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1 Cornell Note Taking Date Style Topic Page # (The Fertile Crescent) Main Idea (*) Description ( - ) Summary of Notes

2 Why study Middle Eastern civilizations instead of studying civilizations elsewhere?

3 *The Fertile Crescent -The location in the Middle East where civilizations first appeared in history -Comprised of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Palestine (Canaan) -Prospered because of the fertile river valleys

4

5 Garden of Eden

6 What is a city state?

7 *City states -When a city is the center, capital, and home for an entire country or empire -The first form of Countries and Empires

8 *Sumerians (4, B.C.) -The first known civilization and empire -Centered in the Biblical city of Ur

9 *Cuneiform -The first form of known writing -Developed by the Sumerians -Made of wedge shaped symbols drawn into wet clay *Scribe One of the few who were educated in literacy

10 *Ziggurats -The pyramid shaped tiered temples at the center of every Mesopotamian city as the main place of polytheistic worship, government and business

11 *Polytheism -The Belief in numerous gods/goddesses *Monotheism -The belief in single gods/goddesses *Pantheon -The name for a collection of gods/goddesses in a religion

12 *Legacies of Mesopotamia -The use of 60 seconds, 60 minutes, 24 hours - The use of 7 day weeks and a 12 month calendar -The use of 360 degree circles -Siege Weapons -The Postal System

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14 Cornell Note Taking Date Style Topic Page # (The Empires of Mesopotamia) Main Idea (*) Description ( - )

15 *Sumeria (4, B.C.) -Created the first empire by unifying city states of Southern Mesopotamia -Invented the Arch which supports greater weight -Created the Sundial

16 *Akkad (2,270 2,050 B.C.) -The City State which overthrew the Sumerian Empire and united ALL of Mesopotamia -First led by Sargon the Great

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18 *Old Babylon (1, B.C. ) -First led by Hammurabi the Great who defeated Akkad forming the first Babylonian Empire -One of the wealthiest city states of Mesopotamia

19 What aspect of criminal justice do you think the ancient world avoided when possible?

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21 *Hammurabi's Code -The first and oldest unifying code of laws, 282 of them -Describes the conduct for contracts, crimes, and trials. -The punishments included heavy fines, death and bodily harm -Favored men and the rich

22 *Hittites ( B.C.) -Originally from Turkey or Asia Minor -First empire to use germ warfare and iron weapons -Defeated the Babylonians and seized Mesopotamia -Signed first ever peace Treaty with Ramses II of Egypt

23 -Crippled by the Bronze Age Collapse Eruption and conquered by the Assyrians

24 *Assyria ( B.C.) -Tactic geniuses with specific schools for every form of war -Used the Hittite knowledge of Iron to make near steel weapons -Conquered the Entire Fertile Crescent including Egypt -Were defeated by a coalition of nations led by Babylon

25 How would you destroy a castle without throwing projectiles?

26 *Assyrian Technology -Assyrian s were among the first to utilize siege weapons including Siege towers and Battering Rams while also inventing wall mining and boat bridges

27 *Neo-Babylon (600 to 539 BC) -Referred to as Neo for being the reborn Babylonian Empire -Also called the Chaldean Empire for its Chaldean kings

28 What Biblical events took place in Babylon?

29

30 *Nebuchadnezzar -The most famous king of Neo-Babylon -Created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his homesick foreign wife -The sophisticated irrigation system was what made it unique

31 *Persia (536 to 336 B.C.) -Conquered the Middle East from Egypt to India -The largest western empire prior to Rome -Modern day Iran

32 -Divided into Satrapies ruled by Satraps -Built the Royal Road unifying Persia -Granted religious freedom to its citizens

33 -Conquered by Alexander the Great of Macedonia

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35 Cornell Note Taking Date Style Topic Page # (The Ages of Metal) Main Idea (*) Description ( - )

36 What element of civilization allowed for the production of ADVANCED tools?

37 *Smelting The process of extracting ore from rock -Few metals were used for tools or war as they had to be; 1. Easy to find 2. Easy to melt 3. Reliably strong

38 *The Copper Age (5,000 B.C. - 3,500 B.C.) -The first period of smelting and metal use -Easier to locate and easier to melt than iron -First discovered by the Sumerians

39 *The Bronze Age (3,500 B.C. 1,200 B.C.) -Created from Copper with small amounts of tin -Was easier to produce and stronger than basic iron

40 *Bronze Age Collapse (1,200 B.C.) -A dark age period in the Fertile Crescent which was sparked by the Santorini (Thera) eruption -Caused a shortage of tin forcing civilizations to switch to iron and improve their iron

41 *The Iron and Steel Age (1,200 B.C. 2,000 A.D.) -Discovered by the Hittites, mastered by the conquering Assyrians after the Bronze Age Collapse

42 -Iron becomes steel when infused with carbon -Steel was not universally understood until the 1800 s during the Industrial Revolution with Henry Bessemer

43

44 North Pacific Gyre and Plastic

45 Now we are in the age of 3d printing, bioengineering, and laser cutting

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