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1 The necessary entries of the dissertation: Contents: Abbreviations and symbols 0. Introductory remarks Land, People and Culture of the speech-community Previous studies (what is know as literature-survey, this tells us that you are aware of the existing work(s) which is/are available in your language). 1. Phonetics & Phonology 1.1. Vowel chart 1.2. Consonant chart 1.3. Distinctive Segments 1.4. Description of Distinctive Segments 1.5. Non-syllabics (Consonants) 1.6. Plosives and affricates 1.7. Fricatives 1.8. Nasals 1.9. Liquids Semi vowels Syllabics Vowels Diphthongs Nasal vowels Nasal diphthongs Nasalization of glides Vowel assimilation Consonants and vowels occurring in loan words Restrictions on phonological segments by grammatical categories 1.2 PHONOTACTICS DISTRIBUTION OF SEGMENTS Word-final consonants Word-initial consonants Consonant Clusters Distribution of consonant clusters Possible consonant clusters

2 Possible word-initial consonant clusters Possible word-medial consonant clusters DISTRIBUTION OF VOWELS Word-final vowels Word-initial vowels Sequences of (syllabic) vowels 1.3 SUPRASEGMENTALS DISTINCTIVE DEGREES OF LENGTH Vowels Semivowels Stops Liquids Nasals Affricates Fricatives Stress tones/pitch intonation Major intonation patterns 2. Morphology Operational definitions of word classes Noun Pronoun Interrogative pronouns (i.e. wh- words e.g. who, what, where etc) Indefinite pronouns ( some, any...) Reflexives (reflexives and reciprocal) Verb Adjective Quantitative pronouns (all, every,...) Numerals ( 1 to 20 and then words for 30,40, ) Adjectives ( degree of comparison) Adverb Postposition

3 Inflectional morphology Noun inflection Object of comparisons Other objects governed by verb Complement of copula constructions Subject complement Object complement Object governed by adjectives Gender Meaning of noun classes Classifiers Definiteness marking in noun phrases Indefiniteness marking on noun phrases Referential and non-referential indefiniteness Pronouns Lists of pronominal forms Special anaphoric pronouns Special emphatic pronouns complex pronouns Case system in pronouns Reflexive pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Possessive pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Interrogative pronouns Relative pronouns Case Relation Types of cases Agreement Derivational Morphology Nouns from nouns Nouns from verbs Nouns from adjectives Nouns from adverbs

4 Postpositions Verbs from nouns Verbs from verbs Verb from other categories Adjective from nouns Adjective from verbs Adjectives from adjectives Adjectives from adverbs Derivation of postpositions Simple derived postpositions Verb morphology Verb (Give the classification of different classes/types of verbs: you can go back to your L-4 class notes) Verb forms (infinitive: non-finite and finite) Means of decreasing the valency of the verb Means of increasing the valency of verb Verbal causativization Tense Tenses distinguished formally Universal time reference Present Past Future Aspect Perfective aspect Form of perfective aspect Situations indicated by the perfect aspect Similarity between expression of perfect aspect and recent past tense Imperfective aspect Habitual aspect Continuous or progressive aspect

5 Mood Indicative Conditional Imperative Subjunctive/optative Intentive Complex nature of Verb: Finite and nonfinite forms Infinitive Gerund Relative participles Adverbial participles Conjunctive participles Compound verb Conjunct verb Adverbs: Types of adverb i.e. time, place etc.. 3. Syntax Sentence types ( Affirmative, Interrogative, Negative etc.) Simple sentence Compound sentences Complex sentences Basic word order of these sentences Variation of the word order (Scrambling possibilities of the constituent) Is your language classified as a Nominative-Accusative type or Ergative-Absolutive type? In either case explain the phenomenon. Language has pre-post/ positions. Does your language make the distinction between the case endings and pre-post/ positions? List all the cases and their grammatical functions that they facilitate to the NPs.

6 Agreement system in the language Complementation: Finite verbal complements Complementizer that, if, whether constructions Non-finite verbal complements Adjectives clauses (relative clauses) Restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses Full-fledged relative clause Reduced relative clause Free relatives Marking the sentential relative clause Position of the head noun Externally headed and internally headed RC Form of the relativized element Constituents of the main clause that can be relativized Constituents of the main clause that can be relativized by finite/sentential relative clauses Constituents of the main clauses that can be relativized by participial clauses Constituents of the subordinate clause that can be relativized Constituents of the subordinate clauses that can be relativized by the participial relative Adverb clauses Marking and position different types of adverb clauses Adverb clauses of time Finite clauses with relative clause-like time markers Participial non finite constructions manner Relative clause-like manner adverbial clauses Negation : Sentence negation Negation as finite/auxiliary verb

7 Negation and tense Constituent negation Multiple negatives Negation and coordination Universal negation NPI (Negative polarity Item) Interrogatives Interrogative sentences Yes-No questions Question-word questions Constituents of the sentence that can be questioned Constituents of the main clause that can be questioned Constituents of the subordinate clause that can be questioned a. Non-finite clauses b. Infinitival clauses c. Participial clauses d. Nominalized clauses Constituents of noun phrases that can be questioned Constituents of the postpositional phrases that can be questioned Anaphora Means and expressing anaphora Personal pronouns Reflexive pronouns Other means of expressing anaphora Anaphora in different syntactic contexts Anaphora in coordinate structures Reflexives Means of expressing reflexivity Scope of reflexivity Position of reflexive pronoun Possible relations between antecedent and reflexive Reflexive relations within nominalized clauses Reflexive relations within ordinary noun phases

8 Reflexive without overt antecedents Other uses of reflexive forms Reflexive pronouns as emphatic pronoun reflexive as an adverb Reciprocal Means of expressing reciprocals Possession Types of possession (alienable VS in-alienable) Reduplication Various types of reduplications (specially checking the parts of speech (grammatical categories) that can be reduplicated) Conjunctive Participle Various functions of conjunctive participle Non-Nominative Subject Explain the properties of a Subject in the sentence and contrast them with that of the Non-Nominative Subject. Conclusion References PS: You might find some headings little unclear or doubtful, but that should not bother you much. I have put the content for an open discussion for Wednesday class. Please do bring the critical review or suggestion for any/all entries.

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