1 Dropping Out of Sport Presentation to PE Scholarship Students October 4 th 2011
2 Our Vision SPARC Everyone. Everyday. Enjoying and excelling through sport and recreation.
3 Five key priority areas: - Young New Zealanders (0-18 years) - Grassroots Sport - Recreation - Partner Capability - High Performance Priorities
4 SPARC and Young People What we want to achieve: - More kids participating in sport and recreation through clubs and organised events - More primary and secondary school kids playing organised sport - An increase in the level of fundamental movement and basic sport skills in kids under 12 years - More year olds staying in sport Measured by: - 80% of school-aged children participating in organised sport and recreation for at least three hours a week delivered through schools, after-school programmes, clubs and organised activities - More young people staying in sport and recreation after secondary school
5 Why do we engage in sport and recreation?
6 The Cool scale The pinnacle of cool Cool potential Losing it Becoming cool Don t know Totally lost its coolness Never was cool Stay and Play Research, 2006
7 Is sport cool? Non-competitive sport 69% Hanging out with friends 86% Listening to music 72% Internet 17% Sport 24% Shopping 24% Stay and Play Research, 2006
8 Why? Social benefits (e.g., fun, enjoyment, time with friends) Psychological (e.g., sense of achievement, pride) Physical (e.g., enhanced sleep, fitness) Sports performance (e.g. fame, career) Cognitive benefits (e.g., clears mind and thinking) Having fun and socialising with friends major themes in majority of research.
9 STATS Stay and Play Research Stay and Play Research, 2006
10 So why are young people dropping out?
11 Why we choose not to play/stop playing? lack of fun a preference for passive leisure activities (e.g., TV watching, computer use) lack of energy and motivation time constraints (sport offered at the wrong time), lack of money negative memories of past experiences (e.g., school PE, competitions) feelings of boredom and incompetence, lack of success/challenge lack of choice, lack of awareness school work lack of equipment or facilities/access job responsibilities low self-confidence, body image/obesity lack of support from family, parental pressure poor quality coaches, lack of coaches early specialisation/burn out
12 Stay and Play Research The drop out factors were ranked as; 1. Social life becoming more important 2. Losing interest / No fun 3. Only the serious / best players play The biggest influences on why they stayed and played were; 1. Friends and social life 2. Success 3. Talent
13 Transition and Youth Drop Out In addition to dropping out because sport is not meeting young people s needs, there is also the potential impact of: 1. organisational transition 2. transition between life stages Organisational A drop-off has been recorded in numbers of students competing in sport as they move from intermediate level to secondary school in addition to the drop off at the conclusion of secondary schooling (Getting Set for an Active Nation, 2001). One of the main reasons suggested for this is the lack of connection between schools and therefore the absence of a seamless participation pathway or consistency of sport experiences. Life Stage Significant life-stage transitions occur around the same time that young people move to secondary school, and another occurs around school-leaving age (Best Practice Review, years).
14 Definitions are important Sport ORGANISED SPORT Where young people are reliant on opportunities that are organisation-led e.g. schools, regional bodies and clubs. Where the traditional and formal structure of sport and recreation influences their participation and success. INFORMAL SPORT SPARC Strategic Plan: by sport we mean sport activities delivered primarily through organised structures that is, activities delivered by regional sport bodies, clubs and schools, including organised competitions and events. Where young people make participantled decisions e.g. choosing where, when and how they will participate. Such as payfor-play, events, informal and casual participation, supported by Councils, communities and families.
15 Dropping out / Drop Out What does dropping out / drop out mean? - No longer playing for your school at a representative level e.g. in NZSSSC sanctioned events? - Not rejoining a sports club? - Becoming completely sedentary? - If a person disengages from organised sport but continues to participate in other more informal or recreational activities, have they dropped out? - If a young person participates in three sports, say cricket, football and squash, and they choose at some point to only play squash, this means cricket and football will register drop-out when in fact the young person remains a participant in sport?
16 What do we know about Young People? Findings from various national surveys
17 mins A National Survey of Children and Young People s Physical Activity & Dietary Behaviours in NZ tells us... Young people spend, on average, 29min per day participating in sport and active games. Age by Sex Highest among 10 to 14-year-olds (42mins/day) min Lowest among 20 to 24-year-olds (10min/day) Males > females years years years years All Female Male Clinical Trials Research Unit and Synovate. (2010). p125.
18 SPARC Facts The most active young people are those aged 9-12 years around 76% of them are active. 70% of young people aged years old are also active. The most inactive young people are those aged years (47%), especially young girls (54%) SPARC Facts , Pg 9
19 SPARC Facts , Pg 9
20 SPARC Facts , Pg 27
21 Youth 2007 Adolescent Health Research Group. (2008a). Youth 07: The Health and Wellbeing of Secondary School Students in New Zealand. Initial Findings. Auckland: The University of Auckland. (Pg 57)
22 Adolescent Health Research Group. (2008a). Youth 07: The Health and Wellbeing of Secondary School Students in New Zealand. Initial Findings. Auckland: The University of Auckland. (Pg 78)
23 Reasons for Non-participation Youth 07 Survey tells us Lack of interest, takes too much time, not good enough at sport are key reasons for nonparticipation Adolescent Health Research Group. (2008b).
24 % Participation Rate NZSSSC tells us... decline in the percentage of students representing school in sport student participation rates in sport and level of teaching staff involvement in school sport are related. 60% % STUDENTS representing their school in sport % TEACHING STAFF involved in sport % 50% 40% 30% Year
25 So what can we do? Some guiding principles for sport and recreation deliverers: Let children play Children should only play sport when they are ready Full participation and inclusion Appropriate level of activity Modified or adapted to ability of participants Safe and healthy social and physical environment Preparing children and young people to compete successfully Treat children and young people with dignity Consistent delivery Ethical practices
26 So what can we do? Involve young people in planning and decision-making about sport Increase support of social leagues amongst teenagers, especially year olds. Keep mates together outside the top 20% of participants, sport is a social vehicle as much as it is a physical vehicle. Recognise and support teenagers who don t want to be in the top team yet still want to participate. Ensure multiple formats and options are available that meet the needs of all young people, including competitive sport, social sport, informal play, and outdoor recreation Work harder on closing the gaps between school and community sport. Promote school/club links. Encourage schools, codes and clubs to develop databases of players and share them thus creating an easy transition in the post-school arena. Use relevant communication channels - encourage text messaging, regularly update sports websites with results and encourage youth ownership through blogs, pictures, etc.
27 Assumptions School / club links Seen as a way of encouraging young people to continue to participate Logic suggests that these partnerships should work however there is little evidence on impact and few other options for ensuring continued participation post-secondary school have been explored. Sports clubs are usually not resourced sufficiently to cater for casual participants and social teams and often lack the organisation that secondary schools provide to young people through the use of sports coordinators. Questions to consider? Should participation in club sport be the priority for young people with secondary schools playing a more supportive role? Would this encourage more long-term participation and remove some of the organisational transitioning where some participants are lost? Is the drop-out rate greater for young people who play sport at school than those who participate through clubs?
28 Continuous Participation and Life Stages Assumptions Underlying assumption that participation in sport is continuous Has lead to a focus on a pathway model, and for many sports a focus on creating athlete development pathways, towards high performance. Few strategies acknowledge the interruptions to lifelong participation Questions to consider? Is drop-out to be expected given the life-stage changes that occur during the ages of years and should more emphasis be placed on re-entry to sport opportunities from age 18? Does it actually matter that young people drop out of organised sport if they remain active through participating in informal or recreational activities? Should the focus be less on prevention of drop out and more about providing alternative means of being active? Does gender matter? More boys participate in organised sport and more girls drop-out. Should there be different approaches based on gender? Is there a place for mixed gender activities? Do the gender stereotypes associated with some sports hinder or enhance participation?
29 8M8 s Sport Waitakere Survey of over 3250 secondary school students told Sport Waitakere students did not participate in school sport, because: they did not have the confidence and were worried they were going to let their team mates down they believed there was too much emphasis on competitive team sport rather than sport for fun and enjoyment Developed a social sport programme aimed at students who don t currently participate encouraging them to grab their mates and try new sports Sporting codes modified their sport so that teams of 8 could participate in a 20 minute game, once a week for 4-6weeks before trying a new sport
30 Mates in Bowls or MIB A national brand behind casual bowls Concept is to attract a target market of year olds to a fun, 'after work' session of casual bowls, over a 4-6 week series Great social event where you can spend time relaxing with your friends" "Awesome sport for all abilities" "Fun, enjoyable and a great way to meet new people" "Very social, no pressure"
31 References and other readings Adolescent Health Research Group. (2008a). Youth 07: The Health and Wellbeing of Secondary School Students in New Zealand. Initial Findings. Auckland: The University of Auckland. Adolescent Health Research Group. (2008b). Youth 07: The Health and Wellbeing of Secondary School Students In New Zealand Technical Report. Auckland: The University of Auckland. Clinical Trials Research Unit and Synovate. (2010). A National Survey of Children and Young People s Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours in New Zealand: 2008/09 - Technical Report. Auckland: The University of Auckland. Stay and Play Summary SPARC Research 2006 Best Practice Review of Sport and Physical Activity Interventions for Young People Aged Years Developmental activities that lead to dropout and investment in sport. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Journal (Vol 12, No 1 February 2007, pp 77-87). Michael Wall and Jean Cote, Adolescent sport in Australia: Who, when, where and what. Richard Light and Christina Curry, ACHPER Healthy Lifestyles Journal 58 (1) pp 11-16) An examination of the relationship between training behaviour, drop out and burn out in NZ Under 19 Hockey players. Withdrawal from Competitive Youth Sport: A Retrospective Ten-Year Study, Journal article by Janice Butcher, Koenraad J. Lindner, David P. Johns; Journal of Sport NZSSSC Census data Best Practice Review of Sport and Physical Activity Interventions for Young People Aged Years SPARC Facts Active NZ SPARC Research Grant Reports Drivers and impediments for grassroots participation in football Gill Worth Young women s experiences of sport within the secondary school context Lisette Burrows
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