The Roman Republic. The Growth and Expansion

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1 The Roman Republic The Growth and Expansion

2 January 4, 2016 AIM: To what extent does the political legacy of Ancient Rome continue today? DO NOW: Prepare for outline quiz. Homework: Outline The Rise of Christianity pages Due Thursday Check pupilpath

3 Choose one of the following questions from each outline. Explain in detail and be sure to use vocab & details. The Roman Republic - Define and explain the importance of the Twelve Tables. - What were the Punic Wars and how did they increase Rome s power in the end? The Roman Empire - Explain two problems facing the Roman REPUBLIC. - Explain how and why Rome went from being a Republic to an Empire.

4 Ancient Rome & Early Christianity page What are the main ideas related to Rome? 2. Locate Rome on the Map. 3. Which cities still exist today? 4. What countries did Rome control in what is now Africa?

5 Capital Punishment death penalty Maim Severely injure Retaliate get even in kind Slander Publically insult someone s good name Arbiter a judge Perjury lying in court Due Process trial, witnesses, evidence, charges

6 DO NOW: Examine the map on p List and explain two differences and two similarities between Greek and Roman geography.

7 Geography Both Greece and Rome are Mediterranean countries, similar enough latitudinally for both to grow wine and olives, but with very different terrain. The ancient Greek city-states were separated from each other by hilly countryside and all were near the water. Rome was inland, on one side of the Tiber River, but the Italic tribes (in the boot-shaped peninsula that is now Italy) did not have the natural hilly borders to keep them out of Rome. In Italy, around Naples, Mt. Vesuvius produced fertile land by blanketing the soil with tephra which aged into rich soil. There were also two nearby mountain ranges to the north (Alps) and east (Apennine).

8 The Ancient Greeks and Romans both began their histories as city-states. While the irregular coastline and the mountainous terrain of the Greek peninsula isolated the various Greek city-states from one another, the city of Rome was located in the geographical middle of a generally north-south plain bordered on the east with mountains and on the west by the sea. Therefore, Rome was exposed to the migrations and invasions of people from the Po River in the north and Sicily in the south.

9 The two primary ethnic and cultural influences upon the Romans were determined to a degree by this geography. That is, the first influence was that of the Etruscans in the north, and the second major influence was that of the Greeks in the south. By the time the city-state of Rome had emerged as a distinct entity out of its Etruscan origins and was prepared to expand its own unique influence, Greek civilization had spread throughout the Mediterranean basin. The Greek polis did not permit the building of a Greek empire, and the strict barriers to the extension of citizenship prevented any one city-state from becoming dominant.

10 The Romans, on the other hand, brought other communities on the Italian peninsula under their control, first by conquest, and then by extending Roman citizenship to elements of the conquered peoples. Over time, in the crucible of fierce, unremitting conflict during the Punic Wars, the people of the Italian peninsula came to identify themselves as Romans. There are, therefore, two key components in the success of the Romans in building an empire. military prowess organizational/political/legal skill in extending their governance over the conquered peoples into the empire.

11 The Romans did not intend to create an empire, but they responded to threats from their neighbors, first on the Italian peninsula, then from Carthage in the western Mediterranean, then from Macedonia in the east, and so on. As each adversary was defeated, the Romans found themselves drawn-in to keep the peace ( that is, to maintain their control) among the conquered peoples. This process led to the creation of armies made up of large numbers of Romans who were separated permanently from the land, became professional soldiers, and had to be supported by the state. The army and its generals became so powerful that they eventually posed a threat to the political institutions of the Roman Republic. In other words, the conquest of Rome's enemies, destroyed the Republic and led to the creation of an imperial government.

12 From the very beginning of the history of Rome, the very force which created the empire, that is, the army and its generals, would also be the cause for its downfall. The Roman Empire would last for many centuries, however, and the foundations of its endurance rested upon the extension of the Roman sense of identity to conquered peoples; that is, to "barbarians". Also important were Roman law, and political skills exercised in the Senate and by some of the more outstanding emperors.

13 The Greek city-states had to be united by force, first through the invasion of the Macedonians, and then by the Romans. The Greeks would, in a sense, have the last laugh. Their culture was more sophisticated, their learning and philosophy more advanced, and Roman culture would be overwhelmed as the Romans absorbed the cultural influences of the Hellenistic east. In the end, as the Roman Empire declined in the west, Roman emperors transferred their capitol from Italy to Asia Minor. Long after the Roman empire was gone, the Byzantine Empire, an amalgam of Roman and Greek culture, centered in the city of Constantinople, would endure. The Greeks had conquered their conquerors.

14 How the original Republic was formed 1. Who ruled Rome before the Romans? The Etruscans (Tarquins). 2. What type of rulers were the Etruscans? CRUEL 3. Romans rebel in 509 B.C.E. 4. Create a Republic 5. Republic = form of government where citizens have the power.

15 How the original Republic was formed What is the difference between a Republic and a Democracy? A Direct Democracy is where all the people have a say A Republic is a democracy, but each person is responsible to someone else, they can t just do whatever they want

16 How the original Republic was formed Make a timeline with these events 509 B.C.E. Rome = small city. Slowly expands. 338 B.C.E. defeat the other Latins 284 B.C.E. defeat Etruscans 267 B.C.E. defeat the Greeks The Republic is growing! Add Persian & Peloponnesian Wars

17 Rome s republic was shaped by a struggle between wealthy nobles and regular citizens. Patricians Plebeians

18 Patricians Plebeians Slaves

19 Patricians 1. Wealthy land owners 2. Nobles that made up the ruling class 3. Citizens (male) could vote, had to pay taxes and serve in the army 4. Could not marry a Plebian 5. Could serve in government Plebeians 1. Majority of the population 2. Artisans, shopkeepers, small farm owners 3. Citizens (male) could vote, pay taxes, serve in army 4. Could not marry a Patrician 5. Could not serve in government

20 How the Roman Republic works

21 Consuls Senate Praetors Tribunes

22 1. Top government official 2. Two chosen every year 3. Headed the army and ran the government 4. Served short term.avoided risk of abusing power 5. Veto The right of the consul to reject the other s decision. Latin for I forbid

23 Senate men 2. Chosen for life 3. Advise Consul 4. Deal with other countries 5. Proposes laws 6. Approve public works 7. Deal with daily government problems

24 Praetors 1. Government officials 2. Interpreted law and judged court cases 3. Kept tax records 4. Handled public finances 5. Supervised public festivals

25 Tribunes 1. Elected by all citizens (Plebians have a large majority so they really elect the official) 2. Bring Plebian concerns to the government 3. Right to veto actions taken by the government First steps towards democracy in Rome!

26 Keeping it Fair! How do you know what a law says? How do you know how someone should be punished if they do something wrong? Draco of Greece was the first person to do this! 1. Write the laws down so the patricians couldn t be unfair to the plebians!!!!

27 Keeping it Fair! BCE The Twelve Tablets were made on bronze tablets Where would you put them in Rome so everyone (both rich and poor) could see them? 3. The forum (marketplace)

28 Main Idea # 3 Keeping it Fair! Finish these sentences. Innocent until. You have the right to in court. 1. Laws of Nations laws to settle disputes between all people Do we still use this today???

29 Main Idea # 3 Keeping it Fair! Is it fair to punish one person for stealing but not another person? Why or why not? 1. Rule of Law the idea that all laws should apply to every person equally and all people should be treated the same by the legal system 2. We base all our laws today off of this idea made by the Romans!

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