Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO 2 Capture

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1 November, 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO 2 Capture Sean Black Environmental Control Systems Bringing you a World of Experience in Clean Air Solutions

2 Core Competencies Two core businesses: Power Rail Transport + activities in Marine and Power Conversion MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 2

3 Power: Example of a coal-fired power plant Boiler Denitrification system Steam turbine and generator Coal Combustion system Dust collector Desulphurisation system MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 3

4 Power: An extensive range of products, systems and services Turbines (gas, steam, hydro) Boilers Generators Maintenance, spare parts Instrumentation and monitoring Environmental control systems 4

5 Paths to Carbon Free Power Efficiency Achieve >48% HHV Ultrasupercritical PC Emphasis on advanced materials Co-firing of biomass Partial replacement of fossil fuels in PC/CFB proportional reduction in CO2 Post Carbon Capture Achieve >90% CO2 capture Multiple options under development to achieve competitive COE for Clean Coal Combustion and IGCC with CO2 capture New Combustion Cycles Maximize carbon reduction by efficiency then capture for sequestration MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 5

6 Low Carbon Combustion Alternate Paths to CO2 Capture Technology Status CO 2 Scrubbing options ammonia based Demonstration in Advantage of lower costs than Amines. Applicable for retrofit & new applications Advanced Amine Scrubbing CO 2 Frosting CO 2 Wheel CO 2 Adsorption with Solids Further Improvements in Solvents, Thermal Integration, and Application of Membranes Technologies Focused on Reducing Cost and Power Usage Multiple suppliers driving innovations Uses Refrigeration Principle to Capture CO 2 from Flue Gas. Process Being Developed by Ecole de Mines de Paris, France, with ALSTOM Support Use Regenerative Air-Heater-Like Device with Solid Absorbent Material to Capture ~ 60% CO 2 from Flue Gas. Being Developed by Toshiba, with Support from ALSTOM Being Developed by the University of Oslo & SINTEF Materials & Chemistry (Oslo, Norway), in Cooperation with ALSTOM MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 6

7 NH3-CO2-H2O Process Schematic of Ammonia-based CO2 Capture System Exisiting FGD Existing Stack CO2 Flue Gas Wash Purge 120F Chiller CO2 Absorber Rich ABC Lean AC Wash Regenerator Flue Gas 35F Water Rich Slurry Lean Slurry 2 stage Cooling HP Pump HX Reboiler CO2 Cooling & Cleaning of FG CO2 Absorption CO2 Regeneration MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 7

8 Reactions in the NH 3 -CO 2 -H 2 O system Ammonia reacts with CO 2 and water and forms ammonia carbonate or bicarbonate Absorption at low temperature prevents ammonia release 2NH 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O (NH 4 )2CO 3 NH 3 + CO 2 + H2O NH 4 HCO 3 (NH 4 )2CO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O 2NH 4 HCO 3 Moderately raising the temperature reverses the above reactions producing CO 2 Regeneration at high pressure and low concentrations of ammonia prevent gaseous ammonia release MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 8

9 Ammonia Process Innovations Cooling the flue gas to 0-10 o C Condensing H 2 O and eliminating residual contamination Reducing flue gas volume and increasing CO 2 concentration Operating the absorber at 0-10 o C for high CO 2 capture efficiency with low NH 3 emission Regeneration at >120 o C and >20 bar to generate high pressure CO 2 stream with low moisture and ammonia concentration MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 9

10 Advantages of Ammonia High efficiency capture of CO 2 Low heat of reaction High capacity for CO 2 per unit of solution Easy and low temperature regeneration Low cost reagent No degradation during absorption-regeneration Tolerance to oxygen and contaminations in gas MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 10

11 Basic Comparison with MEA MEA NH3 Molecular weight Practical CO2 loading, Kg/Kg solution Heat of reaction, Kcal/gmole Absorption temperature, C Regeneration temperature, C Regeneration pressure, bara H2O/CO2 in regenerator gas outlet (mole ratio) Makeup requirements, kg/ton CO Makeup cost, $/ton MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 11

12 Basic Comparison with MEA Supercritical PC Without CO 2 Removal SCPC With MEA CO 2 Removal Parsons Study SCPC With NH 3 CO 2 Removal Current Study Coal Feed rate, lb/hr 333, , ,542 Coal heating value, Btu/lb (HHV) 11,666 11,666 11,666 Boiler heat input, MMBtu 3,891 3,891 3,891 LP Steam extraction, lb/hr for reboiler 0 1,215, ,500 Steam Turbine Power, kwe 498, , ,995 Generator loss, kwe (7,211) (5,835) (7,018) Gross plant, kwe 491, , ,301 Plant Auxiliary Load (IDF, FGD, BFW pumps, Water pumps, Cooling Towers, CO2 unit, Chillers, CO2 compressor, BOP), kwe (29,050) (72,730) (53,950) Net Power Output 462, , ,717 Net efficiency, % HHV Avoided Cost, $/ton CO2 Base MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 12

13 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber Development Plan PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 PHASE 4 PHASE 5 SMALL BENCH SCALE LARGE BENCH SCALE (0.25 MW) PILOT SCALE (5 MW) DEMO SCALE (30 MW) Commercial Release Testing of the global technology Process work and calculations carried out Testing phase of the absorber at SRI International Complete with a regeneration phase Testing phase on a small slip stream of a power plant flue gas; host site TBD Building a process to treat the equivalent of 30MW (slip stream of the power plant) Expect two sites, one on coal and one on gas (combined with GT development) Extent of limited release TBD (number of projects, size) Validated parameters First series of hypotheses on technical assumptions Greater than 90% removal with limited ammonia emissions Optimize absorber design for Phase 3 Validate feasibility of the total process with real flue gas Validate heat of reaction and other key parameters Validate for coal and gas Demonstrate system reliability and availability Establish cost and performance for commercial systems MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 13

14 Small Bench Scale System Cold water scrubber Primary scrubber Sorbent tank MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 14

15 10 D, 6ft H, Bubbler reactor MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 15

16 0.25 MW Bench Schematic Schematic of the 1.5ft Bench scale absorbption system CO2 120acfm 680acfm Air Bosster Fan ABS1 ph, T ABS2 ph, T 250gpm Water Wash Acid Wash Chiller Product tank Reagent 28% NH3 MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 16

17 Phase 2 Key Objectives 0.25 MWe Bench Scale Test Demonstrate 90% CO 2 capture efficiency for 3.5, 8, 15% CO 2 concentration Demonstrate low ammonia emission Measure mass transfer Optimization of absorber operating conditions Providing data for pilot design MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 17

18 Photos of 0.25 MW Pilot MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 18

19 We Energies Pleasant Prairie Host Site Location for 5MW Pilot MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 19

20 Proposed Pilot Location MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 20

21 Host Site Location MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 21

22 Illustration of the Pilot MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 22

23 Roles of Project Team Members Task Title EPRI ALSTOM WE Energies 1. Pilot Plant Design and Construction 1.01 Site Permitting S X 1.02 Define base design data, X 1.03 Mass balance calculation, P&ID X 1.04 Prel equipment sizing & GA X 1.1 Preliminary Design & Calculation, Phase I X 1.2 Detailed Design, Phase II X 1.3 Procurement X 1.4 Fabrication X 1.5 Process Safety review S X 1.6 Construction X 1.7 Commissioning & Start-up X S 2. Operation & Maintenance 2.1 Consumable Supply X 2.2 Waste Disposal X 2.3 Operation Labor X S 2.4 Maintenance Labor S X 3. Testing 3.1 Test Plan X S S 3.2 Baseline Tests X S S 3.3 Parametric Tests X S S 3.4 Long-Term Tests X S S 3.5 Data Analysis X S S 4. Performance and Economic Evaluation X S S 5. Management and Reporting 5.1 Project Management, PM & PE S X S 5.2 Reporting S X S 5.3 Accounting/Invoicing S X S 6. Pilot Plant Decommissioning X X - Lead Party S - Support CO2 PILOT - 5MW Roles of Project Team Members MIT Sequestration Form Oct 2006 Chilled Ammonia Scrubber for CO2 Capture 23

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