Can Grazing Make Organic No-Till Possible?

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1 Can Grazing Make Organic No-Till Possible? Harun Cicek, Caroline Halde, Kristen Podolsky, Martin Entz, Keith Bamford, Joanne Thiessen Martens and David Feindel WCCA, Winnipeg 2014 ICARDA

2 reduced tillage tool box Blade roller Flail mower Wide blade cultivator Rotary hoe Chisel plough Strip tillage Bio-herbicides Strategic tillage Grazing

3 Roles of livestock Nutrient distribution (Haynes and Williams 1999) Weed control (Myers and Squiers 1970; Symth et al. 1997) Disease control (Mayfield and Clare 1984) Pest control (Goosey et al. 2005) Stubble management (Lilley and Moore 2009) Montana- Hatfield et al. (2011)

4 Rotation Its all about biomass and its management Annual forages Perennial forages Failed crops Dual purpose crops (Francia et al. 2006) Intercropping (e.g. relay cropping) (Cicek et al. 2014) Stubble and weed grazing (Lessen et al. 2013)

5

6 Strengths and weaknesses of green manure management systems Tillage Efficacy Usability Erosion protection Weed control Nitrogen availability Main crop yield Energy Savings 18 Blade roll + tillage Blade roll Flail mow Wide blade cultivation Grazing ** *** *** **** **** **** (Kristen Podolsky 2013)

7 Challenges for Organic No-Till (> 400 mm) Limited N availability (Vaisman et al. 2011) Weeds (Halde et al. 2014) Limited options for mulches (Halde et al. 2014) e.g., paradox of N availability and weed suppression Cold soils at seeding (Podolsky 2013) achieving synchrony for weed suppression, N supply and optimum soil o C Barley Hairy vetch -barley

8 Soil nitrate (kg/ha) Soil nitrate-n at seeding after Pea-Barley Green Manure a 150 bc b a cd cd d b ab a b 0 Tillage BR + Till = Wide Blade Blade Roll = Flail Mow (Kristen Podolsky 2013)

9 Halde et al WEEDS

10 Soil depth (cm) Soil NO 3 - (kg N ha -1 ) GGM2009-Year GGM2009-Year 1 Soil nitrate after grazing Soil NO 3 - (kg N ha -1 ) Species (S)* Management (M) * S x M ns Total NO 3 S* M* S x M ns Grazed oat Grazed pea/oat Ungrazed oat Ungrazed pea/oat 10 Cicek et al. (2013)

11 Dry matter (kg/ha) no-till seeding after grazing Direct seeding Conventional seeding Exp 1 Exp 2

12 Soil nitrate in the first autumn after grazing Soil NO 3 (kg ha -1 ) Wheat yield 0-30 Soil depth (cm) Reduced tillage Conventional tillage Cicek et al. (2014)

13 Rotation Its all about biomass and its management Annual forages Perennial forages Failed crops Dual purpose crops (Francia et al. 2006) Intercropping (e.g. relay cropping) (Cicek et al. 2014) Stubble and weed grazing (Lessen et al. 2013)

14 Relay cropped red clover waiting for rye harvest

15 Relay cropped red clover in autumn

16 Barley no-till seeded into grazed green manure residue in August

17 No-till double cropped field pea in autumn

18 Oilseed radish seeded after grazed green manures Barley seeded in autumn after grazed green manures

19 Challenges for Organic No-till (<400mm) Limited opportunities for green manures Government subsidies favoring wheat Unavailable/expensive legume and forage seeds Competition for water from non-cash crops Competition for biomass (soil vs. animals)

20 Stubble and weeds waiting to be grazed

21 Anything green?

22 Alley cropping

23 Weeds or pasture? 23

24 Bailing??? Bailing and grazing weeds at the same time

25

26 Mulch N content (kg N ha-1) Mulch biomass (kg ha-1) Mulch biomass Barley Pea Barley/pea Barley/radish Barley/sunflower Barley/pea/radish Barley/pea/sunflower Barley/pea/radish/sunflower At rolling in Year 1 Fall of Year 1 Spring of Year 2 Mulch N content At rolling in Year 1 Fall of Year 1 Spring of Year 2 Vetch Barley/vetch Barley Pea Barley/pea Barley/radish Barley/sunflower Barley/pea/radish Barley/pea/sunflower Barley/pea/radish/sunflower Vetch Barley/vetch (Caroline Halde 2013)

27 Rolled only Spring tillage pea/oat green manure Total N (kg ha -1 ) (soil + green manure biomass) Rolled three times Rolled two times Rolled once Yield of wheat in tilled treatment were higher than other treatments Tilled only (Vaisman et al. 2011)

28 Bell et al., 2011

29 Optimizing the rotation NO 3 leaching? Spring Summer Autumn catch crop Spring Summer Autumn 29

30 Optimizing the rotation (options) Winter cereals relay and double crops Full season forages Season long grazing with perennials and annuals Winter grazing of crop residues and forages Spring grazing of fall seeded crops 30

31 integrated crop-livestock rotation example Corn-soybean-winter wheat rotation autumn (Year 0) Seed winter wheat spring (Year 1) Seed red clover summer (Year 1) Harvest wheat and graze clover autumn (Year 1) Seed winter cereal No-till No herbicide? No fertilizer? spring (Year 2) Graze winter cereal autumn (Year 2) Seed corn No-till No herbicide? No fertilizer? 31

32 Grazing in practice Spring Summer Autumn catch crop Spring Summer Autumn

33 Grain Green manure $ Grain Green manure systems Full season Late season Warm season Cool season Pulse/ Pulse/ oilseed oilseed Green manure $ Options with green manures Incorporate Mulch, flail mow, wide blade 33 Graze

34

35

36 tilled residue August 06, 2010 Oil seed radish Barley September 28, 2010

37 NO 3 - (kg ha -1 ) GGM2011-Year 1 Soil depth (cm) M* ns M * Total NO3 - S * M *** S xm S * M *** S xm * GGM2011-Year S * M ** S xm ns Soil depth (cm) Total NO3 - S * M ns S xm ns G-oat G-pea/oat G-Mix G-H.vetch UG-oat UG-pea/oat UG-Mix UG-H.vetch

38 Kirkegaard et al Surprisingly little objective data exists to determine the legitimacy ofthese concerns, though a recent review (Bell et al., 2011) and newdata (Hunt et al., 2011) suggest little significant impact to follow-ing crops from the shallow surface compaction caused by livestock.

39 Smyth, MJ, Sheppard, AW and Swirepik, A (1997) The effect of grazing on seed production in Echium plantagineum. Weed Research 37, Southwood, OR (1971) The effect of superphosphate application, 2-4 DB and grazing on broomrape (Orobanche minor SM.) in a subterranean clover pasture. Weed Research 11, Schoenbaum, I, Kigel, J, Barkai, D and Landau, S (2009) Weed infestation of wheat fields by sheep grazing stubble in the Mediterranean semi-arid region. Crop and Pasture Science. 60, White, P, Treacher, T and Termanini, A (1997) Nitrogen cycling in semi-arid Mediterranean zones: Removal and return of nitrogen to pastures by grazing sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 48, Holst, P, Allan, C, Campbell, M and Gilmour, A (2004) Grazing of pasture weeds by goats and sheep. 2. Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius L.). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 44, Fisher et al The use of grazing livestock as a method of weed control has been recognised for many years (Cuthbertson 1964; Myers and Squires 1970; Piggin 1979; Schmidl 1972; Smyth et al. 1997). The effectiveness of livestock for weed control is affected by the timing of grazing relative to the germination of weeds and the type of livestock employed. Piggin, CM (1979) Control of Echium plantagineum L. with 2, 4-D and grazing management. Weed Research 19, Myers, L and Squires, V (1970) Control of barley grass (Hordeum leporinum) by grazing management in irrigated pastures. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 10, Lilley, JM and Moore, AD (2009) Trade-offs between productivity and ground cover in mixed-farming systems in the Murrumbidgee catchment of New South Wales. Animal Production Science 49, Heenan, D, McGhie, W and Collins, D (1998) Impact of lupins, grazed or ungrazed subterranean clover, stubble retention, and lime on soil nitrogen supply and wheat nitrogen uptake, grain yields, and grain protein. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 49, Heenan, DP, McGhie, WJ, Thomson, FM and Chan, KY (1995) Decline in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in relation to tillage, stubble management, and rotation. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35,

40 Mulch decomposition rates

41 Rolled Grazed

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