# Fast and Precise: GPU Techniques for 2D

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1 Fast and Precise: GPU Techniques for 2D Sean James Carnegie Mellon University AutoCAD Product Line, Autodesk Inc. Ravi Krishnaswamy Sr. Software Architect AutoCAD Product Line, Autodesk Inc.

2 Agenda Goals Analytical Curves Line styles (linetypes) Draw order Performance Conclusion

3 Background: Project Goal Improve visual quality and performance of 2D curve rendering, particularly for AutoCAD Move from performance OR quality to performance AND quality through better use of the GPU

4 2D: Engineering Documentation

5 Some Stats

6 Background: Product Usage Many 2D users Many DX9 and DX10 feature level users Drawing data size typically.5-1mb Number of 2D entities in the 1000s to s

7 Considerations Productivity: fast open, zoom, pan, etc. Standards: ISO/ANSI patterns. Industry and Company standards and conventions Visual quality: smooth curves

8 Analytical Curves

9 Analytical Curves: High level technique Typically curves are tessellated line segments Our solution: Render envelope geometry around curve Solve curve equation in pixel shader

10 Analytical Curves: Benefits DX9, OpenGL 3.2 compatibility: no geometry shader tessellation Smooth curves and antialiasing at pixel level Quality independent of amount of geometry: lower memory/pcie bandwidth requirement High-quality option for users investing in better GPUs

11 Analytical Curves: Instancing Drawing thousands of curves GPU instancing: One copy of base geometry GPU duplicates geometry automatically Vertex shader transforms geometry for each instance Memory/bandwidth savings and performance improvement over AutoCAD implementation Complicates envelope generation and vertex shading

12 Analytical Curves: Ellipses Problem: No closed form for distance from pixel to curve Correct solution: find θ such that error is minimized. Would require iterative solver in pixel shader. Approximation: to find distance d(p) from point p to curve given implicit ellipse function f. Can be implemented with ddx/ddy shader instructions. See Blinn/Loop 05 for details.

13 Analytical Curves: Ellipses (cont.) Problem: No closed form for arc length. Arc length needed for linetype parameterization (later). Correct solution: would need to find integral in pixel shader: Approximation: note that the term being integrated is very similar to the following, which has a simple integral.

14 Analytical Curves: Ellipses (cont.) Problem: Envelope generation for ellipses is non-trivial (tangent, radii depend on θ) Approximation: use envelope for a circle and scale to ellipse radii in vertex shader. Excess pixel coverage but simple, fast, works with instancing.

15 Analytical Curves: Performance Slow, expensive pixel shading Culling: avoid drawing geometry off screen Level of detail: balance between envelope geometry complexity and screen size Could use an acceleration structure (ex: quad-tree) or geometry shader. Currently CPU only.

16 Culling/LOD Compute bounding box for each instance, and either cull or choose a level of detail and copy into LOD instance buffer Copy instance buffers to GPU LOD curve based on fraction of screen covered. Avoids shading too many pixels for small objects; grows more slowly for large objects.

17 Culling/LOD Compute bounding box for each instance, and either cull or choose a level of detail Geometry Copy to GPU Cull LOD0 Copy LOD1 Copy LOD2 Copy LOD3 Copy LOD4 Copy

18 Culling/LOD: Multiple Threads Decouples render frame rate and slow LOD/culling/copy Worker threads assigned small batches of geometry for culling/lod to balance work distribution Double-buffered level of detail buffers to avoid GPU stalling Example (quad-core CPU): Swap LOD Instance Buffers Worker 0: LOD LOD LOD LOD Worker 1: LOD LOD LOD LOD Worker 2: LOD LOD LOD LOD Render: Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame

19 Render Pipeline Possible pipeline permutations: Geometry LOD/Cull Tessellate Circles, Arcs, Lines Bézier Curves CPU (DX9+) Geometry Shader (DX10+) Compute (DX11+) CPU (DX9+) Geometry Shader (DX10+) Tesellation Shader (DX11+) Compute (DX11+) Transform Shade Blend Vertex Shader (DX9+) Geometry Shader (DX10+) Analytical Shader (High Qual.) Line Shader (Low Qual.) Pre-sort (DX9+) Order Independent (DX9+) Compute (DX11+)

20 Linetypes

21 Linetypes: Cases 1D and complex linetypes Standard and custom linetypes Polylines and composite curves Linetype scale and zoom invariance

22 Linetypes: Basic and Complex Lines are weighted (2H and HB pencils) Dash lengths are paper and scale specific Complex linetypes contain symbols and text

23 Linetypes: pattern adjustments End conditions shift the pattern or clamp Complex linetypes adjust symbol alignment

24 Linetypes: Approach Texture: 2D as array of 1D textures (R,G) Use (cumulative) length as parameterization Handle end conditions via Phase Shift/Clamping

25 Linetypes: Dots Texel Center u: G Dot or Dash : R Test pixel u distance from Cu in the shader

26 Demo

27 Draw Order and Transparency Curves are transparent: need to draw back to front for correctness Instancing: cannot interleave drawing different geometry types CPU Based: view as a graph problem: Rank Approach Consider the DAG based on overlap and order Topological sort GPU Based: No broad support. Consideration of OIT Dx11 SM 5.5 Static scenarios should consider preprocessing v/s every frame

28 Rank Algorithm: Topological Sort Node numbering based on depth Batch by type and node numbering Bounded by N*OPT where N = number of distinct batch types, OPT = optimal batch count

29 Samples and Performance : Pan full scene DataSet Applica,on #Lines #Ellip,cal Arcs #Circles # CircleArcs GPU% Average ms/ Frame Stadium Tradi+onal Stadium Analy+c Site Tradi+onal Site Analy+c Plan Tradi+onal Plan Analy+c Synthe+c- lines- dashed Tradi+onal Synthe+c- lines- dashed Analy+c Synthe+c- circles Tradi+onal Synthe+c- circles Analy+c

30 GPU Utilization

31 Milliseconds per frame

32 Extension of linetypes to hatch pattern

33 Hatch Pattern Definition

34 Generated as lines with linetypes

35 Pixel Shader: Identify closest line and linetype

36 Conclusions High quality with performance and capacity gains Non traditional behavior for stylization Can be implemented with lower shader model requirements

37 Questions?

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