Introduction to Structured Cabling

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1 Introduction to Structured Cabling Basic overview of structured cabling systems including: Introduction & definition Common components Copper and fibre types Basic concepts of planning a system 1

2 Presentation Contents What is Structured Cabling? The Components Building Systems 2

3 What is Structured Cabling? Two Key Characteristics 3

4 1. All Outlets Wired to Single Point Network Cable Wall Outlet Patch Panel Wall Outlet Wall Outlet All outlets wired back to the same point, wherever they are Wall Outlet 4

5 2. Outlets Are Multi-purpose Cable identical for all outlets Network Cable Patch Panel Patch Cords Patch Cord Computer Patch Cord Outlet Connect to required equipment/services using easy to plug patch cords. This is called Patching 5

6 Advantages 1. Outlets wired back to single point (star wired) Easy to manage & make changes All central equipment in one point Labelling obvious 2. Cabling multipurpose No need to know requirements before cabling One outlet type serves for everything reduces number of outlets No need to run in new wires - changes can be made by simply repatching 6

7 Applications Computer Networking Telephones (Voice) CCTV cameras ADSL TV Serial Lines Almost any low voltage application Most common use of structured cabling 7

8 Who Uses It? All Offices Computers, Phones, TV Pictures, ISDN/ Fax, Special services Hotels Phones, TV, Internet, Mini-bar Shops Tills, Phones, computers Housing Phones, Internet, computer networking College/Schools Computers, Phones, TV, ISDN/Fax, Special services Hospitals Computers, Phones, Equipment Building Mgmnt Phones, CCTV, Fire Systems, Internet System (BMS) 8

9 Components 9

10 Structured Cabling Types Copper Vast Majority of installations Based upon 4-pair cable Fibre Used where there is requirement for either/both: High speed (bandwidth) Long distances (greater than 100m) More expensive than copper cabling Tends to be used as backbone for computer networks 10

11 Copper Components 1 2 Either PVC or LS0H (low smoke) 3 Patch Lead 4 2u Variety of colours & lengths Outlets Cable Panels & Outlets use RJ45 sockets Patch Panel RJ45 Plugs Panels usually 1U 24-way or 2U 48-way 11

12 Connecting the Components Each connected circuit is called a Channel A channel can go through more than one patch panel Maximum number of channel connections is 4 Standard simple channel is 2 Maximum channel length is 100m Usually limit panel to outlet length (permanent link) to 90m, leaving approx 10m for 2 x patch leads 12

13 Copper Cable Types Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Shielded (STP) Cable uses four pairs with no screening More than 90% of the UK Market Each cable pair individually copper foiled plus an overall shield Panels, outlets and patch leads are also screened System more resistive to EMI (electric noise) Relatively bulky construction compared with UTP Harder to install; foil must be properly grounded Popular in Europe, especially France & Germany Popular for Cat6a systems; reduces Alien Cross Talk issues Foiled screened (FTP) As STP, except the pairs are not individually shielded More common than STP 13

14 Copper Performance Categories Type Fastest Ethernet Cat3 Voice Only Still used for multi-pair voice cabling Cat5 100BaseT Obsolete Cat5e 1000BaseT 100 Minimum standard installed since Cat6 1000BaseT 250 Higher rated than Cat5e. However, runs same Ethernet protocols as Cat5e. Cat6a 10GBaseT 500 New high speed cable. Consider installing if cabling required beyond about Cat7 10GBaseT 600 Shielded only. Non-standard RJ45 connectors. World market share < 1% Freq Comment (Hz) 14

15 Fibre Components 1 Comes as multiple core cable: typically 4/8/12/24 way Fibre comes in variety of internal/external grade sheath types & strengths Cable Since fibre to the desk is rare, individual fibre outlets are unusual. Comes in variety of lengths. Normally duplex (2-core) 2 Patch Lead 3 Most fibre connections are patch panel to panel. Patch Panel Variety of connector types; LC, MTRJ, SC, ST Panels usually 1U 12-way or 24-way duplex 15

16 Fibre System Types Type Std Size (Micron) Perform Comments Multi Mode OM1 62.5/125 1Gbit to Older style fibre 300m OM2 50/125 10Gbit to 75m OM3 50/125 10Gbit Uses low cost VCSEL to achieve to 300m 10Gb/sec OM4 50/125 10Gbit Higher performance version of OM3 to 550m OS1 9/125 10Gbit to 2km Single Mode Low cost alternative to OM3 for short runs Used for inter-building links. Requires expensive laser network interfaces 16

17 Panels Mount in Cabinets/Racks 10 Cabinet (Small installations) Patch Engineer 19 Cabinet Multiple 19 Racks 17

18 Building a System 18

19 Cabling Manufacturers Quality cabling systems are installed using components from one manufacturer Manufacturer provides a 20/25 year warranty Possible to mix & match but this is dangerous for high speed network performance System will run all of approved protocols Manufacturer normally appoint a network of Installation companies (Systems Integrators), trained and approved to supply and install their product. Leading Manufacturers SYSTIMAX Brand-Rex Siemon Molex Ortronics Corning Tyco Amp Nexans Belden Excel Connectix 19

20 Outlet Planning Install more outlets than you initially need Difficult to add outlets later, once decorations are complete and carpet laid In office Allow at least 2-outlets per desk (ideally 3 or 4) PC & Telephone Provide plenty of extra outlets in common areas for printers, faxes, vending machines etc Provide additional ceiling mounted outlets for Wireless Points. Say two outlets in 10m grid. Common to install outlets in a grid pattern, irrespective of the planned furniture layout When furniture is moved around, outlets will still be available in the new locations. Typical office grid is 2.5m x 2.5m with say 3/4 outlets at each grid point 20

21 Outlet Presentation Ideas In an office with raised floor, consider installing outlets under floor in Floor Outlet Boxes (FOB s) Put FOB on end of 5m of flexible tubing, to allow later moves according to requirements FOB can be fixed to furniture or into floor box as and when required Install a grid of outlets above ceiling for Wireless Access Points Say two outlets on 10m grid 21

22 Multi-Floor Buildings Multi-floor buildings typically employ 2-level hierarchy Backbone Cabling (copper and/or fibre) Outlets connected to a patch room normally on the same floor Patch rooms connected to main computer room/data centre through higher speed links; cable through riser Topology can be more complex if some redundancy is required Where older direct PABX switched are used, multi-pair Cat3 voice cables are used in backbone for carrying telephone lines Patch Room Horizontal Cabling (normally copper) To Outlets 2nd Floor Patch Room To Outlets 1st Floor Main Computer Room To Outlets Ground Floor 22

23 Multi-Floor Voice Links (non VoIP) Voice connections cannot be run over ip network Multi-pair Cat3 voice cables are used in backbone to carry telephone lines from main PABX to each floor Backbone Cabling (copper and/or fibre) Patch Room To Outlets 2nd Floor Backbone Multi-pair Cat3 copper Patch Room To Outlets 1st Floor Terminated on standard patch panels on each floor, hence integrating with Structured Cabling Horizontal Cabling (normally copper) Main Computer Room To Outlets Ground Floor 23

24 Data Centres Common application of Structured Cabling is in Data Centres Large Data Centres ideally employ 2-level hierarchy Backbone Cabling (copper and/or fibre) Horiz Dist Area To Server Cabs 2nd Floor Server cabinets fitted with patch panels, connected to patch panels in nearby Horizontal Distribution Area Horizontal Distribution Area connected to Main Distribution Area through higher speed links Topology can be more complex if some redundancy is required Horizontal Cabling (normally copper) Horiz Dist Area To Server Cabs 1st Floor Main Dist Area To Server Cabs Ground Floor 24

25 Network Trends Ethernet (in its various forms) has emerged as the overwhelming leading network standard Structured cabling products designed around the Ethernet standards TCP/IP is the network protocol used on networks Most structured cabling is now used for running Ethernet and TCP/IP Trend for applications which traditionally run either over proprietary cabling (such as coax) or structured cabling with proprietary protocols to adopt ip Telephones: VOIP (Voice over IP) is rapidly becoming the standard for large organisations CCTV : ip camera systems are becoming increasing popular TV distribution: iptv systems are emerging for distributing TV in Hotels and other organisations 25

26 Power over Ethernet (PoE) Some network endpoint devices can be powered over the same structured cabling connection DC Power injected over the structured cable from a suitable PoE enabled ip Phones ip CCTV cameras Wireless Access points switch (end-span) Power injection device (mid-span) Reduces costs by eliminating requirement for additional electrical outlets 26

27 Intelligent Infrastructure Management (IIM) Special Patch Panels which can identify patch lead connections Linked to a database to allow viewing and reporting on patch connections Adds about 30% to the installation costs Three main commercial system itracs: Molex, Nexans, Siemon, Tyco AMP RIT: Brand-Rex ipatch: SYSTIMAX 27

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