North Africa and Southwest Asia Early Cultures

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1 North Africa and Southwest Asia Early Cultures

2 I. Mesopotamia between two rivers A. History 1. first civilization 2. Tigris and Euphrates Rivers fertile crescent of land 3. today: Syria and Iraq 4. 1 st permanent human settlement 5. Bronze Age

3 B. Farming 1. rich farmland B.C. first settlement 3. created an irrigation system 4. created a 12 month calendar 5. crops grown for the first time: grain barley and wheat

4 C. Government 1. city-state each city was considered a small state, or nation at this time it was made up of the city and farmland around it. 2. theocracy a. ruled by an individual who was both the religious leader and the king b. priest-kings absolute power

5 D. Sumer 1. earliest city-states 2. Sumerians created a form of writing cuneiform a. written with wooden triangular-shaped sticks b. permanent when the clay tablets harden in the sun.

6 E. Akkad and Babylon BC Akkad conquered Sumer 2. Akkad first empire group of state under one ruler. 3. Babylon Akkadian Empire lost control to Babylon in 1800 B.C. 4. Hammurabi a. Babylon s greatest king b. Hammurabi s Code set of laws 5. Babylonians contributed to the field of mathematics a. number system based on 60 b. 60 second minute and 360 degree circle c. clock controlled by water drops

7 F. The Phoenicians 1. important traders located in today s Lebanon B.C. sailed around the tip of Southern Africa and used the sun and stars to navigate. 3. developed an alphabet that gave rise to the Hebrews, Greek, and Latin alphabets

8 II. Ancient Egypt A. History 1. Nile river valley (longest river in the world) 2. Delta rich fertile land settled about 5,000 B.C.

9 B. Pharaohs and Gods 1. Upper Egypt & Lower Egypt united in 3,100 B.C. 2. Pharaoh great house both king and god 3. Polytheistic many gods 4. Government - theocracy

10 C. Egyptian Writing 1. hieroglyphics form of picture writing with about 800 signs 2. papyrus used to make a form of paper 3. scribes royal officers who recorded govt. businesses 4. Rosetta Stone stone tablet that cracked the code for hieroglyphics

11 D. Trade and Conquest 1. Empire - expanded as far as Mesopotamia in the north and Sudan in the south. 2. Trade routes as far south as Somalia and north of the Mediterranean.

12 Religions of the Middle East Monotheism belief in one supreme god

13 I. Judaism A. Oldest of the three world religions B. Israelites C. Jews followers D. Torah holy book 5 books of Moses along with the books of laws and teachings

14 E. Jewish Belief 1. Jews are descended from Abraham and Sara 2. worshipped one God Yahweh 3. believe they are God s chosen people 4. God s laws ten commandments, revealed by prophet Moses 5. God will deliver a messiah, or savior, to the Jewish people.

15 F. Israel important, prosperous state 1. 1 st three kings: Saul, David, and Solomon 2. David made Jerusalem the capital in 1,000 BC 3. After Solomon s death the kingdom split in two

16 G. Diaspora scattering of the Jews outside of the Holy Land H. Holy days: 1. Rosh Hashanah New Year s Day on the Jewish Calendar 2. Yom Kippur holiest day in Judaism a. AKA Day of Atonement b. 24-hour period of prayer and fasting.

17 II. Christianity A. Christians followers of Jesus Christ B. Christian beliefs: 1. Jesus is the Son of God 2. Jesus is the messiah (for all people) that the Jews were awaiting 3. Jesus was killed, he rose from the dead, proving the existence of an afterlife with God.

18 C. Christian calendar B.C. ( years before Christ) and A.D. (years after Christ s birth) D. Bible holy book 1. Old Testament a. books of Moses and other Jewish writers b. history and traditions of Judaism that led up to the birth of Jesus. 2. New Testament a. deals with the birth, the life, and the teachings of Jesus b. disciples followers of Jesus

19 E. Spread of Christianity 1. across Roman empire Rome/ Constantinople becomes the center of Christianity 2. through the work of individuals and missions

20 F. Holy Days 1. Christmas birth of Jesus 2. Palm Sunday Jesus enters Jerusalem in triumph 3. Good Friday day of Jesus crucifixion, or death 4. Easter Sunday day that Jesus rose from the dead most important day

21 III. Islam A. World s second-largest religion B. Islam surrender to the will of God or Allah. C. Muslims followers D. Quran holy book

22 E. Beliefs: 1. Muhammad last and greatest prophet of Allah/God 2. Muhammad ascended to heaven from Jerusalem in A.D Five pillars of faith 5 obligations a. 1 st - There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his messenger b. 2 nd - Muslims must pray 5 times a day, facing the holy city of Makkah. c. 3 rd give to charity d. 4 th to fast during the lunar holy month of Ramadan. e. 5 th pilgrimage, hajj to Makkah to pray

23 F. Holy cities 1. Makkah (Mecca) 2. Madinah 3. Jerusalem G. Calendar begins in A.D. 622, the year of the Hijrah H. Ramadan the month in which God began to reveal the Quran to Muhammad.

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