Christ or B.C. Everything that has happened in the world since the birth of Christ is said to have happened In the Year of our Lord In the year of our lord is written Anno Domini in Latin The abbreviation A.D is placed after the number of the year If something happened after the birth of Christ, the date is written A.D or 1000 A. D. If no initials are written with the date or year number, the time meant is after Christ birth, or A. D. If the time is before Christ birth B. C. is always written. You have to remember that to find out exactly how old or how long ago a B.C. year is you must count the number of years that have passed since the birth of Christ and add them to the year given

2 Old Stone Age Paleolithic The Earliest Stage of Pre-History Old Stone Age began around 5000,000 years before the Birth of Christ Greek Palos Meaning old Lithos- meaning stone 1 st Paleolithic- Old Stone Age 2 nd Mesolithic- Middle Stone Age 3 rd Neolithic New Stone Age

3 Major events in pre-history a.2, 000,000B.C. Earliest known tool making b. 70,000-8,000 Last Ice Age in Europe c. 40,000-8,000 Old Stone Age Paleothic age d. 40,000 earliest known stone figures in Europe e. 28,000 earliest known cave paintings f to 2300 new stone age (Neolithic age) g.8, plants and animals domesticated H Megalithic tombs and monuments I earliest writing developed J Bronze Age

4 The Old Stone Age Old Stone Age began around 5000,000 years before the Birth of Christ Gets its name from the fact that man made his tools and weapons from stone Knew nothing of other materials such as metal From the beginning of time man has created pictures of the world around him Man created pictures of that world for various reasons to ward off evil spirits to give himself courage to tell a story to control the fierce creatures that they depended on

5 Man had the need to express himself artistically An awareness of the relationship of form to function and of form as enjoyable in itself was the first step toward the history of art Our imagination helps to set us apart from the other animals Some rock carvings in Australia date back to 75,000 years ago.

6 Paleolithic Art: Old Stone Age Art Consisted of: 1. incised ( Cut into the stone) 2. Painted 3. Carved 4. Small hand sized drawings 5. 40,000 8,000 carvings beads in bone, horn, and stone skillfully cut by flint tools 6. There are stone implements found from the Old Stone Age. 7. Female figures, fertility figures The Venus of Willendorf The Venus of Lespugue

7 Chacteristics of Paleolithic Art Human figures rarely appear Are very abstract and simplified More abstract than animal forms Animal figures have expressive naturalism Animals show careful; attention to the details of the animals while human forms are largely symbolic stick figures utilitarian objects

8 Early Cave men developed materials found around himself in the natural environment A. used natural colors B. pigments found in the earth C. charcoal, pigments D. mixed these pigments with egg, grease,fat, honey,blood, plant juice E. made brushes of fur, feathers, moss, leaves

9 The Ancient world Prehistoric Art Europe North America Australia Many believed that the cave paintings were not real because they were so good Dating by Carbon 14 process Paintings still exist because they were protected from the elements, wind rain Prehistoric men lived in the mouth of caves, Artifacts found in mouth of caves were utilitarian, old bones and tools lead us to believe Prehistoric men lived in the mouth of caves Reasons for the paintings:

10 Use in hunting rituals Magic rites- to draw the animals very realistic and natural would capture the animal s spirit and make it weak and easier to kill Carved or painted images or totems to ensure fertility or to heal sickness or to injure an enemy Paintings also could be done to promote the health and abundance of the herd There was a so-called primitive association between the image and the spirit world Images are powerful and expressive

11 Quote from Matisse I could not dream of painting as well as these cave men before the dawn of time Cave Art Many sites found in Spain and Southern France Three Main Caves The cave of Lascaux- France The cave of Altamira (Spain) Chauvet (South Central France) Chauvet Cave is the oldest circa 28,000B.C.E. 30,000 year old wall paintings of animals painted with charcoal earth pigments by unknown artist depicting lifelike horses, ferocious panthers, lions, bison, bulls birds rhinoceroses, tigers,

12 human handprints and other large animals some of which are now extinct Lascaux Cave From the late Paleolithic period Circa 15,000-10,000 B.C. Large and small animals in 13 different styles Large small delicate bold One of the largest bulls is eighteen feet in length Later images were painted over earlier ones, each of the vigorous natural styles were made in different time periods These depictions were obviously based on careful observation gained through direct contact with the animals that roamed the land The paintings were done by the light of oilbearing stones

13 Geometric signs and symbols appear also as well as occasional human figures More Purposes for Art in Paleolithic Times To bring spirits of animals into rituals related to the hunt Sites used as sanctuaries where youth were initiated in ceremonies based on symbolic and metaphysical associations with the animals 70,000 to 8,000 B.C. The last Ice Age There had been two previous ice ages, followed by periods of subtropical warmth at intervals of 25,000 yrs. 15,000B.C. Prehistoric Ice Age Southern Argentina

14 Made paintings of their hands by blowing earth colors as they placed their hands against cave walls Deer and hands are similar to paintings found on many continents Huge herds of reindeer and other large herbivores roamed the plains Ancestors of lions and tigers and humans The New Stone Age Neolithic Period Began sometime around 8,000B. C. In the near east or the modern countries of Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Lebanon and Jordan,

15 Until now people had been hunters and food gathers This is the first attempt to domesticate animals and food grains Excavations tell us very little about the spiritual condition of Neolithic cultures They had stone implements of greater refinement and beauty of shape they had a variety of clay vessels with abstract ornamental patterns But This chapter of history is mostly lost to us largely because the artist worked largely in wood or non permanent materials

16 *One exception to this is the great Stonehenge in Southern France Location Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire England 2000 B.C. (After Adam was borne in 4004 and died in 3074) B.C years after Adam died Megalith large stone circle monument Most plausible purpose was religious The effort required could only be compelled by faith- faith that almost literally demanded the moving of mountains

17 Entire structure is oriented toward the exact point where the sun rises on the longest day of the year (therefore it is most likely that it served as a sun worship ritual Stonehenge may be the first example of architecture

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