Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects

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1 Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects State of the Art Rendering Techniques used in the 3D Games Industry Sebastian Lehmann 11. Februar 2014 FREESTYLE PROJECT GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING LAB CHAIR OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS WINTER TERM 2013 / 2014 KIT University of the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg and National Laboratory of the Helmholtz Association

2 Deferred Shading Motivation Rendering a Complex Scene Render time depends on: Number of objects N (scene complexity) Number of lights L Number of screen fragments R (resolution) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

3 Deferred Shading Motivation Rendering a Complex Scene Render time depends on: Number of objects N (scene complexity) Number of lights L Number of screen fragments R (resolution) Trend: increasing! Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

4 Deferred Shading Motivation Conventional Rendering Method for each object for each fragment for each light compute lighting Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

5 Deferred Shading Motivation Conventional Rendering Method for each object for each fragment for each light compute lighting requires time O(N L R) Not reasonable in modern games Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

6 Deferred Shading Motivation Deferred Shading: Two Passes for each object for each fragment store surface material properties in offscreen buffer Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

7 Deferred Shading Motivation Deferred Shading: Two Passes for each object for each fragment for each light store surface material properties in offscreen buffer for each fragment fetch surface material properties from offscreen buffer compute lighting add to screen color Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

8 Deferred Shading Motivation Deferred Shading: Two Passes for each object for each fragment for each light store surface material properties in offscreen buffer for each fragment fetch surface material properties from offscreen buffer compute lighting add to screen color requires time O((N + L) R) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

9 Deferred Shading Rendering Pipeline (Conventional method for comparison) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

10 Deferred Shading Rendering Pipeline Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

11 Deferred Shading Demo Demo Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

12 Deferred Shading Translucent Objects Problem: Translucent objects User sees multiple objects at same pixel Need to evaluate lighting model multiple times G-Buffer can t store this information Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

13 Deferred Shading Translucent Objects Problem: Translucent objects User sees multiple objects at same pixel Need to evaluate lighting model multiple times G-Buffer can t store this information Solution: Render them separately Two methods: Multiple Layers: render each layer with Deferred Shading (Complex and costly) Forward Shading: render these objects using conventional method (But restrict the set of lights!) My choice Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

14 Deferred Shading Rendering Pipeline Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

15 Deferred Shading Rendering Pipeline Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

16 Deferred Shading Demo Demo Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

17 Ambient Occlusion Motivation Ambient Illumination Indirect light ( bounce ) also illuminates the scene Usually: Add constant illumination ( %) everywhere (But unrealistic need to reduce at occluded points) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

18 Ambient Occlusion Motivation Ambient Illumination Indirect light ( bounce ) also illuminates the scene Usually: Add constant illumination ( %) everywhere (But unrealistic need to reduce at occluded points) Ambient Occlusion Do not add the same global illumination everywhere (Have another factor influencing global illumination) Compute factor depending on local environment ( How much light can reach this point? ) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

19 Ambient Occlusion Example Starcraft 2 Ambient Occlusion Disabled Ambient Occlusion Enabled Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

20 Ambient Occlusion Techniques Per-Object Ambient Occlusion Precompute occlusion map (texture) per object (Assumes static object mesh) Cheap technique But no inter-object ambient occlusion, bad for highly dynamic scenes (But for some games almost perfect, e.g. RTS) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

21 Ambient Occlusion Techniques Per-Object Ambient Occlusion Precompute occlusion map (texture) per object (Assumes static object mesh) Cheap technique But no inter-object ambient occlusion, bad for highly dynamic scenes (But for some games almost perfect, e.g. RTS) Screen-Space Ambient Occlusion (SSAO) Approximate reachability per pixel using rendered image Used in almost all modern games (or variations of SSAO) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

22 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Idea For each pixel, cast rays to look for occlusions The more rays hit objects, the less light comes in Use depth buffer Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

23 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Idea For each pixel, cast rays to look for occlusions The more rays hit objects, the less light comes in Use depth buffer Problems Many rays per pixel are inefficient (Use only few and blur the result, but how?) Objects in the front: Are they occluding the scene in the back? (Information missing) What about the screen border? (Information missing) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

24 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Generating Rays How many rays, in which direction? Rays with random direction within hemisphere (2 to 8 per pixel) Different set of directions for each pixel (Repeating pattern of size 4x4 to 8x8) Post-process: blur with filter radius = pattern size (Effectively kills noise almost entirely) Per ray: only 2 or 3 marching steps are enough, random initial offset Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

25 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Generating Rays How many rays, in which direction? Rays with random direction within hemisphere (2 to 8 per pixel) Different set of directions for each pixel (Repeating pattern of size 4x4 to 8x8) Post-process: blur with filter radius = pattern size (Effectively kills noise almost entirely) Per ray: only 2 or 3 marching steps are enough, random initial offset Wait... rand() on the GPU? Precompute noise texture Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

26 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Problems Objects in the front They hide the scene behind them Information missing! Range check: If ray hits an object too far in the front ignore ray Configurable threshold This Buddah is flying in front of the background: Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

27 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Problems Screen border Information missing! (Unless we rendered into enlarged framebuffer) Border check: If ray shoots outside screen ignore ray Effectively fades out the effect at screen borders (Almost unnoticable) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

28 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Problems Screen border Information missing! (Unless we rendered into enlarged framebuffer) Border check: If ray shoots outside screen ignore ray Effectively fades out the effect at screen borders (Almost unnoticable) Blurring might remove details Don t blur over edges / stay within same surface Compare depth and normal at source and target Known as geometry-aware / bilateral filter Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

29 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Rendering Pipeline Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

30 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Rendering Pipeline Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

31 Ambient Occlusion SSAO Demo Demo Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

32 Local Reflections How can we render (non-recursive) reflections? Planar mirrors: duplicate scene (Doesn t scale. OK for single mirror like ocean.) Single curved reflectors: cube maps (Doesn t scale either. Cool for cars.) Complex scene / general: screen space (Scales well, but information missing. Good for short distance ( local ) reflections) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

33 Local Reflections in Screen Space Idea Again ray casting, now along reflection vector ( 8 to 60 steps) When intersection found duplicate that color Non-perfect reflectors: add random jitter to ray direction Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

34 Local Reflections in Screen Space Idea Again ray casting, now along reflection vector ( 8 to 60 steps) When intersection found duplicate that color Non-perfect reflectors: add random jitter to ray direction Problems, problems, problems... What if (real) intersection is behind occluder or outside screen? (Information missing) Too large step size: we miss the intersection! (Did we only miss it, or is something in front?) What if the intersection is a back face (and thus invisible)? (Information missing) Should we reflect the whole color or only diffuse part? (Remember: specular lighting is view-dependent!) Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

35 Local Reflections in Screen Space Finding the best intersection Proceed ray casting until we find pixel with lower depth Cancel ray casting after k steps or when outside of the screen Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

36 Local Reflections in Screen Space Finding the best intersection Proceed ray casting until we find pixel with lower depth Cancel ray casting after k steps or when outside of the screen For each sample which has lower depth and is front face: Remember the sample with smallest depth error If depth way too small (configurable tolerance): Assume there is an occluder Optional: recover from small ocluders by counting these cases Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

37 Local Reflections in Screen Space Finding the best intersection Proceed ray casting until we find pixel with lower depth Cancel ray casting after k steps or when outside of the screen For each sample which has lower depth and is front face: Remember the sample with smallest depth error If depth way too small (configurable tolerance): Assume there is an occluder Optional: recover from small ocluders by counting these cases Final result is sample with smallest depth error, but fade out effect when error too large fade out effect when almost at screen border fade out effect when almost a back face Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

38 Local Reflections in SS Rendering Pipeline Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

39 Local Reflections in SS Rendering Pipeline Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

40 Local Reflections in SS Rendering Pipeline Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

41 Local Reflections in SS Demo Demo Sebastian Lehmann Deferred Shading & Screen Space Effects 11. Februar /23

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