Test: Thursday, December 16

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1 Name: Parents Signature: (3 bonus points on test if signed by test day) Ancient Egypt Study Guide Due Tuesday, Dec 14 Test: Thursday, December Geography A. Label the following places on the maps below: Nile River Mediterranean Sea Arabian Desert Red Sea Jordan River Sea of Galilee Nubian Desert Egypt Dead Sea Libyan Desert Kush Asia Negev Desert Canaan Africa Tigris and Euphrates River Show which direction the Nile River flows

2 B. Name the three environmental factors that are needed for human settlement and why these factors are important Environmental Factor WATER TOPOGRAPHY (shape of the land) VEGETATION Why Important? Crops Transportation Food (fish) Bathe Drink Farming (open, flat fertile land) Mountains and deserts less friendly-give protection Food Shelter Products- tools, ropes, medicine Shade from trees/ make pretty C. 1. List the physical features of Egypt and Kush and how they affected where people settled Physical Feature Nile River Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Deserts How affected where people settled Fresh water to drink; Natural irrigation; Fertilization from the flooding cycle (deposited silt) Provided food (fish) Transportation Not so great for settling too salty Provided transportation Formed natural barriers to protect the people 2. List the physical features of Canaan and how they affected where people settled Physical Feature Mediterranean Sea Sea of Galilee Jordan River Dead Sea How affected where people settled Transportation Food (fish) Fresh water lake- Provides food and fertile land Didn t flood Provided food (fish) and some fertile land Too salty to provide food or irrigation D. Describe the climate and topography of Egypt/Canaan and how it affected where the people settled Hot/Dry climate discouraged plant life. People depended on the rivers and seas for life. The river valley (esp. the Nile) provided natural irrigation and fertilization for farming. People in Canaan were NOMADIC HERDERS rather than farmers because the land was hilly and dry

3 Reading 8- Ancient Egyptian s A. Name the three kingdoms of Egypt and for what they are known Kingdom Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom Known For Period of Golden Age Age of Pyramid reunification Time Period c b.c.e. c b.c.e. c b.c.e B. Name and describe the 4 monuments we visited Name the who built it and an important detail about the Monument Description Facts Great Pyramids of Giza Khufu White Chapel Great Temple at Dayr al- Bahri Great Temple at Abu Simbel Built in the Old Kingdom- took 20 years to build; 2 million stones Destroyed by a later, but reconstructed by archaeologists Carvings show Hatshepsut s accomplishments- like the trade expedition to Punt Moved to save it from flooding Sun lined up with its entrance twice a year Senusret I Hatshepsut Ramses II (Ramses the Great) Declared himself to be God; harsh cruel rulerkept strict control over Egypt Ruled during the Middle Kingdom Arts, literature, crafts, architecture flourished Egypt s first female pharaoh Encouraged trade Ruled during the New Kingdom Over 100 wives Mummy is well preserved- in the Cairo Museum C. Label the timeline with the 3 kingdoms of Egypt and the 4 s we studied (from above) Kingdom OLD MIDDLE NEW Khufu Senusret I Hatshepsut Ramses II

4 9- Daily Life Fill in the pyramid with the members of the Ancient Egyptian social classes. Give one fact about each class PHAROAH and royal family Ruled Egypt, wealthy Government officials Wealthy, rewarded with gifts of land; performed many functions for the country like collecting taxes, military Priests Looked after temples and religious ceremonies Scribes Went to school; held a high position Artists/Skilled Workers Created objects for the royalty Peasants/ Farmers/ Laborers Largest class- most people were farmers Worked on pyramids during flood season Use the Venn diagram to compare and contrast the lives of government officials and the peasants of Ancient Egypt Work: Worked for the Food: Wide selection of foods Banquets Fun: Were entertained by musicians and dancers Burial: Embalmed/ mummification; Buried in great tombs/pyramids Clothing: Fancier clothes Drank beer and wine Played simple games Belief in afterlife Men and women wore light, linen clothing, jewelry and makeup Work: Farmers/ Laborers Food: Simple food; spent time farming Fun: Played music and danced for the royalty Burial: Simple- Buried in ground or cave Clothing: Very simple clothes Government Officials Peasants

5 Use the diagram to compare and contrast Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt Where settled? Asia; Between the Tigris and Euphrates River Government: King and officials; eventually military leaders were rulers instead of religious leaders Monuments: City-state and ziggurat Religion: Gods lived in ziggurat Social Classes: King, Government, priests, farmers Writing: Cuneiform Phoenicians developed the alphabet Wrote on clay tablets Achievements: 1 st empire Irrigation Wheel Written laws Plow Cuneiform River civilization Theocracy Monarchy-ruling power is passed through heredity Polytheistic Hierarchical social structure Scribes did the writing 1 st Great River civilizations Where settled? Africa; Along the Nile River Government: and government officials Monuments: Pyramids and temples Religion: Strong belief in afterlife Journey to the afterlife/ mummification Social Classes:, Government, priests, artists, farmers Writing: Hieroglyphics Wrote on papyrus Achievements: Pyramids Mummification Calendar Math/geometry Medicine Hieroglyphics (writing system) papyrus Ancient Mesopotamia BLUE: Characteristics of Civilization Ancient Egypt

6 Directions: Write the definition of each vocabulary word in the provided box. Delta Means Great House Fan-shaped fertile area near Ruler of Ancient Egypt the mouth of a river Hieroglyphics System of writing in Ancient Egypt where symbols stand for sounds, pictures and words Vegetation Plant life of a place or region Theocracy Form of government in which one person is both a religious and government leader Polytheism Belief in more than one god Pyramid Stone structure built to be a tomb or monument for Egyptian rulers Topography Shape of the land; surface features of a place or region such as mountains or deserts Nomad Person who moves from place to place with no permanent home

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