Chapter 8 Section Review Packet

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1 Name: Date: Section 8-1: The Articles of Confederation Chapter 8 Section Review Packet 1. Constitution 2. Republicanism 3. Limited government 4. Suffrage 5. Articles of Confederation 6. Ratification 7. Land Ordinance of Northwest Ordinance of Northwest Territory a. A government in which leaders must obey the law and no one has total power b. System of self-government in which people elect representatives to represent their interests c. Voting rights d. Set of basic principles and laws that state the powers and duties of the government. e. The first constitution of the United States of America f. Official approval g. Law that created the Northwest Territory; created a system for bringing new states into the Union h. Law that divided and organized unsettled public lands i. Territory that included what is today Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin 10. What were the main sources of inspiration in creating new government(s) in the United States? Include a) existing documents of law and government, b) existing forms of government, and c) philosophical movements. a) Documents such as the Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut b) Existing forms of representative government such as colonial assemblies like the VA House of Burgesses c) The thinkers of the Enlightenment 11. What kinds of rights were protected by early state constitutions? Include examples of a) personal rights, and b) rights to certain forms of government/political participation. a) Trial by jury, freedom of the press, ownership of property, freedom of religion, voting rights for certain citizens (white males) b) Republican forms of self-government (republicanism) 12. The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government. Why would this a) appeal to some people, but b) not to others? a) Supporters of the Articles liked it because they did not want a strong central government; too similar to that of Great Britain, worried that it would become too powerful b) Opponents of the Articles felt they were too weak and the country needed a strong central government in order to promote unity and security

2 13. a) What kinds of powers did the Confederation Congress have? b) What powers did it not have? a) Powers it had: Make coins, borrow money, make treaties, settle conflicts between states, ask states for money and military support b) Powers it did not have: Could not force states to contribute money or soldiers, even in cases of emergency; could not print money; could not regulate interstate commerce; could not raise an army or navy; could not place tariffs on imported goods 14. Describe the system for land surveying and division created by the Land Ordinance of a) How were new territories organized geographically, and b) how would land be divided within townships? a) Land in the territories would be divided into 36 square mile blocks, with a township at its center b) One lot would be set aside for public school; another 4 for Revolutionary War veterans; remaining land would be sold to public to raise money for Revolutionary War debts 15. a) What institution did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ban in the territories and b) why would this become an issue in the future? a) Slavery b) This would become an issue later because the argument over slavery in the territories would come into question every time a territory was added or organized; the question was whether or not the federal government should decide about slavery in a territory or should the decision be left up to the people of the territory (popular sovereignty)

3 Section 8-2: Problems in the New Nation 16. Tariffs 17. Interstate commerce 18. Inflation 19. Debtors 20. Creditors 21. Depression 22. Shay s Rebellion a. Rebellion of Massachusetts farmers in protest of high property taxes b. A period of low economic activity c. Increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money d. Those who owe others money e. Those to whom money is owed f. A tax on imports or exports g. Trade between two or more states within the United States 23. a) Describe how the Articles of Confederation left the United States weak militarily. b) How did other nations take advantage of this? a) The AoC did not allow Congress to raise an army or navy; country was dependent on state militias for defense b) Britain refused to remove soldiers and forts from frontier areas west of the Appalachians; Britain began taking American sailors and impressing them into the British navy; Spain closed the Mississippi River to American trade and shipping 24. a) Describe how the Articles of Confederation left the United States weak economically. b) How did other nations take advantage of this fact? a) Couldn t print own money; couldn t set tariffs; couldn t regulate interstate commerce; overall it harmed American trade and economy b) Britain placed tariffs on imported goods from America; America could not retaliate with a tariff of its own; if a state placed a tariff on imported goods from Britain, the British would simply trade with another state 25. a) & b) Describe two ways in which states would attempt to raise money to pay off debts, including both the method and its consequences. a) Some states would attempt to print money inflation and economic depression b) Some states would increase taxes (Massachusetts, for example) unrest and rebellion (Shay s Rebellion) 26. How did Shay s Rebellion highlight the need for a new constitution? a) National government could not respond because it could not raise a national army; the Massachusetts militia could not force the other states to offer help in order to put down the rebellion; Showed that the AoC were simply too weak to deal with the country s many issues

4 Section 8-3: The Constitution 27. Constitutional Convention 28. James Madison 29. Virginia Plan 30. New Jersey Plan 31. William Paterson 32. Great Compromise 33. Three-Fifths Compromise 34. Popular Sovereignty 35. Federalism 36. Legislative branch 37. Executive branch 38. Judicial branch 39. Checks and balances a. System that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful b. Plan that proposed legislative representation be based on population alone c. Plan that proposed legislative representation be equal for each state d. Idea that political authority ultimately rests with the people e. Concept that means sharing of power between a central government and various states f. Branch of government that carries out and enforces laws g. Branch of government that interprets and applies laws h. Creator of the Virginia Plan i. Branch of government that creates and passes laws j. Meeting of delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation k. Creator of the New Jersey Plan 40. Describe the Virginia Plan in detail. Include: a) how many and which branches of government did it include, b) what type of legislature did it call for and how was representation to be determined, and c) did this plan favor larger or smaller states? a) The Virginia Plan proposed a three branch government (legislative, executive, and judicial branches) b) Bicameral legislature (two chambers or houses) made up of lower and upper house, number of representatives in both determined by the states populations c) This plan favored the larger states 41. Describe the New Jersey Plan in detail. Include: a) how many and which branches of government did it include, b) what type of legislature did it call for and how was representation to be determined, and c) did this plan favor larger or smaller states? a) The New Jersey plan proposed a unicameral (one house or chamber) legislature where b) Each state had an equal number of votes regardless of population c) This plan favored the smaller states 42. Explain what was included from both plans in the Great Compromise. Include: a) how many and which branches of government did it include, and b) what type of legislature did it include and how was representation to be determined? a) Three branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial b) Bicameral legislature: House of Representatives (Lower House, representation determined by state population, represents the people) and Senate (Upper House, representation equal for all states, represents the states) 43. Explain the a) Three-Fifths Compromise, b) the Fugitive Slave Clause, and c) the Slave Importation Clause. d) How would arguments over slavery foreshadow future events?

5 a) Three-Fifths Compromise counted slaves as 3/5 of a person for representation in the House of Rep. and taxation of property b) Fugitive Slave Clause stated that an escaped slave must be returned back to its owner; a slave escaping from a slave state to a free state is not automatically made free; forced those states that had abolished slavery to take part in it c) Slave Importation Clause prevented Congress from banning the importation of slaves for at least 20 years, until 1808 d) Foreshadowed future events by highlighting the argument over slavery; states threatened to secede if not guaranteed their rights to carry on the institution of slavery 44. Explain the concept of a) checks and balances, and b-d) include at least three examples. a) Each branch of government has powers it can use to prevent the other branches of government from becoming too strong or powerful b) Example: Congress can pass a law with a simple majority, but President may veto (reject) that law; Congress can then override the President s veto with a 2/3 majority vote c) Example: President appoints Supreme Court justices and other positions within the government, but those appointments or nominations must be approved by Congress d) Example: Congress can pass a law, President can enforce a law, but the Supreme Court can review a law and if it does not agree with the Constitution, the SC can strike that law down as unconstitutional 45. a) Describe the legislative branch of the federal government and its primary responsibility. b) What are the two houses or chambers of the legislative branch, and whom do they represent? c) How is representation determined for these legislative bodies? a) Creates and passes laws b) House of Representatives represents the people of the United States, Senate represents the states as a whole c) Number of representatives in the House determined by state population; number of Senators equal for each state regardless of population 46. a) Describe the executive branch of the federal government and its primary responsibility. b) Who is the head of the executive branch? c) What organizations help the executive branch carry out its duties? a) Carries out, enforces, or executes the laws created by the legislature. b) President is the head of the executive branch c) Has various executive departments and agencies to help the executive carry out its duties. 47. a) Describe the judicial branch of the federal government and its duties. b) What or who is the head of the judicial branch? a) Interprets and applies the law; prosecutes and punishes criminals convicted of crimes; settles civil disputes among the people and the states b) The Supreme Court of the United States is the head of the judicial branch; judicial branch made up of various national, state, and local courts

6 Section 8-4: Ratification of the Constitution 48. Antifederalists 49. Federalists 50. George Mason 51. The Federalist Papers 52. The Bill of Rights 53. Amendments a. A series of essays supporting the Constitution b. One of the most outspoken Antifederalists c. The first ten amendments to the Constitution d. Those in favor of a strong central government e. Changes or additions to the Constitution f. Those against a strong central government 54. a) What issues did the Antifederalists have with the Constitution? b) What, in particular, did they feel the Constitution lacked? c) Who were some of the most important Antifederalists? a) Antifederalists felt that the Constitution gave the central government too much power b) Concerned that the Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights c) Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry 55. a) Who were the Federalists and what was their view on the Constitution? b)who were some of the most important Federalists? a) Federalists supported the Constitution and felt the Constitution offered good balance of power between the federal government and the states; felt it was a compromise between various political views and necessary for the security and prosperity of the country b) George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, James Madison 56. a) What were the Federalist Papers and what was their purpose? b) Who wrote the Federalist Papers? a) Federalist Papers were a series of essays published throughout the United States that were intended to convince the American people to support the Constitution of 1787 and to urge their state legislatures to ratify it; addressed people s concerns about the new Constitution and assured them it would not be used for tyranny, that it would not grant too much power to the national government, etc. b) Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under pseudonyms 57. a) Describe the ratification process. b) How many states ratifications were necessary to adopt the Constitution? c) What promise was made in order to convince some states to ratify? a) The Constitution would be debated and ratified or rejected by each state legislature b) 9 out of 13 state legislatures must ratify the Constitution before it becomes the law of the land c) Promise that a Bill of Rights would be added to the Constitution was necessary to convince some states to ratify 58. a) Describe the Bill of Rights. b) What documents were consulted in its creation? a)the Bill of Rights is are the first ten amendments, or additions and changes, to the Constitution; also considered a list of basic rights that the government must protect and never violate; may be seen as placing limits on government power when it comes to basic civil rights b) Documents consulted included the Declaration of Independence, Virginia Declaration of Rights, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedoms

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