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1 Last update: January 2009 Doc.: 08A05203_e

2 Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) modules ORC is a commercial technology for distributed production of combined heat and power from various energy sources. TURBODEN 7- CHP 2

3 Agenda Turboden Company Profile ORC Cycle: thermodynamics Technical Advantages / Solutions Turboden ORC plants applications and references 3

4 Company profile: origin Established in 1980 with the aim to design and manufacture turbines and turn-key turbogenerator units based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). 1984: A 40 kwel ORC turbogenerator for a solar application in Perth, Australia 1987: A 3 kwel ORC turbogenerator biomass CHP plant in Milan 4

5 Map of TURBODEN ORC units Update: January

6 Company profile: Activities & Departments R&D DESIGN MKTING/SALES OPERATION & MANUFACTURING SERVICE Participation to national & EU research programs Complete in-house mechanical design Evaluation of technical & economical feasibility of ORC power plants; Outsourced components from highly qualified suppliers; Start-up and commissioning Cooperation with EU Universities and Research Centres Thermodynamic cycles optimization Working fluids selection & testing Proprietary design and own manufacturing of ORC optimized turbine TOOLS Thermo-fluid-dynamic programs FEA - Finite Element Analysis 3D CAD-CAM Customized proposals to maximise economic & environmental targets Support for applications to Public Authorities for Green Power incentives Quality assurance & Project management In house skid mounting to minimize site activities. Maintenance, technical assistance to operation and spare parts service Remote monitoring & optimization of plant operation Thermo-fluid-dynamic design and validation Implementation & testing of control / supervision software Many patents obtained Vibration analysis 3-D model FEA Analysis 6

7 Company profile: Figures of a growing company PERSONNEL (*) estimated figures as of August 31 st / / / /2008 (*) Personnel Production Volume (M ) 1,4 23,5 29, PRODUCTION VOLUME (M ) 40,00 35,00 31/08/2008 Backlog: 59 M 30,00 25,00 20,00 15,00 10,00 5,00 0, /12/2007 Equity > 5 M 7

8 Turboden s new headquarters 8

9 Thermodynamic principle: the ORC Cycle THERMAL OIL Generator TEMPERATURE THERMAL OIL Evaporator Regenerator WATER WATER ENTROPY Pump Condenser The turbogenerator uses the hot temperature thermal oil to pre-heat and vaporize a suitable organic working fluid in the evaporator (8 3 4). The organic fluid vapour powers the turbine (4 5), which is directly coupled to the electric generator through an elastic coupling. The exhaust vapour flows through the regenerator (5 9) where it heats the organic liquid (2 8). The vapour is then condensed in the condenser (cooled by the water flow) (9 6 1). The organic fluid liquid is finally pumped (1 2) to the regenerator and then to the evaporator, thus completing the sequence of operations in the closed-loop circuit. 9

10 Why High Molecular Mass working fluid instead of water? Water: Small molecules, like bullets, that travel fast Metal Parts and Blade Erosion Multistage turbine and high mechanical stress Organic Fluid: Very large Flow Rate, large diameter turbine Less losses Slow rpm Water High Molecular Mass Fluids 10

11 Turboden Selects the Optimum Working Fluid Silicone base fluids Hydrocarbons Biomass Medium & high temperature HR (e.g. gas turbine exhaust, process waste gas) Concentrated solar power Fluorinated fluids Geothermal Low/medium temperature HR Geothermal Low temperature HR (e.g. engine jacket water, process hot water) Celsius degree of heat source Other factors involved: Environment Safety Cost

12 Advantages ORC technical advantages Operational advantages / results High cycle efficiency. Very high turbine efficiency (up to 85 %). Low mechanical stress of the turbine, due to the low peripheral speed. Low RPM of the turbine allowing the direct drive of the electric generator without reduction gear. No erosion of blades, due to the absence of moisture in the vapour nozzles. Simple start-stop procedures. Automatic and continuous operation. No operator attendance needed. Quiet operation. Very High Availability (Admont over 50,000 hours of operation, availability > 98%). Partial load operation down to 10% of nominal power. High efficiency also at partial load. Low O&M requirements: about 3-5 hours / week. Long life. 12

13 Layout: one single skid up to 800 kwel Turboden 7 unit layout 13

14 Layout: separate items above 800 kwel TURBODEN 18 unit layout 14

15 ORC Turboden Applications Solar Biomass (CHP) Geothermal HR Heat Recovery 15

16 Heat Recovery - Common energy sources Diesel engine exhaust (Diesel oil, HFO, bio oil/ biodiesel fuel) Gas engine exhaust (natural gas or biogas fuel) Gas turbine exhaust (natural gas or biogas fuel ) Steel, Cement, Glass furnaces exhaust Steel industries, refineries hot liquid flows Other waste heat streams 16

17 Heat Recovery - Sizes Standard modules: from 500 to kwe Heat Recovery application - Standard Sizes and typical performances* TURBODEN 6 HR TURBODEN 7 HR TURBODEN 10 HR TURBODEN 14 HR TURBODEN 18 HR Customized systems: power production up to kwe TURBODEN 22 HR INPUT - Thermal oil Thermal oil nominal temperature (in/out) C 260 / / / / / / 150 Thermal power input kw OUTPUT - Cooling water Cooling water temperature (in/out) C 25 / / / / / / 42 Thermal power to the cooling water kw Performances Gross electric power kw Gross electric efficiency 0,199 0,199 0,199 0,202 0,203 0,202 Captive power consumption kw Net active electric power output kw Net electric efficiency 0,191 0,191 0,191 0,192 0,196 0,195 Electrical generator asynch., 3 phase, L.V. asynch., 3 phase, L.V. asynch., 3 phase, L.V. asynch., 3 phase, L.V. asynch., 3 phase, L.V. asynch., 3 phase, L.V. Size of plant 15 X 3 X 3,1 m 15 X 3 X 3,1 m 15 X 4,5 X 3,3 m 13 X 6 X 6,2 m 15 X 7 X 5 m 17 X 7 X 5 m Single skid Single skid Single skid Multiple skid Multiple skid Multiple skid *Data indicated could change taking into account the actual features of the specific project (optimization of heat recovery application). 17

18 Heat Recovery from IC Engines: up to 10% additional electric power COOLING SYSTEM (DRY OR WET) T in Water T out Water ELECTRIC POWER T out Oil INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE T in Oil EXHAUST GAS HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM 18

19 Heat recovery from Diesel Engines fed with Bio-oil: Reference Plants Tecnoparco Valbasento Spa (Pisticci - Italy), 3 Wartsila 8 MWe engines: ORC net electric power kw Oxon Italia Spa (Pavia Italy), 1 MAN 8 MWe engine : ORC net electric power 500 kwe Finpower Srl (Visano Italy), 1 Wartsila 7 MWe engine: ORC net electric power 500 kwe Cereal Docks Spa (Portogruaro Italy), 1 Wartsila 7 MWe engine: ORC net electric power 500 kwe Piramide Commerciale Srl (Molfetta - Italy), 1 Wartsila 8 MWe engine: ORC net electric power 550 kwe

20 Heat Recovery In Cement Production Process Exhaust gas streams from cement production process: Kiln pre-heater gas Clinker cooling gas Main Characteristics: High Dust Content Different operating conditions depending on mill operation, season, plant upsets, etc.

21 Heat Recovery In Cement Production Process Case study: PRS gas waste heat recovery Clinker production capacity: tpd Heat source : exhaust 330 C Gas cooled down to 220 C (extra heat used for raw material pre heating) ORC electric power: ca kwe (Client: CIMAR ITALCEMENTI GROUP Under construction, start up end of 2009)

22 Heat Recovery In Steel Industry Main exhaust gas streams available: rolling mill furnaces forging furnaces heat treatment electric arc furnaces natural gas used means relatively clean exhaust gas Cost effective for ORC 600/800 kwe exhaust gas: high flows, high temperatures, high dust content, large variations in operating cycle, environmental constraints interface between process and energy recovery unit is critical heat recovery from gas at moderate temperature ( 300 C ) or from cooling water should be feasible (under study)

23 Heat Recovery In Glass Industry high exhaust gas temperatures (> 500 C) constant operating conditions moderate dust content high temperature ORC cycle employed: ORC electrical efficiency up to 24.5 %

24 Heat Recovery from Hot Water streams Thermal power contained in hot water can be used directly as input to the ORC unit Cost-effective plants with ORC power greater than 500 kw and water temperature higher than C Highly customised solutions: no standard unit can be employed. Technical solutions optimised case-by-case.

25 MIROM Retrofit heat recovery from pressurized water boiler in waste incinerator Roeselare (BELGIUM) (in operation since 2 nd quarter 2008) Heat source: hot water at 180 C (return at 140 C) Cooling: water / air Total electric power: 3 MW Net electrical efficiency: 16,5% 25

26 Data needed for preliminary evaluations in Heat Recovery applications Exhaust gas / liquid temperature (*) (gas T > 250 C, liquid T > 100 C) Exhaust gas / liquid flow (*) Temperature at which the gas / liquid can be cooled down Exhaust gas / liquid composition (if available) Average air temperature during the year (*) These data are mandatory for an evaluation of heat recovery potential

27 Via Cernaia, Brescia Italy website: phone: fax:

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