A Novel Continuous Oil Seed Extraction Method for Jet Fuel Production

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1 A Novel Continuous Oil Seed Extraction Method for Jet Fuel Production Kasiviswanathan (Muthu) Muthukumarappan Distinguished Professor and Graduate Coordinator Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department 1

2

3 Data source:

4 The Bioeconomy Roadmap Task 4: Work with communities to build rural economy

5 Challenges Development of commercially viable biomass utilization technologies. Sustainable and economic production of advanced biofuels. Compatability with today s transportation infrastructure. Oil quantity and fatty acid contents in oil are two major factors responsible for suitability of oil for aviation fuel. Advanced biofuels from algae and non-food oil seeds are promising.

6 3 rd Generation Advanced Biofuels Drop-In bioderived equivalent for gasoline, diesel and JP-8 Photoautotrophs: conversion of CO2 -Engineered organisms Infrastructure compatible, energy dense Modes of Production Safflower, carinata, camelina, canola, several others Refining of vegetable oils

7 Opportunity US Navy initiative to use 50% blends of green diesel and jet fuel by 2020 Annual market for 336 million gallons of fuel Larger national market of 140 billion gallons of fuel

8 Department of Defense Interest in Biofuels Navy sailing great green fleet in 2014 Green FA-18 Hornet BjZRZ4&feature=related Green AV-8B Harrier

9 Biofuels from Non-Food Oilseeds Understanding the linkages between Oilseed species, oil extraction processing, oil quality, fat acid profile, production costs and extraction efficiency. Oilseeds Extraction processing Solid fraction Enzymatic/ microbial conversion Crude Oil Animal Feed Catalytic Cracking Jet Fuel

10 Objective To evaluate and compare three oil extraction technologies, solvent extraction, cold press, and novel continuous extraction, for efficiently extracting oils from different nonfood oilseeds for further conversion into aviation fuels.

11 Oilseed Varieties Camelina seeds Carinata seeds Flax seeds Sunflower seeds Canola seeds Safflower seeds

12 Solvent Extraction Methods Applied Research Associates Hydrothermal Process (patented) Cold Press % Oil Recovery Oil Quality Continuous Extrusion Catalytic Cracking for Jet Fuel

13 Cold press for oil extraction Feeding cone VFD Sunflower Canola Safflower Mustard Flax Motor Oil press Oil Extraction meal

14 Extraction speed Extraction speed Oil Characterization Oil extraction from canola seeds at different speeds ph value Seed water content, % Oil water content, % Density (g/ml) Viscosity 25HZ HZ HZ Oil extraction from flax seeds at different speeds ph value seeds water content, % Oil water content, % Density (g/ml) Viscosity 20 C) Extraction efficiency, % Extraction efficiency (%) 27HZ HZ HZ Different oilseeds required different extraction conditions. Extraction speed and time affect oil yield and properties. Higher speed and shorter time led to lower oil yield.

15 Characterization of Cold Pressed Camelina Oil Screw speed, Hz Die Dia, inch Extraction Efficiency, % Heating value, MJ/kg Viscocity, cp Density, kg/m ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 12.8 Characterization of Cold Pressed Carinata Oil Screw speed, Hz Die Dia, inch Extraction Efficiency, % Heating value, MJ/kg Viscocity, cp Density, kg/m ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 2.6

16 Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) ASE System For oil extraction RotoVap System Separates Oil and solvent mixture Oil Hexane recovered Oil+Hexane mixture Effect of extraction temperature, extraction time and solvents on oil recovery was evaluated for canola seeds using ASE method

17 Physical properties of canola oil produced by solvent extraction No. Solvent Boiling Density Viscosity (cp) at Flash point Auto ignition point ( C) (g/ml) 25 C ( C) temperature ( C) 1 Hexane Ethanol Ethyl acetate butanol Oil extraction from canola seeds using different solvents S No Temp Time % Extraction Efficiency [ C] [min] Hexane Pinene Ethanol Ethyl Acetate Butanol Increase in temperature and extraction time improved the oil recovery for all the solvents After hexane, acetate showed high potential for oil extraction followed by pinene, butanol and ethanol.

18 Green Solvent - Terpene Environmentally safer than Hexane Natural solvents existing both in citrus fruits and in many other plants Include hydrocarbons with C5H8 isoprene units d-limonene: derived from citrus peels α-pinene: from gum turpentine in pine gum

19 Solvent-Assisted Extrusion (SAE) Oil extraction methods Using single screw extruder to determine the upper limit of available oil from the oilseeds Using single screw extruder and green solvent simultaneously to extract the oil from the oil seeds Quality analysis of the extracted oils

20 Experimental Designs Evaluating of the effect of extrusion parameters on oil extraction yield & quality T ( C) SS (rpm) Evaluating the effect of green-solvent assisted extrusion parameters on oil extraction yield & quality.

21 Single-screw (Brabender, Plasti- Corder (PL 2000) Crambe oil, 80 C, 80 rpm Pennycress oil, 80 C, 80 rpm

22 Effect of SAE Parameters on Oil Extraction Increasing T and SS reduced and increased the residual oil content of the extruded meal, respectively. Perhaps, the diminution of the SS increased the mean residence time of the extruding seeds and resulted in more oil release from the broken cell walls. Increasing R, reduced the oil residual content in extrudates implying the positive effect of R on SAE processing. Type of solvent did not show significant effect on oil residual content of the extrudates (α=0.05)

23 Pennycress seeds Maximal oil recovery

24 Crambe Seeds Maximal oil recovery

25 Properties of Pennycress and Crambe Oils extracted using SAE (120 C, 80 RPM) Pennycress Crambe Pinene 10% 15% 10% 15% Density, (Kg/m3) 898 a± a± a± a±20 Acid value (mgkoh/g) 0.61 a± a± a± a±0.0 Heating Value (MJ/kg) a± a± a± a±0.08 SAE operating parameters had no significant effect on solvent-extruded oil qualities, in terms of density, acid value, and heating value

26 CH Pilot System High pressure, high temperature Five min reaction time

27 Acknowledgements Agricultural Experiment Station, ABS College, SDSU US Department of Transportation NASA-EPSCoR, Oil Seeds Initiative

28 Questions??? K. Muthukumarappan Distinguished Professor and Graduate Coordinator Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering South Dakota State University Brookings, SD

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